Dr. Michael S. Heiser

The Naked Bible Podcast

Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.
The Naked Bible Podcast


Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.

Link: nakedbiblepodcast.com/


Naked Bible 296: Exodus 25 Part 1

Nov 3, 2019 46:07


Exodus 25 begins the book’s description of the Tabernacle and its furnishings. The most prominent item is the Ark of the Covenant (Exod 25:10-22). In this episode, we briefly discuss some of the preliminary comments about the Tabernacle (Exod 25:1-9) before turning our attention to the Ark’s nature and purposes.

Naked Bible 295: Exodus 24 Part 2

Oct 27, 2019 52:01


In Part 1 of our study of Exodus 24 we looked at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:1-8). This ceremony led up to the communal meal with Yahweh that is the centerpiece (vv. 9-11) of the rest of the chapter (Exodus 24:9-18). In this episode of the podcast we look at the interpretive difficulties and […]

Naked Bible 294: Exodus 24 Part 1

Oct 20, 2019 45:32


Exodus 24 is the culmination of the Sinai scene that began in Exodus 19. The first eight verses detail the covenant ratification ceremony. Burnt offerings and, significantly, peace offerings of fellowship, are sacrificed by the Israelites to certify their relationship with Yahweh and role as a kingdom of priests in his service. The ceremony is […]

Naked Bible 293: Exodus 23:20-33

Oct 12, 2019 1:05:37


This episode wraps up the remainder of Exodus 23 (vv. 20-33). There are a number of interesting items in these remaining verses, beginning with the Angel in whom the Name (the presence) of God dwelt. That figure is part of the Old Testament Godhead language behind ancient Judaism’s (former) theological teaching about two powers in […]

Naked Bible 292: Q&A 35

Oct 6, 2019 45:42


Dr. Heiser answers your questions. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW

Naked Bible 291: Exodus 21-23 Part 2

Sep 29, 2019 1:11:38


This episode follows Part 1 of our brief exploration of the “Book of the Covenant”—the laws in Exodus 21-23 that follow the Ten Commandments. These laws are applications within ancient Israelite culture of the absolute, enduring principles expressed by the Ten Commandments. Part 1 dealt with why that is indeed the case. In this episode […]

Naked Bible 290: Exodus 21-23 Part 1

Sep 21, 2019 1:12:10


Most listeners will know the Ten Commandments. They might even know that those commandments are in Exodus 20. But few will know that those famous commandments are followed in Exodus 21-23 by a litany of odd, ancient, at times conflicting, “case laws” that apply the Ten Commandments to Israelite life. Scholars have found these case […]

Naked Bible 289: Exodus 20 Part 3

Sep 14, 2019 1:19:51


In the previous two parts of our discussion of Exodus 20, we talked about issues related to Decalogue and the first four of the Ten Commandments. In this episode we cover the remaining six commandments (honor your father and mother, do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not bear false witness, […]

Naked Bible 288: Exodus 20 Part 2

Sep 8, 2019 1:19:03


In the previous episode of the podcast we looked at the issues raised by close examination of the placement and nature of the Decalogue, the Ten Commandments. In this episode of the podcast, we take a look at the first four commands: having no gods before Yahweh, not making idols, not making the name of […]

Naked Bible 287: Exodus 20 Part 1

Aug 31, 2019 54:20


Exodus 20 is familiar to Bible readers for the Ten Commandments. Actually, only Exod 20:1-17 delineates those commands. The rest of the chapter resumes the Sinai theophany whose description began in Exodus 19. The “interruption” of that episode with the Decalogue is actually one of six issues discussed in this episode of the podcast—all preparatory […]

Naked Bible 286: Exodus 19

Aug 25, 2019 54:53


Exodus 19 begins with the short move of the Israelite community from Rephidim to Sinai. The chapter not only sets the stage for the Ten Commandments of Exodus 20, but the covenant ceremony of Exodus 24. This episode focuses on the preparations for receiving the law and entering into the covenant. Toward that end, we […]

Naked Bible 285: Evil and Satan

Aug 18, 2019 1:12:22


Evil and Satan with Dr. Archie Wright. Many listeners will know that the New Testament teaching about Satan underwent a good deal of development during the centuries that followed the Old Testament era. Like many theological concepts that begin in some form in the Old Testament (e.g., sacred space, kingdom of God), the subject of […]

Naked Bible 284: Exodus 18

Aug 11, 2019 1:03:45


This chapter of the book of Exodus features the idea of Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law- to appoint judges in Israel to help Moses render judgment on disputes within the community. There is some confusion about the relationship of these judges to elders in Israel. This episode discusses eldership in Israel and the relation of these judges […]

Naked Bible 283: Exodus 17 Part 2

Aug 3, 2019 1:21:07


Exodus 17:8-16 chronicles the battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites. The episode contains odd elements. So long as Moses’ arms were raised, Israel did well in battle. When they dropped, they did not. What is the point of this action? Why is there a reference to the “throne of Yahweh” associated with the altar […]

Naked Bible 282: Exodus 17 Part 1

Jul 28, 2019 1:03:12


The first seven verses of Exodus 17 give readers the story of the water from the rock at Rephidim. The story is straightforward enough. Moses strikes the rock as God instructs him (Exod 17:6) and God provided water in the desert wilderness for the Israelites to drink. Moses calls the place “Massah and Meribah” (Exod […]

Naked Bible 281: Exodus 16

Jul 20, 2019 1:10:21


Bible students will know Exodus 16 as the story of God’s provision of manna, the “bread from heaven” that sustained the Israelites during the long years of journeying to Canaan. The chapter is actually filled with a number of textual issues, most of which involve the question of authorship, but including the matter of the […]

Naked Bible 280: Exodus 15 Part 2

Jul 14, 2019 1:16:31


Exodus 15:22-27 ostensibly serves as an itinerary anecdote about the grumbling of the Israelites at Marah, where they found the water undrinkable (“bitter”). But there is much more behind the short account. These verses theologically and symbolically encapsulate the deliverance from death (the Underworld) at the Red Sea Crossing and God’s desire to have human […]

Naked Bible 279: Stovall Weems

Jul 7, 2019 1:14:13


On this episode of the podcast Mike chats with Stovall Weems, lead pastor at Celebration Church in Jacksonville, FL. The conversation focuses on the story of how Mike and Stovall met and how their initial phone conversation was the catalyst to Mike accepting a job offer to start a school of theology for Celebration Church […]

Naked Bible 278: Exodus 15 Part 1

Jun 29, 2019 1:15:06


Exodus 15 is referred to by scholars as the Song of Moses. The label is due to its poetic nature. On the surface the Song reiterates the crossing of the Red Sea. But there are actually a number of items in the passage that dip into divine council worldview content and ancient Israelite cosmology. This […]

Naked Bible 277: Exodus 14 Part 2

Jun 22, 2019 48:01


In Part 1 of our discussion of Exodus 14 and the Israelites’ journey out of Egypt we focused on the yam suph (“sea of Reeds” / Red Sea) problem and issues related to the ambiguity of physical place names (toponyms). In this episode of the podcast our focus is cosmic geography—namely, how Egyptian conceptions of […]

Naked Bible 276: Exodus 14 Part 1

Jun 15, 2019 1:00:30


Exodus 14 is one of the major chapters detailing Israel’s departure from Egypt and the miraculous passing through the “Red Sea.” Other chapters include Exod 13:17-22, Exodus 15, and Numbers 33:5-8. The passages do not always agree in the way the event is described, a fact that has produced what scholars call the yam suph […]

Naked Bible 275: Exodus 13

Jun 9, 2019 1:13:47


Exodus 13 takes us into the subject of the offering of the firstborn. Certain scholars argue that the passage is to be taken literally, that Yahweh demanded the Israelites to sacrifice their firstborn male child (i.e., human sacrifice). This episode surveys how this argument is made and evaluates it in terms of the data of […]

Naked Bible 274: Q&A 34

Jun 3, 2019 55:54


Dr. Heiser answers your questions. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR SHOW

Naked Bible 273: Exodus 12 Part 2b

May 25, 2019 48:27


This episode continues the early/late date discussion. Scholars who accept the historicity of the biblical story of Israel’s exodus from Egypt have argued for centuries about when it occurred in real time. There are several theories, but the two main approaches are the “Early” Date (1446 BC) and the “Late” Date (1267 BC). This episode […]

Naked Bible 272: Exodus 12 Part 2a

May 18, 2019 45:53


Scholars who accept the historicity of the biblical story of Israel’s exodus from Egypt have argued for centuries about when it occurred in real time. There are several theories, but the two main approaches are the “Early” Date (1446 BC) and the “Late” Date (1267 BC). This episode explains how each date is defended and […]

Naked Bible 271: Exodus 12 Part 1

May 11, 2019 1:14:35


This episode of the podcast begins our discussion of the circumstances of the exodus event. There are many difficulties and issues that have distracted scholars over the years. Exodus 12:37 and Exodus 12:40 are two that we will discuss in this episode. The first confronts us with the problem of large numbers of people in […]

Naked Bible 270: Exodus 11-12

May 5, 2019 1:08:29


Exodus 11 and 12 focus on the final plague against Egypt, the death of the firstborn, and the institution of the Passover (Hebrew: pesaḥ / pesach). Like the other plagues, the death of the firstborn is an assault on not only the pharaoh and his people, but on Maat, the principle of cosmic order to […]

Naked Bible 269: Exodus 8-10

Apr 27, 2019 1:02:13


The previous episode discussed the four scholarly approaches to understanding the plagues upon Egypt in the exodus story. Two of those approaches (polemic, de-creation) were deemed more fruitful than the others, for they cast the plagues in terms of Yahweh’s mastery over creation order (the Egyptian concept of Maat) that in turn serves as a […]

Naked Bible 268: Exodus 7:14-25

Apr 21, 2019 54:20


Exodus 7:14-25 is the entry point for the series of ten plagues God sent upon the land of Egypt and its people for pharaoh’s defiance of his command to free his people, Israel. This episode includes an introduction to how scholars talk about the plagues and how that discussion translates to the first plague, turning […]

Naked Bible 267: Exodus 7:1-13

Apr 14, 2019 1:14:48


Aside from the date of the exodus event and the revelation of the divine name, one of the most frequently discussed issues in the book of Exodus is the hardening of pharaoh’s heart. The narrative affirms that both God and pharaoh are the agents responsible for the hardening of pharaoh’s heart. How do we understand […]

Naked Bible 266: Exodus 5-6

Apr 6, 2019 1:03:50


This episode of the podcast covers two chapter of Exodus. Aside from some comments that relate to items in previous episodes, our discussion focuses on the biblical motif of the “hand of the Lord” and “outstretched arm” of the Lord. Both expressions are part of the confrontation between Moses and Aaron and Egypt’s pharaoh. Both […]

Naked Bible 265: Exodus 4:18-31

Mar 31, 2019 1:11:29


The second half of Exodus 4 presents a series of chronological problems in relation to Moses’ movements to and from Sinai and Jethro’s home and, ultimately, the journey to Egypt. The section includes the bizarre episode in verses 24-26 where God sought to kill Moses. Why was God angry? How does the circumcision of Moses’ […]

Naked Bible 264: Exodus 4:1-17

Mar 23, 2019 43:12


Exodus 4:1-17 continues Moses’ conversation with God at the burning bush after the revelation of the divine name. It is marked by Moses’ unwillingness to do what God has tasked him to do. This episode covers God’s compassionate responses to Moses and also his anger when Moses refuses the job. The conversation takes us into […]

Naked Bible 263: Exodus 3 Part 3

Mar 16, 2019 1:09:46


Exodus 3:13-14 are two of the most familiar verses in the Old Testament: “Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” God […]

Naked Bible 262: Exodus 3 Part 2b

Mar 9, 2019 42:50


This episode builds off Part 2a and our discussion of the Kenite Hypothesis. The episode essentially asks this question: How would a literate ancient Jew, with knowledge of 1 Enoch and the Hebrew Bible, understand the biblical writer’s linkage of the Kenites (relatives of Abraham and Moses) to Cain the murderer, whom the writer of […]

Naked Bible 261: Exodus 3 Part 2a

Mar 2, 2019 56:47


Exodus 3:1 puts Moses in Midian, a land that, as we saw in Part 1, is closely tied to occupants known as Kenites. The Kenites, in fact, overlap in biblical thought with the Midianites (Judg 1:16; 4:11). Midian is also connected with the idea that Yahweh, the God of Israel, came to his land “from […]

Naked Bible 260: Exodus 3 Part 1

Feb 24, 2019 1:13:06


This episode focuses on Exod 3:1 (“Now Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led his flock to the west side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God”) and how the place names (Horeb, Midian, “mountain of God”) might possibly dovetail with traditions […]

Naked Bible 259: Exodus 2:11-25

Feb 17, 2019 1:02:20


Exodus 2:11-25 is the story of Moses’ capital offense in Egypt and his subsequent escape to the land of Midian. The story includes several textual and interpretive difficulties, leading to important questions. Where is the land of Midian? What is its relationship to Horeb? Is Horeb Sinai and, if it is, why do other passages […]

Naked Bible 258: The Bible Project

Feb 9, 2019 1:04:13


In this episode we chat with Dr. Tim Mackie and Jon Collins about their amazingly successful and eminently useful ministry, The Bible Project. We learn a bit about their backgrounds, individually and as friends, how the Bible Project was born, and plans for the future.

Naked Bible 257: Exodus 2:1-10

Feb 5, 2019 1:09:41


Exodus 2:1-10 is the familiar story of the birth of Moses in Egypt. Lurking behind the familiar story is a point of controversy and misunderstanding:  its presumed relationship to ancient stories of the “abandoned child,” most specifically the legend of Sargon the Great’s birth. This episode asks the question of whether the biblical writer stole the […]

Naked Bible 256: Exodus 1 Part 2

Jan 27, 2019 57:35


This is the second of two episodes on Exodus 1. This episode focuses entirely on how the name “Raamses” in Exod 1:11 can potentially be accommodated by either the early (1446 BC) or late (1250 BC) date of the exodus from Egypt. We explore how the name is used in Egyptian texts, why it’s spelling […]

Naked Bible 255: Exodus 1 Part 1

Jan 19, 2019 1:11:25


Exodus 1 is short in terms of verse count, but there are a surprising number of items in the text that need some comment—so many that we need two episodes!  In this episode we look at the language describing Israel’s condition under bondage in Egypt long after the time of Joseph. We talk about the […]

Naked Bible 254: Introducing the Book of Exodus

Jan 12, 2019 1:05:46


This episode launches our new book study series on the book of Exodus! As we do with every book study, this initial episode overviews the sorts of things to expect as we progress through Exodus: difficulties, controversies, and other points of interest relevant to understanding the book in its own context. Specifically, Dr. Heiser talks […]

Naked Bible 253: The Persecuted Church in Nepal

Jan 5, 2019 50:26


In this episode we interview “Theo,” an American living in Nepal who teaches students full time. Theo has been a long-time listener to the podcast. Theo found the divine council context put forth in Dr. Heiser’s books to be paradigm changing, and now uses that content to teach his students in Nepal. Unfortunately, there are […]

Naked Bible 252: The Day of the Lord

Dec 22, 2018 1:23:27


What is the Day of the Lord? Most Bible students would associate it with a time of judgment. The reality, however, is that judgment is only one aspect. The Day of the Lord concept concerns things like the reclaiming of the nations, the general resurrection, and the “fullness of the Gentiles.” And since Jesus is […]

Naked Bible 251: The Church Fathers and Genesis 1

Dec 15, 2018 55:58


Craig Allert is a scholar specializing in Patristic Fathers, those early Christian thinkers who lived and wrote just after the end of the apostolic age to (roughly 451 AD). On today’s episode we talk with Craig about his work in analyzing how the early church fathers understood and interpreted Genesis One. We talk about the […]

Naked Bible 250: The Pastoral Epistles

Dec 9, 2018 59:20


Rick Brannan plays a lead role in the production of ancient language resources for Logos Bible Software. He has also published several books on apocryphal gospels, the apostolic fathers, and the Pastoral Epistles. In this episode our focus is Pauline authorship studies relative to the Pastoral Epistles and analyzing the vocabulary of those epistles. Since […]

Naked Bible 249: Did Israelites View Their Judges as Gods?

Dec 2, 2018 1:02:19


The word elohim frequently speaks of a single deity, most notably the God of Israel, in the Hebrew Bible. Exceptions include Psalm 82:1, 6, where plural elohim refers to the members of God’s heavenly host (his council or assembly; cp. Psa 89:5-7). Dr. Heiser has devoted a great deal of attention to how such passages […]

Naked Bible 248: Live From Denver

Nov 24, 2018 2:16:41


Dr. Heiser and special guest answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Denver, Colorado.

Naked Bible 247: SBL Conference Interviews Part 2

Nov 23, 2018 1:15:43


In our second set of SBL interviews we talk to Dr. David DeSilva about his revised New Testament Introduction, Dr. Mike Grisanti about his books and ministry as a tour guide to Israel for Masters Seminary, Dr. David Goh about his pastoral ministry and his thoughts on The Unseen Realm,  Dr. Rick Hess about his co-edited […]

Naked Bible 246: SBL Conference Interviews Part 1

Nov 21, 2018 1:05:08


In our first of two installments of interviews at the annual meeting of the SBL (Society of Biblical Literature) we talk to Dr. Bill Arnold about a new book on the History of Israel that he co-edited (with Rick Hess), Dr. Dan Wallace about his work at CSNTM (The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts), […]

Naked Bible 245: ETS Conference Interviews Part 4

Nov 20, 2018 1:08:53


In this episode we sit down first with Dr. Carl Sanders and Dr. Ronn Johnson to talk about rejected ETS papers (!) and the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament; next we chat with Dr. Karl Kutz and Dr. Rebekah Josberger, authors of an important new first-year Hebrew grammar.

Naked Bible 244: ETS Conference Interviews Part 3

Nov 19, 2018 49:38


In this episode we chat with Doug van Dorn, a pastor in the Denver area who authored the Lexham Press handbook on Mike’s book, The Unseen Realm; Dr. Gary Yates, OT professor at liberty University, who uses Unseen Realm in one of his courses; Jesse Myers, about the publishing philosophy of Lexham Press, and Dr. […]

Naked Bible 243: ETS Conference Interviews Part 2

Nov 18, 2018 45:13


This episode features conversations with Dr. David Capes of Wheaton, Dr. Gerry Breshears of Western Seminary, and Dr. Mark Futato of Reformed Theological Seminary. We talk about a new book for the non-specialist on earl high Christology / Jewish binitarianism; uses of, and responses to, Mike’s book, The Unseen Realm; Hebrew, and a forthcoming book […]

Naked Bible 242: ETS Conference Interviews Part 1

Nov 18, 2018 52:26


In this set of interviews we talk to Dr. Peter Gurry of the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog; Henry Smith of ABR (Associates for Biblical Research); Dr. Mark Ward of Lexham Press/Faithlife/Logos, and Mike’s original pastor after he came to the Lord, Dr. Dave Burggraff. Subjects range from new books of interest to our audience, archaeology, […]

Naked Bible 241: Psalms 24 and 29 in Their Ancient Context

Nov 11, 2018 1:15:44


The psalms are often thought of as purely devotional. They of course have that value, but they also contain significant theological statements, especially to ancient Israelites whose ears were tuned to specific points of their content. We often miss such things since we are not part of the ancient Israelite world, particularly in terms of […]

Naked Bible 240: Colossians Q&A

Nov 3, 2018 54:39


Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Colossians.

Naked Bible 239: Q&A 33

Oct 28, 2018 56:56


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 238: Q&A 32

Oct 21, 2018 45:18


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 237: Colossians 4

Oct 14, 2018 1:09:41


This episode of the podcast concludes the series on Colossians. While the last chapter of Colossians contains mostly personal references to traveling companions and greetings from Paul, there are several items of interest. Does the chapter refer to a house church led by a woman (Nympha)? Is the “letter to the Laodiceans” a lost letter […]

Naked Bible 236: Colossians 3:18-25

Oct 6, 2018 1:16:38


Paul continues his teaching on how gratitude toward Jesus, the author of salvation who is supreme over all other powers, ought to influence the believer’s conduct. In this Colossians 3:18-25, Paul focuses on commands about household management. The “household” relationships in view are husbands and wives, fathers and children, and household servants/slaves. All of Paul’s […]

Naked Bible 235: Colossians 3:1-17

Sep 29, 2018 1:02:57


Colossians 3 is the pivot point for the epistle. Having tracked through a number of significant theological points relating to Christ’s supremacy to the law and angels, Paul turns to practical ramifications. This episode of the podcast focuses on two: (1) the “already but not yet” aspects of the Christian’s status and how discipleship is […]

Naked Bible 234: Apps and Art

Sep 22, 2018 1:30:54


Part 1: Johnny Cisneros – Bible Study Apps for Word Studies in Colossians What are some of the best Bible study apps today? And how can you use those study apps to gain meaningful insights into the key words in Paul’s Letter to the Colossians? In this episode, Dr. Heiser interviews his long-time friend and […]

Naked Bible 233: Honor and Shame Culture

Sep 16, 2018 1:00:55


The subject of honor and shame-based cultures is familiar to anthropologists, but a foreign topic to most people interested in biblical studies. Nevertheless, it is an important aspect of New Testament interpretation. In this episode we chat with Dr. David de Silva, a recognized expert in this area of Second Temple period / New Testament […]

Naked Bible 232: Colossians 2:13-23

Sep 8, 2018 1:06:13


Our preceding three episodes in large part set the table for the remainder of Colossians 2. Paul revisits some familiar themes: the superiority of Jesus to Jewish mystical teachings about angels (stoicheia), food laws, and the Sabbath. The new element here, and focus of this episode, is Paul’s link between the cross event (in particular […]

Naked Bible 231: Colossians 2:11-12

Sep 1, 2018 1:17:17


These two verses are (in)famous in New Testament study. Paul’s comments about baptism and circumcision, and a “circumcision made without hands” have been an interpretive battle ground every since they were written down. How does baptism relate to our receiving and being rooted in Christ (Col 2:6-7)? Does baptism complement salvation? Does it propel us […]

Naked Bible 230: Colossians 2:9-10

Aug 25, 2018 1:06:36


As we saw in our previous episode, a lot of theology can be packed into just a handful of verses. Colossians 2:6-8 leads to the focus of this episode, Colossians 2:9-10. These two verses are the pivotal content for Paul’s response to the Colossian heresy, the Jewish-mystical elevation of supernatural beings (“angels”) as spiritual authorities […]

Naked Bible 229: Colossians 2:6-8

Aug 18, 2018 1:10:36


Two of the things we talk about most on the podcast pop up in this episode: the importance of deriving what you believe from the text of Scripture itself and the importance of reading the text in its original context. Regarding the first, we’ll explore some of the grammar Paul uses in Col 2:6-7 to […]

Naked Bible 228: Colossians 1:21-2:5

Aug 11, 2018 1:00:00


This episode continues our discussion of the epistle to the Colossians. Colossians 1:21-2:5 touch on some theological themes familiar from previous episodes of the podcast: the relationship of Israel and the Church, the need to keep believing the gospel for salvation, reconciliation, and Paul’s “mystery” teaching. There are also some surprises.

Naked Bible 227: Colossians 1:13-20

Aug 4, 2018 1:16:57


Colossians 1:13-20 contains some of the most important Christological content in the New Testament. It is also home to some of the most misunderstood. For example, does referring to Jesus as “firstborn” suggest that he was created? Does it point to chronology—that Jesus was the first created thing? How is that reconcilable with the “fullness […]

Naked Bible 226: Colossians 1:1-13

Jul 28, 2018 55:35


We begin our study in the first chapter of Colossians with an eye toward some of Paul’s more important vocabulary. Why does he refer to the Colossian believers as “holy ones” (1:2)? What sort of “knowledge” (1:9) is he talking about?  What do the phrases “inheritance of the holy ones” and “domain of darkness” (1:12-13) […]

Naked Bible 225: Introducing the Book of Colossians

Jul 21, 2018 1:07:28


This episode opens our new book study on Colossians. Disputes over the book’s authorship and date contribute directly to the major content issue of the book—the nature of the “Colossian heresy.” The so-called “Colossian heresy” is the label used by scholars to describe Paul’s theological opposition in the city and church of Colossae. Elements of […]

Naked Bible 224: The Falling Away and the Restrainer

Jul 14, 2018 1:09:02


2 Thessalonians 2:1-8 contains two enigmatic features. In the first four verses Paul takes on the false teaching, circulating in the Thessalonian church, that the Day of the Lord had already come to pass. In the process Paul tells the believers “Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, […]

Naked Bible 223: Q&A 31

Jul 7, 2018 43:03


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 222: Trees and Kings with Rusty Osborne

Jun 30, 2018 1:09:39


How ancient Israelites thought about the institution of kingship is deeply rooted in the ancient Near Eastern ideology of kingship. Kings were viewed as extensions of the rule of deities, the providers of life and welfare and order. Kings ensured that life for the people under his (and the deity’s) rule went along as it […]

Naked Bible 221: Baptism for the Dead

Jun 23, 2018 1:03:05


1 Corinthians 15:29 is one of the more enigmatic verses in the Bible. Scholars have long struggled with the meaning of Paul’s questions: “. . . What do people mean by being baptized on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized on their behalf?” Just what […]

Naked Bible 220: Q&A 30

Jun 16, 2018 36:24


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 219: Q&A 29

Jun 9, 2018 32:01


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 218: Authorship and Date of the Book of Job

Jun 3, 2018 1:06:03


Many Christians believe the book of Job is the earliest book of the Bible, written sometime before Moses in the patriarchal era. Few Old Testament scholars assign any merit to this idea. Why the disagreement? Is there any basis for thinking Job is earlier than the time of Moses? Is there any way to know […]

Naked Bible 217: Authorship and Date of the Book of Isaiah

May 26, 2018 1:24:40


When it comes to debates over biblical inspiration, the authorship and the book of Isaiah is one of the more contentious topics. Traditionally, the book in its entirety (66 chapters) was considered to have been entirely written by the prophet Isaiah, who lived in the late 8th century – early 7th century BC. From the […]

Naked Bible 216: Q&A 28

May 19, 2018 27:47


Dr. Heiser answers your questions. Dr. Heiser’s paper: Does Deuteronomy 32:17 Assume or Deny the Reality of Other Gods?

Naked Bible 215: Q&A 27

May 12, 2018 23:00


Dr. Heiser answers your questions. Link referenced: http://christiancadre.blogspot.com/2014/05/has-new-chapter-of-acts-been-found-acts.html

Naked Bible 214: Q&A 26

May 5, 2018 47:11


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 213: Do Good Works Contribute to Salvation?

Apr 28, 2018 1:28:04


What is the proper biblical relationship between faith and works? Do good works contribute to salvation? If not, then why should we care about the way we live? Personal holiness is something taught in Scripture, but the desire to please God in our lives often leaves Christians guilty when they fail. Believers begin to suspect […]

Naked Bible 212: Joshua’s Conquest of Jericho and the Ugaritic Keret Epic

Apr 21, 2018 1:11:42


The basic details of the Israelite conquest of Jericho are well known. The renewal of the covenant at Shechem, the miraculous crossing of the Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant, Joshua’s encounter with the supernatural commander of the Lord’s host, the sending of the spies to the city and their reception by Rahab, the […]

Naked Bible 211: Was Cain the Seed of the Serpent?

Apr 15, 2018 1:09:30


In 1 John 3:11-12 the apostle warned believers, “For this is the message that you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another. We should not be like Cain, who was of the evil one and murdered his brother.” Does this passage mean that Cain was fathered by Satan? The idea is […]

Naked Bible 210: God and Deception

Apr 7, 2018 57:24


This episode of the podcast raises a straightforward question: Does God ever deceive anyone? While listeners might think the answer must be in the negative, that actually isn’t the case. This episode considers several passages where God uses deception and suggests the same to biblical figures. We also consider related questions, such as: Is deception […]

Naked Bible 209: A Fern and Audrey Testimony

Mar 31, 2018 1:01:20


This episode welcomes Fern and Audrey back to the podcast. Fern and Audrey minister to trauma survivors, particularly those whose trauma resulted in dissociation (see Episode 68). The conversation in this episode includes Alexa, a client of Fern and Audrey’s Discovering Mercy ministry, and allows listeners to understand their ministry from a survivor’s perspective.

Naked Bible 208: Q&A 25

Mar 24, 2018 51:43


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 207: Revelation 4-5 with Dr. Alan Bandy

Mar 18, 2018 1:08:32


Revelation 4-5, the Divine Council, and the Covenant Lawsuit Motif: A Discussion with Dr. Alan Bandy Revelation 4-5 with its vision of God’s throne room and the 24 elders has long fascinated Bible students. While the heavenly throne is obvious to the scene, the actual setting often escapes attention. In accord with various divine council […]

Naked Bible 206: The 70 Bulls of the Feast of Tabernacles

Mar 13, 2018 54:25


Numbers 29:12-34 describes the sacrifices involved in the celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles, called in Hebrew, the Feast of Sukkot (“Booths”). Included in those sacrifices were 70 bulls, a number that far exceeds any other Israelites festival. Scholars have taken note of the number and speculated that it has some relationship to the number […]

Naked Bible 205: The Sword and the Servant with David Burnett

Mar 3, 2018 1:15:49


The enigmatic “two swords” passage of Luke 22:35-38 that famously features Jesus’ command to the disciples, “the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one” (22:35), has long plagued biblical interpreters. Scholars have attempted to explain this passage in many ways. Some have suggested that Jesus was speaking figuratively, not speaking […]

Naked Bible 204: Grammar and Bible Study with Steve Runge

Feb 24, 2018 1:28:17


On this episode of the podcast we once again devote time to acquainting listeners with strategies and tools for more productive Bible study. Dr. Heiser talks to Dr. Steve Runge, a colleague at Logos Bible Software and an important name in the study of Greek grammar. Dr. Runge’s focus is discourse, a linguistic term for […]

Naked Bible 203: Q&A 24

Feb 17, 2018 45:02


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 202: Hebrews Q&A Part 2

Feb 10, 2018 43:22


Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Hebrews.

Naked Bible 201: Hebrews Q&A Part 1

Feb 3, 2018 52:38


Dr. Heiser answers your questions about the book of Hebrews.

Naked Bible 200: Global Reach

Jan 29, 2018 1:49:39


Our 200th episode celebrates the reach of the podcast and that of Dr. Heiser’s books, The Unseen Realm and Supernatural. The Naked Bible Podcast has dedicated listeners all over the world. Many found the podcast because of Dr. Heiser’s books. This episode celebrates both the impact of solid, biblical content in the lives of listeners […]

Naked Bible 199: Hebrews 13

Jan 20, 2018 1:05:24


The final chapter of the book of Hebrews combines pastoral encouragement for believers under stress and reminders about the superiority of Jesus against what their persecutors were offering.  This episode wraps up our book study by highlighting how the writer blends his final appeal for faithfulness with encouragement for both the laity and the leadership […]

Naked Bible 198: Hebrews 12

Jan 14, 2018 1:19:30


Hebrews 12 follows on the heels of the “hall of faith” in Hebrews 11. That’s important because heeding that context (and that of the rest of the book of Hebrews) will prevent us from taking certain things in Hebrews 12 out of context. The writer doesn’t follow the “hall of faith” with a treatise on […]

Naked Bible 197: Hebrews 11

Jan 7, 2018 1:02:22


Many Christians refer to Hebrews 11 as the “hall of faith.” The label is appropriate, but the chapter raises questions. Why did the Old Testament individuals listed in Hebrews 11 “make the cut”? Was there something extraordinary about them? This episode explores the relationship of this famous passage to its far less famous context: Heb […]

Naked Bible 196: Hebrews 10

Dec 31, 2017 1:16:41


Hebrews 10 wraps up the author’s discourse on the superiority of the high priesthood of Jesus—a theme begun in chapter five. The chapter revisits how the Torah’s system of sacrifices could not take away sin as it was a shadow of things to come. The author references earlier high points of how Jesus is superior […]

Naked Bible 195: Is Christmas a Pagan Holiday?

Dec 25, 2017 1:33:53


There is much discussion online at this time of year as to the presumed pagan origins of Christmas. December 25, we are told, was a date stolen from pagan worship, specifically from the festival of the “Birth of the Unconquered Sun” (Sol Invictus)? Should Christians have Christmas trees? Aren’t trees pagan objects of worship? How […]

Naked Bible 194: Hebrews 9

Dec 16, 2017 59:09


In his ninth chapter, the writer of Hebrews continues with his theme of the superiority of Christ over the Levitical sacrifices and priesthood. In chapter 8 he had referred to the “heavenly tent,” where Jesus was seated “at the right hand of majesty” subsequent to offering himself to provide salvation. In Hebrews 9, the focus […]

Naked Bible 193: Hebrews 8

Dec 9, 2017 1:14:03


The writer of Hebrews has, to this point, put forth the idea that Jesus is superior to Moses, Melchizedek, the Aaronic / Levitical Priesthood, and the angels. In this chapter he adds another point of comparison—the Mosaic covenant. The work of Jesus on the cross, his accession to the heavenly throne as great high priest, […]

Naked Bible 192: SBL Conference Interviews Part 3

Dec 2, 2017 26:38


Our final set of interviews at SBL includes discussions with Tim Mackie from The Bible Project, and we learn about opportunities for biblical studies education in the UK from Dr. Matthew Lynch, a scholar in the UK familiar with the podcast and Mike’s work.

Naked Bible 191: SBL Conference Interviews Part 2

Nov 30, 2017 1:03:54


In our second set of interviews from SBL in Boston, we talk with Ben Giffone about how to earn an advanced degree without going into debt, teaching overseas, and his own interest in Unseen Realm content and Israelite religion. We also chat with John Schwandt, director of Mobile Education for Logos Bible Software (Faithlife). John […]

Naked Bible 190: SBL Conference Interviews Part 1

Nov 28, 2017 59:07


Mike and Trey once again traveled to Boston for the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). In this first set of conference interviews include getting caught up with David Burnett, now in his first semester of doctoral work at Marquette University. We also chat with Marina Westerdahl, a former student of Mike’s […]

Naked Bible 189: Live from Boston

Nov 25, 2017 1:37:30


Dr. Heiser and special guest David Burnett answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Boston, Massachusetts.

Naked Bible 188: ETS Conference Interviews Part 2

Nov 23, 2017 1:23:51


In this second installment of ETS interviews, Mike chats with Carl Sanders and Ronn Johnson, two long-time friends. In the first part of the conversation with Carl and Ronn, we focused on their own response to “higher life” sanctification and reminisced about our academic and teaching experiences. In Part 2, Mike, Carl, and Ronn conduct […]

Naked Bible 187: ETS Conference Interviews Part 1

Nov 21, 2017 1:17:44


It’s that time of year – a new round of interviews with scholars and professors at the annual meetings of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) and the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). In this first installment we talk to Hugh Ross about his new book, Improbable Planet, and his apologetics ministry; Doug Groothuis about anti-intellectual attitudes […]

Naked Bible 186: Discovering MErcy with Fern and Audrey

Nov 19, 2017 58:19


Mike and Trey recently visited Fern and Audrey. The visit produced an opportunity not only to share some of the items discussed during that visit, but also new developments in their ministry to trauma survivors. This episode explores some of their work and methods in more detail and highlights a new direction in widening that […]

Naked Bible 185: Hebrews 7

Nov 11, 2017 1:12:26


Hebrews 7 picks up themes that are familiar already to readers of the book. The writer defends the superiority of Christ’s priesthood to the Levitical priesthood of the Old Testament on the basis of his connection to Melchizedek. A key part of this strategy is to declare that Levi “paid tithes to Melchizedek, being still […]

Naked Bible 184: Hebrews 5:11-6:20

Nov 4, 2017 1:27:21


Our series on the book of Hebrews continues the writer’s emphasis on the faithful priesthood of Christ – this time as the basis for turning away from a theology of dead works and clinging to faith. The centrality of not turning from the true gospel of faith in the work of Christ and God’s acceptance […]

Naked Bible 183: Hebrews 4:14-5:10

Oct 28, 2017 49:18


Hebrews 4:14-5:10 focuses on the fact that our high priest—the person who runs interference between us and God when it comes to eternal life—is the same person who gave his life for that purpose: Jesus. It is inconceivable in the writer’s mind that anyone who believes in Christ would be turned away from eternal life […]

Naked Bible 182: Hebrews 4:1-13

Oct 22, 2017 52:43


Hebrews 4:1-13 continues an important theme introduced in Hebrews 3—holding fast to faith so as to enter into God’s rest (i.e., inherit the promise of eternal life). The writer strikes an analogy between the rest of God, earlier related to entrance (or not) into the Promised Land (Numbers 14), and God’s rest at the end […]

Naked Bible 181: Hebrews 3

Oct 15, 2017 1:04:58


Hebrews 3 is the reader’s first introduction to what will be a familiar tension in the book: conditional statements about the believer’s salvation status. This episode focuses on this tension, pointing out that conditional statements in Hebrews are not attached to breaking the laws of Torah, or any sins of commission or omission. The conditional […]

Naked Bible 180: Continuing the NAR Conversation with Dr. Michael L. Brown

Oct 7, 2017 1:12:07


This episode continues our discussion of the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) from the previous episode. Our guest on this episode is Dr. Michael L. Brown, biblical scholar and host of the well-known radio show, Line of Fire. Dr. Brown has long been part of the charismatic wing of Christianity and has ministered in a wide […]

Naked Bible 179: What is the New Apostolic Reformation?

Sep 30, 2017 1:27:01


What is the New Apostolic Reformation, with Holly Pivec The New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) seems to quite clearly justify labeling it a movement or denomination. Millions of people around the world are part of its network of churches. However, many NAR leaders and advocates deny that it’s a denomination or movement. Many Christians who are […]

Naked Bible 178: Why the World Didn’t End on September 23

Sep 24, 2017 1:02:35


September 23 has come and gone. The world didn’t end. Jesus didn’t return. There was no rapture. Planet X (Nibiru) never showed up. Why not? The answers involve both astronomy and sound biblical interpretation. We’ll leave the astronomy to experts in that field. We’ll consider the biblical reasons why the September 23 prophetic date-setting was […]

Naked Bible 177: Hebrews 2

Sep 16, 2017 1:15:59


In Hebrews 2 the writer continues to focus on the supremacy of Christ to the Law (Torah) and angels. Christ is superior for many reasons, but chiefly because only he, through his sacrificial death, burial, and resurrection could provide the eternal sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins and bring humans back to right relationship with […]

Naked Bible 176: Hebrews 1:5-14

Sep 9, 2017 1:02:36


The writer of Hebrews builds on his assertions that the particular son of God (Jesus) who was the agent of creation, eternal wisdom, and the essence of God, by comparing him to other supernatural sons of God (angels). But what does a phrase like “You are my son, today I have begotten you” mean? Does […]

Naked Bible 175: Hebrews 1:1-4

Sep 2, 2017 1:03:26


Hebrews 1:1-4 sets the tone for the entire epistle. The writer asserts that the revelation given by God through one particular son—Jesus Christ—is superior to Torah. It is Christ who is the full expression of God’s wisdom, and the actual, essential being of God Himself. Since the “inheritance” language of Heb 1:1-4 cannot suggest that […]

Naked Bible 174: Live from Lubbock

Sep 2, 2017 56:12


Dr. Heiser answers questions from a live audience. Thank you to Wayland Baptist University for hosting and Nathan for organizing the event. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in Lubbock, Texas.

Naked Bible 173: Introducing the Book of Hebrews

Aug 26, 2017 1:08:44


This episode launches the next book study on the podcast: the book of Hebrews. After discussing some preliminaries about the book, the episode preps listeners to the fact that Hebrews is a book that draws heavily on the Old Testament. That strategy of the anonymous author means more than simply quoting the Old Testament. Rather, […]

Naked Bible 172: Melchizedek Q&A

Aug 19, 2017 1:01:17


Dr. Heiser answers your questions about Melchizedek.

Naked Bible 171: Q&A 23

Aug 12, 2017 1:08:33


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 170: Melchizedek Part 3

Aug 5, 2017 47:43


In the previous episodes on Melchizedek we covered the Old Testament data (Parts 1A, 1B) and Second Temple Jewish interpretation (Part 2) of the enigmatic Melchizedek. This episode focuses on Hebrews 7, the New Testament passage that focuses on Melchizedek as a type or analogy to Jesus.

Naked Bible 169: Surviving and Thriving in Seminary

Jul 30, 2017 1:34:42


Surviving and Thriving in Seminary, with Danny Zacharias and Ben Forrest Ever thought about taking a seminary class? Getting a degree in biblical studies? Even if you haven’t and just want good advice on how to do biblical research on your own, you’ll want to listen in on this conversation. This episode of the podcast […]

Naked Bible 168: Melchizedek Part 2

Jul 23, 2017 1:12:07


In the previous two episodes on Melchizedek (1a, 1b) we covered the Old Testament data on this enigmatic figure. Jewish writers and readers in the Second Temple Period (ca. 500 BC – 70 AD) naturally had ideas on who Melchizedek was and how to understand him as a king-priest. This episode discusses important texts from […]

Naked Bible 167: Melchizedek Part 1b

Jul 15, 2017 59:29


Melchizedek is one of the more enigmatic figures in the Bible. Mentioned in only two passages in the Old Testament (Gen 14:17-24; Psalm 110), he nevertheless drew a lot of attention during the Second Temple Period and the New Testament. Thousands of pages of scholarly research have been devoted to him. Nearly everything said about […]

Naked Bible 166: Melchizedek Part 1a

Jul 9, 2017 44:43


Melchizedek is one of the more enigmatic figures in the Bible. Mentioned in only two passages in the Old Testament (Gen 14:17-24; Psalm 110), he nevertheless drew a lot of attention during the Second Temple Period and the New Testament. Thousands of pages of scholarly research have been devoted to him. Nearly everything said about […]

Naked Bible 165: Q&A 22

Jul 1, 2017 52:57


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 164: Paul’s Ascent and Angelic Torment with David Burnett

Jun 24, 2017 1:14:57


David Burnett returns to the podcast to discuss Paul’s defense of his apostleship and his heavenly ascent in 2 Corinthians 11-12. This episode expands upon an earlier episode on Paul’s ascent, specifically linking it to Second Temple Jewish apocalyptic literature (the Apocalypse of Abraham) and rabbinic material that appears to draw on that earlier material. […]

Naked Bible 163: Other Gods and Other Religions with Gerald McDermott

Jun 18, 2017 1:07:46


Gerald R. McDermott (PhD, University of Iowa) is Anglican Chair of Divinity at Beeson Divinity School in Birmingham, Alabama. Before joining Beeson, he was the Jordan-Trexler Professor of Religion at Roanoke College. He is also associate pastor at Christ the King Anglican Church and Distinguished Senior Fellow in the History of Christianity at Baylor University’s […]

Naked Bible 162: The Evil Eye

Jun 11, 2017 1:16:36


The “evil eye” was a widespread superstition in the ancient world, one that continues on into the present day. The belief that one could cause someone harm merely by looking at them, or cast a spell over them by the same means, shows up in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamian, Greece, Rome, and Rabbinic writings. But does […]

Naked Bible 161: Translating Genesis 1-11

Jun 3, 2017 1:05:55


In this episode Dr. Heiser talks to the men behind a new translation project, John Hobbins and Samuel Bray. The first volume of their effort is entitled Genesis 1-11: A New Old Translation for Readers, Scholars, and Translators. Our discussion focuses on the translation enterprise – what translators need to think about as they do […]

Naked Bible 160: Q&A 21

May 28, 2017 1:14:15


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.   resource referenced: Erickson, The Work of the Holy Spirit in the Old Testament

Naked Bible 159: Noah’s Nakedness, the Sin of Ham, and the Curse of Canaan

May 21, 2017 48:15


The episode of Noah’s drunkenness in Genesis 9 has long befuddled interpreters. One of Noah’s sons, Ham, commits some heinous crime against his father. Oddly, though, Ham is not the one cursed by his father. Instead, Ham’s son Canaan bears the wrath of Noah. This episode explores the traditional solutions to the interpretive confusion and […]

Naked Bible 158: The Fate of the Ark of the Covenant

May 14, 2017 1:31:27


The Ark of the Covenant is well-known because of the popular Indiana Jones movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark. That pop culture film offers just one of over a dozen theories on what happened to the Ark of the Covenant. The question arises because the ark is not one of the artifacts taken to Babylon […]

Naked Bible 157: Ezekiel 40-48 Part 2

May 6, 2017 1:18:03


This episode continues our discussion of Ezekiel’s temple vision. Whereas Part 1 noted the problems a literalistic approach produces for both coherent interpretation and consistency in biblical theology, this episode looks at positive indications in the text that compel us to read the temple vision in a way that transcends literalism. Doing so observes the […]

Naked Bible 156: Ezekiel 40-48 Part 1

Apr 30, 2017 1:04:36


These final chapters of Ezekiel are known for the prophet’s vision of a new temple. However, scattered within that vision is an enigmatic figure referred to as the “prince” (Hebrew: nasiʾ). In this episode we discuss whether or not Ezekiel’s temple vision should be understood as a functioning building used after the return of the […]

Naked Bible 155: David Limbaugh

Apr 22, 2017 1:07:51


This episode features a conversation with David Limbaugh, author of The True Jesus: Uncovering the Divinity of Christ in the Gospels. While the conversation naturally focuses on David’s most recent book, we also get to know him, his spiritual journey, and his thoughts about academic biblical study and its place in the Church at large.

Naked Bible 154: Q&A 20

Apr 15, 2017 1:34:18


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 153: Ezekiel 38-39 Part 2

Apr 8, 2017 1:05:03


This follow-up to Part 1 on these popular and controversial chapters focuses on the interpretation of the Gog-Magog invasion as a whole. Special attention is paid to how Rev 20:7-10 re-purposes Ezekiel 38-39 and how that re-purposing is consistent with a sound interpretation of those two chapters in their own context. They key to this […]

Naked Bible 152: Ezekiel 38-39 Part 1

Apr 1, 2017 1:01:58


Ezekiel 38-39, Part 1: Who or What is Gog? As was the case with Ezekiel 37, these chapters are among the most familiar in the entire book of Ezekiel. This first of two episodes on these chapters focuses on the terminology: Gog, Magog, Meshech, Tubal, and Togarmah. It also addresses the fallacies of translating Hebrew […]

Naked Bible 151: Ezekiel 37

Mar 26, 2017 1:20:42


Ezekiel 37 is one of the most familiar in the entire book, but that familiarity really extends only to the first fourteen verses. The chapter actually contains two oracles which telegraph the same ideas and work in tandem. This episode discusses the vision of the dry bones, particularly the debate over whether it provides information […]

Naked Bible 150: Ezekiel 35-36

Mar 18, 2017 45:39


These two chapters seems intrusive. The oracles against the nations ended in Ezekiel 32, followed by the announcement of Jerusalem’s fall (ch. 33) and a transition to the future hope of Israel (ch. 34). Chapters 35-36 are an oracle against Edom (“Mount Seir”) followed by more restorative language in Chapter 36. This episode of the […]

Naked Bible 149: Q&A with Fern, Audrey, and Beth

Mar 11, 2017 1:18:46


This episode follows episodes 68 and 120. Fern, Audrey, and Beth minister to trauma victims whose trauma has produced DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder) or involved Trauma-based Mind Control (TBMC).  If those terms and associated concepts are unfamiliar to you, then episode 68 is an essential precursor to this episode. This episode focuses on addressing listener […]

Naked Bible 148: Q&A 19

Mar 5, 2017 1:01:20


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 147: Ezekiel 33-34

Feb 27, 2017 1:03:37


On the surface, these chapters finalize the destruction of Jerusalem and the covenant failure of its leadership and people as the cause. But there is more than meets the eye. The notion of a “watchman” prominent in Ezekiel chapter 33 is found elsewhere and has possible connections to the divine council. Ezekiel chapter 34 is […]

Naked Bible 146: Ezekiel 32

Feb 19, 2017 1:00:39


Ezekiel 32 is a lament for the empire of Egypt, whose hubris was compared to a rebellious divine council member in the previous chapter (one of the “trees” of God’s garden in Lebanon/Eden). This episode focuses on two items in the chapter. Early in the chapter, the prophet casts pharaoh as both a sea dragon […]

Naked Bible 145: Ezekiel 31

Feb 12, 2017 1:10:19


Ezekiel 31 is part of the prophet’s oracles against Egypt (chs. 29-32). The chapter strikes an analogy between the mighty nation of Egypt and a great cedar tree in Eden, the envy of other glorious trees in the garden of God. The symbol of the “world tree” or “cosmic tree” is well known, not only […]

Naked Bible 144: Ezekiel 29-30

Feb 5, 2017 1:08:43


Ezekiel 29-30 are the first two of four chapters that preserve a series of oracles against Egypt and her Pharaoh. As in the case of the oracles against the prince of Tyre, Ezekiel’s imagery of cosmic, non-human forces of chaos that resist God’s order frames Yahweh’s judgment of the hubris of Egypt. This episode therefore […]

Naked Bible 143: Ezekiel 28

Jan 29, 2017 1:04:07


The focus in this episode is Ezek 28:1-19. As readers of my book, The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible know, this is a controversial passage.  All scholars agree that this is an oracle and lament against a human prince of Tyre. The disagreement stems from vv. 11-19, but 1-19 is peripherally […]

Naked Bible 142: Ezekiel 26-27

Jan 21, 2017 49:13


Five of the seven nations that are the target of judgment oracles were found in Ezekiel 25. Tyre takes its position in the prophetic crosshairs next. Over the course of three chapters (26-28), God has Ezekiel pronounce Tyre’s dire future in the wake of her hubris and delight at Jerusalem’s destruction. This episode covers Ezekiel […]

Naked Bible 141: Ezekiel 25

Jan 15, 2017 55:30


Following the prophecy of Jerusalem’s fall (Ezek 24), the next major section in the book of Ezekiel is a series of oracles against the foreign, enemy nations that celebrated the city’s demise. Seven nations are denounced by the prophet as under Yahweh’s judgment. Nearly every book classified among the major and minor prophets contains a […]

Naked Bible 140: Ezekiel 24

Jan 8, 2017 47:59


Chapter 24 is a turning book in the book of Ezekiel. After Ezekiel’s call (Ch. 1-3), the book has, to this point, been a series of gloom-and-doom pronouncements to the exiled Jews in Babylon subverting their expectations that Jerusalem, the temple, and their friends and loved ones back in Jerusalem were safe from  divine judgment. […]

Naked Bible 139: Q&A 18

Dec 31, 2016 1:02:21


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 138: What Day was Jesus Born?

Dec 25, 2016 1:39:36


On what day was Jesus actually born? What year? Does the timing matter? Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus on December 25, but virtually all Christians know that day isn’t the real birth date of the messiah. While that is certainly the case, has the birth date of Jesus been lost to time, or can […]

Naked Bible 137: Ezekiel 23

Dec 17, 2016 58:59


Ezekiel 23 essentially takes up where Ezekiel 16 left off. The latter chapter is perhaps the most sexual explicit in the entire Bible, as its theme is to present Jerusalem and Judah as a whore to telegraph her spiritual betrayal of Yahweh. In this chapter both the defunct Norther kingdom (Israel/Samaria) and the remaining Southern […]

Naked Bible 136: Ezekiel 21-22

Dec 10, 2016 56:41


These two chapters of Ezekiel beat a familiar drum: Jerusalem is doomed (21) because of her unrelenting wickedness and apostasy (22). Chapter 21 consists of four oracles “clarifying” for hard-of-hearing Israelites what fate awaited them as Nebuchadnezzar moved toward Jerusalem. Chapter 22 is comprised of three separate sermonettes targeting the evils of the city’s politicians, […]

Naked Bible 135: Ezekiel 19-20

Dec 4, 2016 1:24:14


These two chapters in Ezekiel rehearse parts of Israel’s tragic history in different ways. This episode discusses both chapters, but devotes more attention to several controversial and difficult passages in chapter 20. Ezekiel 19 is a lamentation that uses animal and plant imagery to describe the demise of Israel’s last few kings. Chapter 20 reviews […]

Naked Bible 134: Conference Interviews Part 6

Nov 27, 2016 1:03:52


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 6 of those interviews, we chat with Stephen Huebscher (PhD candidate at Clarks Summit University), David DeSilva (New Testament professor at Ashland Theological Seminary), and Dr. Craig Keener (New […]

Naked Bible 133: Live from San Antonio

Nov 26, 2016 2:21:18


Our first live episode where Dr. Heiser and special guest David Burnett answer questions from a live audience. Thank you to everyone who came and joined us in San Antonio, Texas.  

Naked Bible 132: Conference Interviews Part 5

Nov 25, 2016 55:05


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 5 of those interviews, we meet Dr. John Walton (Old Testament professor at Wheaton College), Dr. Ben Witherington (New Testament professor at Asbury Theological Seminary), and Dr. Tremper Longman […]

Naked Bible 131: Conference Interviews Part 4

Nov 24, 2016 1:07:29


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 4 of those interviews, we chat with Dr. N. T. Wright (former Bishop of Durham and Canon of Westminster, now New Testament professor at the University of St. Andrews, […]

Naked Bible 130: Conference Interviews Part 3

Nov 23, 2016 50:41


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 3 of those interviews, we hear again from David Burnett, a familiar voice on the podcast, and meet Dr. Lynn Cohick (New Testament professor at Wheaton College) and Dr. […]

Naked Bible 129: Conference Interviews Part 2

Nov 22, 2016 56:55


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In Part 2 of those interviews, we meet Dr. Andy Naselli (New Testament professor at Bethlehem College and Seminary), Mike Licona (Theology professor at Houston Baptist University), Dr. Sam Lamerson (President […]

Naked Bible 128: Conference Interviews Part 1

Nov 21, 2016 1:08:32


During the recent annual meetings for biblical studies scholars held in San Antonio, Dr. Heiser interviewed a number of scholars about their recent work. In this first installment, we hear from Dr. Carl Sanders and Thomas Hudgens (respectively, professors of Theology and New Testament at Lancaster Bible College & Graduate School), and Randall Price of […]

Naked Bible 127: Q&A 17

Nov 19, 2016 57:02


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

Naked Bible 126: Ezekiel 18

Nov 13, 2016 55:39


Ezekiel 18 focuses on one central idea: individual accountability for one’s own sinfulness. The chapter opens with God’s rejection of the pervasive Israelite idea that the suffering of one generation is the result of the sins of previous generations. The message God wants to communicate through the prophet is that the Israelites in captivity in […]

Naked Bible 125: Bible Study Tools

Nov 5, 2016 1:20:36


Everyone interested in the study of Scripture wants to feel adequate to the task. But there are many obstacles—real and merely imagined—to being competent in Bible study. In this episode Dr. Heiser interviews his long-time friend and colleague, Johnny Cisneros. With skills in biblical language study and doctoral candidate status in instructional design, Johnny Cisneros […]

Naked Bible 124: Ezekiel 17

Oct 29, 2016 1:00:04


Ezekiel 17 presents a riddle or parable of two eagles about the treachery of Zedekiah, the puppet governor appointed by Nebuchadnezzar to replace Jehoiachin, the Judahite king taken captive in an earlier wave of exile of which Ezekiel had been a part. Zedekiah would be captured in the last phase of exile, the destruction of […]

Naked Bible 123: Ezekiel 16

Oct 23, 2016 1:13:06


Ezekiel 16 is known for being the most sexually explicit chapter in the Bible. Some scholars even consider it pornographic. The prophet casts the city of Jerusalem as a whore when articulating why God has condemned it and marked it for destruction. This episode explores the portrayal of spiritual apostasy as wanton whoredom in all […]

Naked Bible 122: Ezekiel 14-15

Oct 14, 2016 1:07:24


The words of Ezekiel 14-15 were addressed to Jewish elders in Babylon who had come to Ezekiel for a word from the Lord. Knowing they were still idol worshippers in their hearts, God refused to give them comfort. Instead he lowered the boom: Jerusalem’s judgment was certain. God’s case is presented in language drawn from […]

Naked Bible 121: Ezekiel 12-13

Oct 8, 2016 51:39


The prophet Ezekiel has telegraphed the doom of Jerusalem in a series of visual re-enactment signs, visions, and prophetic oracles. Chapters 12-13 continue with more sign acts, but shifts to God’s assessment of objections by the exiles as to the certainty of Jerusalem’s fate. God therefore directs Ezekiel to demolish the idea that “We have […]

Naked Bible 120: Fern, Audrey, and Beth

Sep 30, 2016 1:23:55


Fern and Audrey return with an update on their work with ritual abuse survivors, and introduce a colleague (“Beth”) who does the same work. Beth tells listeners her own story of growing up in “traditional” deliverance ministry, and how her approach to helping survivors now is different in light of the divine council worldview.

Naked Bible 119: Ezekiel 10-11

Sep 25, 2016 1:14:49


Ezekiel 10-11 are the concluding chapters to a prophetic vision that began in chapter 8. In this episode we discover how these chapters provide more Godhead talk from the Old Testament and the departure of the glory of God from the temple.

Naked Bible 118: Q&A 16

Sep 18, 2016 1:24:40


Dr. Heiser answers your questions.   links referenced: Romans 5:12 and the fate of the unborn, aborted, those who cannot believe Dissociative Disorder Link to Mike’s recommended reading for 2nd Temple Jewish Literature  (not mentioned on the show)… links to two annotated bibliographies on 2nd Temple Jewish Literature: Part 1 – bibliography Part 2 – […]

Naked Bible 117: Ezekiel 8-9

Sep 11, 2016 1:21:43


Ezekiel 8 and 9 falls in the section of Ezekiel that concerns two themes: the punishment of Jerusalem and the departure of the glory of God. In Chapter 8 we’re introduced to some specific points of Israelite idolatry – worship of Asherah and worshipping the creator as though he were part of creation. Ezekiel 9 […]

Naked Bible 116: Ezekiel 7

Sep 3, 2016 1:05:00


Having performed a series of sign acts dramatizing the demise of Jerusalem and the temple in (Ezek 4-5) and explaining the justification for God’s punishment (Ezek 6), in Ezekiel 7 the prophet tries to jolt the exiles with the reality of the impending doom. Ezekiel 7’s main feature is its dramatic repetition of doom, a […]

Naked Bible 115: Ezekiel 6

Aug 28, 2016 1:16:05


Chapter 6 of the book of Ezekiel focuses on the primary reason for Judah’s exile: idolatry. This episode discusses the vocabulary used by Ezekiel for idolatry and spiritual apostasy and its links back to passages like Leviticus 26, which connect occupation of the Promised Land to believing loyalty to Yahweh alone. pdfs referenced: HIGH PLACES […]

Naked Bible 114: Ezekiel 4-5

Aug 21, 2016 1:13:24


These two chapters of Ezekiel confront the reader with a series of “sign acts” on the part of the prophet. These signs are dramatic visualizations of events that are or will befall Jerusalem at the hands of the Babylonians. They present a range of interpretive problems that are discussed in this episode. pdf referenced: Ezekiel […]

Naked Bible 113: Ezekiel 2-3

Aug 14, 2016 1:09:06


The second and third chapters of Ezekiel continue the episode of his call as a prophet. This episode of the podcast focuses on some interpretive issues in the chapters as well as some divine council elements that get less attention than chapter 1.

Naked Bible 112: Ezekiel 1

Aug 6, 2016 1:07:18


The vision of Ezekiel 1 (also described in Ezekiel 10) is one of the more famous passages in the Bible. It’s also one of the most misunderstood. In this episode Dr. Heiser explains what we’re looking at in Ezekiel 1 and what it means. Along the way, it will be clear that Ezekiel isn’t describing […]

Naked Bible 111: Introducing the Book of Ezekiel

Jul 30, 2016 1:06:26


This episode marks the beginning of the Naked Bible Podcast series on the book of Ezekiel. Several characteristics set Ezekiel off from the rest of the classical (“Writing”) prophets: the prophet’s bizarre behavior, the use of symbols and symbolic acts, and the emphasis on the Spirit. This episode introduces the prophet and what to expect […]

Naked Bible 110: Q&A 15

Jul 22, 2016 1:14:19


Our 15th Question and Answer episode!

Naked Bible 109: John 10, gods or Men?

Jul 15, 2016 48:44


In view of Mike’s work on the divine council and Psalm 82 in his best-selling book, The Unseen Realm: Recovering the Supernatural Worldview of the Bible, many have asked what’s going on in John 10, where Jesus defends his deity by quoting Psalm 82. The consensus interpretation has the gods of Psalm 82 as only […]

Naked Bible 108: Q&A 14

Jul 10, 2016 50:45


Our 14th Question and Answer episode!

Naked Bible 107: Book of Obadiah Part 2

Jul 2, 2016 1:01:29


This episode continues and concludes our discussion on the book of Obadiah, with an emphasis on its foretelling of Edom’s doom and how that prophecy was – and will be – fulfilled.

Naked Bible 106: Book of Obadiah Part 1

Jun 26, 2016 48:49


Chances are good that you’ve never read the book of Obadiah. If you have, you likely haven’t given it much thought. In this first of two episodes devoted to the book, we get a bird’s eye view of what Obadiah is about and why it’s important for forming our theological thinking in some unexpected ways.

Naked Bible 105: Q&A 13

Jun 19, 2016 1:04:43


Our 13th Question and Answer episode! paper and video referenced: Heiser OT Response to Pagan Divination  

Naked Bible 104: How We Got the Old Testament

Jun 12, 2016 1:26:36


On a previous episode, Mike interview Rick Brannan on how we go the New Testament Testament and why conspiratorial ideas about the Greek New Testament are bogus. In this episode the Old Testament gets equal time. Mike overviews how the OT books were composed, edited, received, transmitted by scribes, and published to the present day […]

Naked Bible 103: Moses and the Bronze Serpent

Jun 5, 2016 1:13:20


Many Bible students find the episode in Numbers 21:1-9 confusing. Why would God tell Moses to make a bronze serpent (nachash)? Did God forget about the serpent of Genesis 3? Why would Jesus compare his impending death on the cross to the bronze serpent? This episode asks whether these ideas are in fact connected and […]

Naked Bible 102: What does “All Israel will be saved” Mean?

May 28, 2016 54:16


It’s common among Christians to interpret Paul’s statement that “all Israel will be saved” (Rom 11:25-26) to refer to mean that national Israel will be saved by God in the end or that all Jews will eventually turn to the messiah in the end times. But is that what Paul meant? How would we know? […]

Naked Bible 101: Jesus, the Exile, and the Tribulation

May 21, 2016 1:15:15


Lots of Christians interested in prophecy talk about the tribulation period (aka, the “Great Tribulation”), but they never seem to get around to asking where the idea comes from. In this episode we explore the development of the eschatological tribulation idea in Second Temple Jewish literature up to and including the time of Jesus. Surprisingly, […]

Naked Bible 100: Celebration

May 15, 2016 1:16:42


We reached a milestone and celebrated with our listeners. Thanks to all who sent in their thoughts. It’s gratifying for both Trey and myself to be helpful to those who care about biblical content. Thank you for listening to The Naked Bible Podcast God bless…

Naked Bible 99: Debunking Greek NT Manuscript Conspiracies

May 10, 2016 1:32:14


How did we get the New Testament? This episode is in response to listener requests. Mike and Trey interview Rick Brannan, the information specialist for Greek New Testament products and databases at Logos Bible Software, about how we got the New Testament, the KJV-only idea, and conspiratorial views about the history and transmission of the […]

Naked Bible 98: House Churches

Apr 30, 2016 1:30:04


In this episode Mike and Trey talk with Tim Andrews and Rich Baker about alternative ways to think about church – specifically, if church wasn’t a time or a place, what would that be like? Tim Andrews currently lives in Atlanta, GA, and has been in leadership in alternative church communities for over twenty years. […]

Naked Bible 97: Q&A 12

Apr 22, 2016 48:09


Our 12th Question and Answer episode!

Naked Bible 96: Q&A 11

Apr 17, 2016 1:22:20


Our 11th Question and Answer episode! Link referenced: AllAboutGod.com

Naked Bible 95: David Burnett – Resurrection and the Death of the Gods

Apr 9, 2016 1:48:35


This episode invites David Burnett back to the podcast for a discussion of his research on 1 Cor 15:35-50. In an earlier episode on this chapter, we talked about the meaning of Paul’s phrase “the spiritual body.” This time around, David draws our attention to the listing of “bodies” (celestial vs. earthly) in vv. 35-41 […]

Naked Bible 94: The Sin of the Watchers and Galatians 3-4

Apr 2, 2016 1:20:31


Biblical scholars know that Paul subordinates the Law to Christ (Gal 3:1-18). He writes about how the Law could not result in the fruition of the promises given to Abraham (and, by extension, to all nations; Gen 12:1-3). Paul then asks “Why then was the law given?” He answers that it was “added because of […]

Naked Bible 93: The Book of Enoch in the Early Church

Mar 29, 2016 1:02:36


The book we know as 1 Enoch was well known to early Christians. Its importance produced an understandable question among some influential early Christian writers and, one may presume, Christians in general: Should 1 Enoch be considered inspired and thus “Scripture” in the manner of other books in the Old Testament? Ultimately, Christianity at large […]

Naked Bible 92: Stones of Fire

Mar 19, 2016 37:42


Ezekiel 28:14, 16 describe an “anointed cherub” who walked in the midst of “the stones of fire” and was removed from among “the stones of fire.”  What are the stones of fire? What do these verses describe? How do the phrases relate to what’s going on in Ezekiel 28 and its “twin,” Isaiah 14? blog […]

Naked Bible 91: Q&A 10

Mar 16, 2016 1:10:12


Our 10th Question and Answer episode!

Naked Bible 90: Lake of Fire

Mar 5, 2016 50:21


This episode discusses why hellfire in the New Testament is associated with “the devil and his angels” (Matt 25:41). Where does that idea come from? There are in fact earlier books that are the basis for this language—inside and outside the Old Testament.

Naked Bible 89: The Book of Life

Feb 28, 2016 1:03:42


There are over a dozen references in the Old and New Testaments to “books” in heaven. The idea of such books extends back to Sumer and Mesopotamian (“tablets of destinies”). In this episode, we trace the lineage of the idea through ancient Near Eastern examples, the Old Testament, 2nd temple Jewish texts, and the New […]

Naked Bible 88: What is the “spiritual body” Paul talks about in 1 Cor 15?

Feb 20, 2016 49:35


This episode focuses on Paul’s language, in 1 Cor 15 and elsewhere, about the “spiritual body” of the resurrected Jesus—a body that believers will also share.  In Paul’s day, Gentiles (Greco-Roman culture) and Jews (OT) both believed that gods had bodies — not made of flesh and blood, but of something that was superior to […]

Naked Bible 87: Exorcism of Demons as Part of the Messianic Profile

Feb 14, 2016 43:17


There is no direct talk in the Old Testament about the messiah, the son of David, would cast out demons. Yet that title (“son of David”) is found only in the synoptic gospels in association with Jesus’ healing and demonic exorcisms. While healing is a clear part of the messianic profile in the Old Testament, […]

Naked Bible 86: The Head Covering of 1 Corinthians 11:13-15

Feb 7, 2016 58:11


This episode begins a series of topical episodes following the end of our series on Leviticus. The topic for this episode is the controversial head covering reference in 1 Cor. 11:13-15. The discussion summarizes the material discussed in a scholarly journal article published in 2004 by Dr. Troy Martin entitled, “Paul’s Argument from Nature for […]

Naked Bible 85: Q&A 9

Jan 30, 2016 1:09:16


Our 9th Question and Answer episode! Also find out what topics are next for the podcast. to support our show go to: our Support page Harvey book on term Jew: Graham Harvey, The True Israel: Uses of the Names Jew, Hebrew, and Israel in Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Literature (Brill, 2001)

Naked Bible 84: Leviticus 26-27

Jan 23, 2016 1:08:59


This episode covers Leviticus 26-27, bringing our study of Leviticus to a close. Our focus is primarily a question raised by Lev 26 — whether the offer of restoration to Yahweh (and thus to the land) described in Lev 26:40-42 is being fulfilled now or is yet to be fulfilled. The episode also addresses the […]

Naked Bible 83: Leviticus 23-25

Jan 17, 2016 1:16:26


This episode discusses items in three chapters of Leviticus including how Leviticus 23 conceptualizes the Sabbath, how its description of Israelite feasts and festivals diverges with other passages in the Torah, the imagery of the “shewbread” (“bread of the Presence”), the principle of lex talionis, and the concept of jubilee in Leviticus 25 and other […]

Naked Bible 82: Q&A 8

Jan 10, 2016 1:15:32


Our 8th Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: our Support page

Naked Bible 81: Leviticus 21-22

Jan 2, 2016 59:45


Leviticus 21-22 overlaps a great deal with earlier material in Leviticus. This episode focuses on certain mourning rites and Israel’s need to maintain a holiness distinction from pagan religions in that regard. Of special interest in this episode is Lev 21:5 (cp. Lev 19:26-28), a passage many use to condemn tattooing. papers referenced: Roberts A […]

Naked Bible 80: Leviticus 19-20

Dec 26, 2015 1:02:41


This episode covers two chapters in Leviticus, chapters 19-20. Leviticus 19 is essentially a mini-Torah of sorts, in that it mimes a number of the Ten Commandments and a wide range of laws and commandments that are representative of the overall Torah. Chapter 20 re-articulates much of Leviticus 18 with respect to prohibitions of certain […]

Naked Bible 79: Leviticus 17-18

Dec 18, 2015 1:17:11


These two chapters launch that portion of Leviticus (17-26) that scholars refer to as the Holiness Code. The Holiness Code is oriented by the idea that the people of Israel bear the responsibility for holiness, a concept expressed in Lev 19:2 (“You shall be holy, for I, the Lord your God, am holy”). Though rare […]

Naked Bible 78: Conference Interviews Part 2

Dec 12, 2015 36:28


Every year Mike attends the annual meetings of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS), the Institute for Biblical Research (IBR), the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) and the American Academy of Religion (AAR). This year Mike recorded short conversations with scholars, pastors, and other folks who were also attending. This episode is the second of two […]

Naked Bible 77: Conference Interviews Part 1

Dec 6, 2015 1:07:06


Every year Mike attends the annual meetings of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS), the Institute for Biblical Research (IBR), the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) and the American Academy of Religion (AAR). This year Mike recorded short conversations with scholars, pastors, and other folks who were also attending. This episode is the first of two […]

Naked Bible 76: Leviticus 16

Nov 30, 2015 59:55


This episode focuses on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) ritual. Unlike many popular commentaries teach, this important Old Testament ritual was about “resetting” the tabernacle/temple sanctuary, its priesthood, and the Israelite people to the state of ritual purity (holiness) evident when the entire Levitical system and the Tabernacle was originally sanctified in Leviticus 8. […]

Naked Bible 75: Leviticus 12-15

Nov 21, 2015 59:48


This episode covers Leviticus 12-15, chapters that speak to the ritual impurity of women after childbirth, skin diseases (commonly referred to as leprosy), and loss of bodily fluids. The episode discusses the theological and worldview rationale for the laws about ritual procedure to restore individuals falling into these categories to ritual purity.

Naked Bible 74: Leviticus 11

Nov 7, 2015 45:51


This chapter of Leviticus describes the categories of clean and unclean animals allowed or disallowed for food. The Israelite “food laws” have long puzzled scholars. This episode overviews the various approaches to discovering a coherent rationale for these laws.

Naked Bible 73: Leviticus 10

Nov 1, 2015 38:57


Leviticus 10 describes the deaths of the priests Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, for offering “strange fire”. The nature of their transgression and other admonitions from God to the priesthood are discussed in this episode.  

Naked Bible 72: Leviticus 8-9

Oct 24, 2015 55:01


Leviticus 8-9 describes two distinct but related ceremonies: the consecration of the altar and Tabernacle, and the consecration of Aaron as High Priest (vv. 6–12) and his sons as priests. This episode focuses on some of the objects worn by the high priest (ephod, gold plate) and the enigmatic Urim and Thummim.

Naked Bible 71: Q&A 7

Oct 18, 2015 1:13:11


Our 7th Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: our Support page video referenced: Genesis & Creation – Class 3 of 4 – September 29, 2010 from Grace Church Bellingham on Vimeo.

Naked Bible 70: Q&A 6

Oct 10, 2015 1:07:28


Our 6th Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: our Support page papers referenced in the show: MAGIC-DPL-Arnold Magical Papyri-DNTB-Arnold

Naked Bible 69: Leviticus 6-7

Oct 4, 2015 1:01:27


These two chapters of Leviticus present the “law” for each of the sacrifices described in chapters 1–5.  The earlier chapters emphasize the mechanics of the sacrifices (e.g., the preparation of sacrifices and their ingredients). Leviticus 6-7, on the other hand, focuses on the duties of the priesthood in regard to sacrificial offerings and how the […]

Naked Bible 68: Interview with Fern and Audrey

Sep 26, 2015 52:51


In this episode we take a break from Leviticus to talk to two friends of Mike who use the divine council worldview of biblical theology in a unique way – ministering to deliberately / ritually traumatized people (e.g., victims of human trafficking and satanic ritual abuse). For those who have read Mike’s novel, The Portent, […]

Naked Bible 67: Leviticus 5

Sep 18, 2015 49:09


Leviticus 5 focuses on the so-called “guilt offering” of the OT sacrificial system. As was the case with the “sin offering” of Leviticus 4, the terminology / translation “guilt offering” is misleading, due to how Christians naturally filter OT sacrificial talk through what happened on the cross. The episode discusses what the “guilt offering” really […]

Naked Bible 66: Leviticus 4

Sep 12, 2015 53:33


Leviticus 4 focuses on the instructions for, and meaning of, the so-called “sin offering” of the OT sacrificial system. In this episode, we talk about how the translation “sin offering” is misleading, due to how Christians naturally filter OT sacrificial talk through what happened on the cross. The episode discusses what the “sin offering” really […]

Naked Bible 65: Leviticus 2-3

Sep 5, 2015 49:29


Each of these two chapters covers a different offering: the grain offering (Lev 2) and the “peace offering” (Lev 3). This episode focuses on the theological messaging of prohibitions (leaven, honey) and requirements (salt) in the rituals.

Naked Bible 64: Leviticus 1

Aug 29, 2015 47:16


Leviticus 1 focuses on one offering, the burnt offering. Our focus this episode is how an Israelite (not a modern Christian) would have processed the ritual and its meaning. The burnt offering was not about forgiveness of sin. Rather, it was designed to initiate contact with God—which was viewed as a dangerous thing.

Naked Bible 63: Introducing Leviticus

Aug 21, 2015 56:37


Leviticus is a fascinating but neglected book. In this episode Dr. Heiser introduces the flow of the book and important concepts that will reoccur throughout the book: sacred space, holiness, and ritual impurity vs. moral impurity.  

Naked Bible 62: Q&A 5

Aug 15, 2015 1:09:35


Our 5th Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: patreon.com/nakedbible

Naked Bible 61: David Burnett

Aug 7, 2015 59:15


In this episode Mike interviews his friend and fellow divine council researcher David Burnett. David is a graduate student and teaching pastor in Texas. Mike and David discuss how they met, David’s research, and how he teaches Scripture framed by a divine council worldview at his church. David’s paper has been solicited by the Journal of the Study […]

Naked Bible 60: Acts 27-28

Aug 2, 2015 48:25


This episode wraps up our study of the book of Acts. These two chapters focus on Luke’s account of Paul’s hazardous journey by ship to Rome. Through the course of his narrative, Luke drops some cryptic references to the theological concept of a promised land for the people of God and Paul’s role in reclaiming […]

Naked Bible 59: Q&A 4

Jul 25, 2015 1:12:10


Our 4th Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: patreon.com/nakedbible paper referenced in the show: Chiel-The-Mysterious-Book-of-Jasher

Naked Bible 58: Acts 23-26

Jul 18, 2015 45:08


These chapters cover the trials and imprisonments of Paul before setting sail for Rome to appeal to Caesar. Rather than focusing on the trial scenes, this episode of the podcast for the most part focuses on several statements of theological importance nestled amid the narrative, such as the what the Sadducees denied about angels, whether […]

Naked Bible 57: Acts 22

Jul 12, 2015 40:58


In an earlier episode (#50), we asked whether Paul’s stoning at Lystra in Acts 14 was the backdrop for the heavenly visionary experience he described in 2 Corinthians 12. Did Paul in fact have an NDE? We concluded that the chronology Paul alluded to in 2 Corinthians 12 didn’t align with the Lystra event and […]

Naked Bible 56: Acts 20-21

Jul 4, 2015 44:03


Acts 20-21 describes Paul’s last missionary trip before returning to Jerusalem where he was saved by Roman soldiers from rioting Jews who spotted him in the temple. His deliverance would ultimately result in an appeal to Caesar and subsequent journey to Rome. These two chapters include the story of Eutychus, an incident of surprising importance […]

Naked Bible 55: Dr. Ronn Johnson

Jun 28, 2015 59:36


In this episode Mike chats with his friend and co-conspirator in divine council research, Dr. Ronn Johnson. Ronn and Mike met as undergraduates in Bible college in the early 1980s. Ronn has a PhD in Bible Exposition (Old and New Testament) from Dallas Theological Seminary. His dissertation focused on how the Deuteronomy 32 worldview of […]

Naked Bible 54: Acts 18-19

Jun 20, 2015 1:06:01


Acts 18-19 introduce three people that become part of Paul’s ministry and the storyline of his missionary journeys: Aquila, Priscilla, and Apollos. This episode discusses some of the language in Luke’s description of how the testimonies of people who embraced Jesus outside the ministry of the apostles were authenticated by the laying on of hands […]

Naked Bible 53: Q&A 3

Jun 13, 2015 1:26:26


Our third Question and Answer episode! to support our show go to: patreon.com/nakedbible   Here are the papers referenced in the show: REMNANT-DOTPROPH RESTORATION OF ISRAEL, Remnant-DPL

Naked Bible 52: Acts 16-17

Jun 6, 2015 49:47


In Acts 16 Timothy joins Paul and Silas. In these two chapters there are several items of interest: the Spirit forbids and directs the team, they encounter a “python spirit,” they are supernaturally delivered from prison, and Paul uses some pagan literature to articulate some biblical theology – including some insight into the Deuteronomy 32 […]

Naked Bible 51: Acts 15

May 30, 2015 57:56


Acts 15 is the account of the Jerusalem council, the meeting of the leadership of the church in Jerusalem, along with Paul and Barnabas, to discuss the matter of Gentile acceptance of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Some Jewish believers were of the opinion that to be truly saved, Gentiles had to essentially become Jews—i.e., […]

Naked Bible 50: Acts 14

May 23, 2015 45:52


Acts 14 has several items of interest related to the ancient supernatural worldview of the New Testament writers. This episode will take us into Greco-Roman beliefs about the gods, some Pauline commentary on the Deuteronomy 32 worldview, and the possible context of Lystra for Paul’s mystical experience (NDE?) in 2 Corinthians 12.

Naked Bible 49: Acts 13

May 16, 2015 44:58


Acts 13 marks the transition in the book to the ministry of Paul. That is, Paul and the mission to the Gentile nations becomes the focus, whereas the church in Jerusalem fades into the backdrop. In this episode, we’ll discuss the odd citation of Psalm 2:7 in Acts 13:33, a problem for the idea of […]

Naked Bible 48: Acts 11-12

May 10, 2015 53:53


This episode continues with the expansion of the early church. In the wake of Cornelius’ conversion, early Christians (who are mostly converted Jews or converted Jewish proselytes) are learning that the gospel is meant for Gentiles as well. This episode focuses on why that was news, how the book of Acts continues to telegraph the […]

Naked Bible 47: Acts 10

May 2, 2015 47:34


Acts 10 is the account of Peter’s vision whereby God teaches him that Gentiles are acceptable candidates for the gospel and the first transparently Gentile convert in the book of Acts – the centurion Cornelius. The chapter takes us into Jewish attitudes toward Gentiles and the theological question of whether unbelievers can ever please God. […]

Naked Bible 46: Q&A 2

Apr 25, 2015 1:13:33


Our second Question and Answer episode! Here are the papers referenced in the show: Why use the Septuagint? ANE Pagan Divination Practices Belial-Mastema-Satan-Devil-DNTB LordsDayDLNT

Naked Bible 45: Acts 9

Apr 18, 2015 51:03


Acts 9 marks a transition in the story of the early church – the conversion of Saul, apostle to the Gentiles. That’s the part everyone knows (and it’s important, to say the least). But there are other interesting and noteworthy things going on in the chapter: the multiple references to Damascus (why Damascus?), the vocabulary […]

Naked Bible 44: Acts 8

Apr 10, 2015 41:45


Acts 8 features snippets from the ministries of Peter and Philip. Against the backdrop of Jesus’ words that the disciples would take the gospel to Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and the “uttermost parts of the earth” (Acts 1:8), as well as the messaging of the place names in Acts 2, it is no accident that the […]

Naked Bible 43: Acts 6-7

Apr 4, 2015 49:42


Acts 6-7 are familiar to most Bible students as being about the selection of deacons and Stephen’s martyrdom. For sure those items are important, but there are other items of interest in these chapters that are frequently overlooked. Some of these connect back to the divine council worldview and provide hints as to how the […]

Naked Bible 42: Acts 4-5

Mar 27, 2015 52:52


Acts 4-5 picks up threads discussed in previous podcasts: the “name theology” of biblical theology re-imagined in Jesus, the use of the OT by NT writers to make subtle theological assertions, and the “having all things in common” theme. We’ll discuss these items and draw attention to two new theological trajectories that are often missed: […]

Naked Bible 41: Acts 3

Mar 20, 2015 50:29


There are two focus points in this episode. The first is Acts 3:6, specifically the concept of the “name” and the NT understanding of the term “Christ” (Greek: Christos). Is the term merely an adjective (“anointed”)? Is it a proper name, like a last name? Or is it a title—and if so, who can bear […]

Naked Bible 40: Q&A 1

Mar 14, 2015 45:21


Our first Question and Answer episode! Here is the paper referenced in the show: GOD’S PLAN AND GOD’S POWER: ISAIAH 66 AND THE RESTRAINING FACTORS OF 2 THESS 2:6-7

Naked Bible 39: Acts 2:42-47

Mar 6, 2015 33:08


This passage has been used by scholars and lay folks alike to justify socialism, communism, or some sort of politically utopian society that has the veneer of socialism or communism. This isn’t the case at all. Jesus couldn’t have been clearer when he said, prior to the events of Acts 2, “my kingdom is not […]

Naked Bible 38: Acts 2:22-41

Feb 27, 2015 51:52


This episode will focus on two items of biblical theology that are controversial in biblical study: How the New Testament writers / apostles quoted the Old Testament The meaning of Acts 2:38 Of the two, the second is more familiar to Christians due to denominational debates about baptism. Acts 2:38 needs to be interpreted in […]

Naked Bible 37: Acts 2:1-21

Feb 21, 2015 1:04:17


While this episode covers Acts 2:1-21, the emphasis is on vv. 14-21. The first thirteen verses are only summarized with respect to what they describe and its biblical-theological significance. Listeners are encouraged to watch the video Introducing the Divine Council Worldview (located under “New? Start Here!”). The second half of that video covers Acts 2:1-13, […]

Naked Bible 36: Acts 1:12-26

Feb 14, 2015 41:57


This episode focuses on the decision to replace Judas and restore the number of disciples to 12. There are several issues of interest: What was an apostle? What was the significance of the criteria for choosing the replacement for Judas? What are the OT connections to these criteria? What does the replacement of Judas tell […]

Naked Bible 35: Acts 1:1-11

Feb 5, 2015 40:52


Most Bible students would say this passage is about the ascension of Jesus to heaven. For sure that’s described, but the passage directs our attention to several points of biblical theology that are simultaneously tied to the OT and look forward to the events of Pentecost described in Acts 2. In other words, Luke isn’t […]

Naked Bible 34: Version 2.0

Jan 31, 2015 42:55


In this episode we welcome back the show and get to know the host.

Naked Bible 033: Studying the Original Languages of the Bible: Word Study Techniques, Part 2

Jan 22, 2015 20:49


Episode 33 continues our series on Bible study at the word level. Last time we talked about word usage as it pertains to usage by a single biblical author within the scope of that author’s writings.  Our launching point was the lemma behind “unmarried” in 1 Cor 7. The lemma was used only four times […]

Naked Bible 032: Studying the Original Languages of the Bible: Word Study Techniques, Part 1

Jan 22, 2015 26:31


Today we’re continuing with our series on Bible study at the word level. Last time we talked about exegetical fallacies that arise from flawed word study methods. In this episode, I want to transition to some important elements that go into word study. Today we’ll primarily be focused on examining a word as it’s used […]

Naked Bible 031: Studying the Original Languages of the Bible: Exegetical Fallacies

Jan 22, 2015 19:54


This episode continues the series on studying the Bible at the word level. The episode utilizes the audio of a short screen capture video (click to download) that Dr. Heiser created to illustrate a range of exegetical fallacies that amateur researchers frequently commit when doing Greek and Hebrew word studies. For those to whom the term is […]

Naked Bible 030: Studying the Original Languages of the Bible: Introduction to Word Meaning

Jan 22, 2015 22:51


In this episode, the series on taking Bible study seriously transitions to word level research by overviewing some directions we’ll take as we think about studying biblical words.

Naked Bible 029: The Bible’s Literary Context: Prophecy and Apocalyptic

Jan 22, 2015 14:35


In this episode, we’re going to talk about two genres: prophecy and apocalyptic. The reason for doubling up will become apparent as we proceed, but basically we need to talk about these two genres because most modern Bible students don’t realize there are clear differences between the two. That is, most people assume that “prophecy” […]

Naked Bible 028: The Bible’s Literary Context: The Comedic Genre and the New Testament

Jan 22, 2015 20:56


This episode of the Naked Bible podcast features Dr. Heiser’s interview with his friend Dr. Sam Lamerson about the use of the comedic genre in the New Testament. Dr. Lamerson is Professor of New Testament at Knox Theological Seminary in Fort Lauderdale, FL. He has a specific research interest in the comedic genre in ancient Greek […]

Naked Bible 027: The Bible’s Literary Context: What is a Proverb?

Jan 22, 2015 12:23


In the last podcast episode we continued our series on studying the Bible in light of its various types of literature – its literary genres. We looked at parables and offered some guidelines for interpreting them. In this episode, we’re going to briefly look at another familiar type of biblical literature that is at times […]

Naked Bible 026: The Bible’s Literary Context: Parables

Jan 22, 2015 14:34


In the last podcast episode we continued our series on studying the Bible in light of its various types of literature – its literary genres. We looked at an example related to the New Testament – how the literary features of Greco-Roman phantom tales and “post-mortem appearances” of the dead inform our reading of NT […]

Naked Bible 025: The Bible’s Literary Context: Greco-Roman Ghost Stories and the Gospels

Jan 22, 2015 13:40


In the last podcast episode we continued our series on studying the Bible in light of its various types of literature – its literary genres. We’re going to continue that effort in this episode and shift gears into the New Testament. I want to look today at two familiar episodes in the life of Jesus: […]

Naked Bible 024: The Bible’s Literary Context: The Military-Historical Annal Genre

Jan 22, 2015 18:05


In the last podcast episode we continued our series on studying the Bible in a way that amounts to more than reading by taking a look at the legal genre in Old Testament books. Today we’re focusing on another genre – military annals. I think the best way of illustrating how this genre can matter […]

Naked Bible 023: The Bible’s Literary Context: The Legal Genre

Jan 22, 2015 15:55


In the last episode of our series on studying the Bible, we transitioned to an important area of study: learning to read the Bible in terms of the various types of literature found in its pages. Our first example concerned reading narrative, where I recommended reading biblical stories like fiction — like you would read a […]

Naked Bible 022: Introducing Genres and Reading Bible Stories Like Fiction

Jan 22, 2015 23:33


In the past few episodes of the podcast series on learning how to really study your Bible, I’ve focused on the issue of how critical it is to take the Bible in its own context, not a context that is familiar to us, like modern evangelicalism or the Reformation. I want to transition now to […]

Naked Bible 021: Taking the Bible’s Own Context Seriously, Part 6: Books for 2nd Temple & NT Study

Jan 22, 2015 25:56


In the last podcast, I recommended the best books and reference sources for understanding the religion and culture of the ANE for OT study. This episode wraps up my overview of taking the Bible’s own context seriously by immersing oneself into the intellectual worldview of the biblical writers by taking a look at books dealing […]

Naked Bible 020: Taking the Bible’s Own Context Seriously, Part 5: Books for ANE and OT Study

Jan 22, 2015 23:37


We’ve talked in previous episodes about how the best way to understood the original context of the biblical writers is to immerse yourself in the worldview of the civilizations with which the biblical writers had regular contact.  We’ve already spent several episodes on my recommendations for accessing the texts of the ancient Near East and […]

Naked Bible 019: Taking the Bible’s Own Context Seriously, Part 4: 2nd Temple Texts in Translation

Jan 22, 2015 24:24


The series on Bible study continues with the emphasis on interpreting the Bible in its own context. The context we’re discussing is the world of the ancient Near East (with respect to the OT) and the Second Temple period with respect to the NT. Interpreting the Bible in these contexts means thinking like a person […]

Naked Bible 018: Taking the Bible’s Own Context Seriously, Part 3: ANE Texts in Translation

Jan 22, 2015 18:24


The last episode of the podcast dealt with the need to tap into the intellectual output of the ancient Mediterranean world — the Bible’s own context – in order to start thinking the thoughts of the biblical writers. This episode takes this recommendation further by directing listeners to the best volumes and websites for English […]

Naked Bible 017: Taking the Bible’s Own Context Seriously

Jan 22, 2015 28:26


In this second episode of the series on Bible study, Dr. Heiser discusses what interpreting the Bible “in context” really means — taking the Bible’s own primitive context seriously. Rather than filter the Bible through creeds dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, or even the period of early Christianity, the Bible’s actual context is […]

Naked Bible 016: Heiser’s Laws for Bible Study: Learning to Study the Bible, Part 1

Jan 22, 2015 16:54


This episode begins a series on learning how to engage the biblical text in ways that take you beyond merely reading the Bible. Dr. Heiser overviews a popular Naked Bible blog post (“Heiser’s Laws for Bible Study“) as an introduction.  You don’t have to be a scholar to learn to engage the biblical text and […]

Naked Bible 015: The Lord’s Supper and 1 Corinthians 8-11, Part 2

Jan 21, 2015 18:16


This episode builds on the previous one, where Dr. Heiser discussed the context of Paul’s teachings on the Lord’s Supper in 1 Corinthians 11 — namely, the three chapters prior, 1 Corinthians 8-10. Those chapters show Paul laying out the “fellowship context” of the Lord’s Supper, that Paul wants believers to know that they “partake” […]

Naked Bible 014: The Lord’s Supper and 1 Corinthians 8-11, Part 1

Jan 21, 2015 17:48


This episode transitions the discussion of a biblical theology of the Lord’s Supper to the primary passage in the New Testament on the topic: 1 Corinthians 11. The episode focuses on the context of 1 Corinthians 8-10 for informing what Paul says about the Lord’s Supper in chapter 11. The “fellowship context” of the Lord’s […]

Naked Bible 013: The Lord’s Supper and the Gospels, Part 2

Jan 21, 2015 12:12


Today’s episode continues the problem of John 6, the “bread of life” passage. We explore the rest of the passage, drawing attention to two items: that the second half of the passage needs to be interpreted in light of the first half, and that John 6 is not an account of the Last Supper, which […]

Naked Bible 012: The Lord’s Supper and the Gospels, Part 1

Jan 21, 2015 14:54


When I introduced this topic and series, I said that I’m convinced that this doctrine is one of the least critically examined of all biblical doctrines. This episode gets us into some territory that illustrates the pervasive influence of assumptions about this topic. Anyone who has studied the doctrine knows that it is linked to […]

Naked Bible 011: Introducing the Lord’s Supper Series

Jan 21, 2015 9:39


Today we begin a new topic, and with it a short series on a doctrine that most listeners will have heard of or experienced firsthand. I think it would be difficult to find anyone who has spent any time in a Christian church of any denomination who has not heard of the Lord’s Supper, also […]

Naked Bible 010: Baptism & Problem Passages: Acts 2:38

Jan 21, 2015 11:42


Our next problem passage related to baptism is Acts 2:38. The interpretation of this passage involves the Greek preposition eis as well as the overall context of the book of Acts when it comes to repentance and baptism.

Naked Bible 009: Baptism & Problem Passages: Acts 22:16

Jan 21, 2015 13:19


Acts 22:16 is a passage that often provokes debate due to its apparent connection between baptism and “washing away” of sins. But that idea is connected to other phrases in succession in the passage. How should Acts 22:16 be interpreted amid these other phrases and the verbal actions described? This episode takes listeners into some […]

Naked Bible 008: Baptism & Problem Passages: 1 Peter 3:14-22

Jan 21, 2015 13:49


1 Peter 3:14-22 is an odd, controversial passage since it amalgamates, baptism, salvation, Noah, the ark, and Jesus’ descent to preach to spirits in the Underworld. The key to understanding the passage is to recognize that Peter embraces the worldview of non-canonical Jewish literature like 1 Enoch and seems an analogy between the events of […]

Naked Bible 007: The Mode of Baptism and the Biblical Text

Jan 21, 2015 16:25


How should baptism be done — immersion, sprinkling, or pouring — and can we gain any clarity about this from the biblical text? This episode of the Naked Bible focuses on the mode of baptism, focusing on the Greek word baptizo, frequently translated “baptize” in the New Testament. Is the meaning of this word sufficiently […]

Naked Bible 006: Applying the Baptism – Circumcision Theology to Adult or Believer’s Baptism

Jan 21, 2015 8:06


Getting the Baptism-Circumcision Relationship Right: Adult and Believer’s Baptism In the previous episode,  we talked about how to articulate a biblically defensible doctrine of infant baptism, one that avoids the theological problems created when one fails to say only about baptism what one can say about circumcision. Getting that relationship right also helps us talk […]

Naked Bible 005: Baptism, Circumcision, and Biblical Theology

Jan 21, 2015 10:38


Getting the Baptism-Circumcision Relationship Right In the last few episodes, we saw how some of Christianity’s historic creeds made statements about baptism (particularly infant baptism) that muddles an otherwise clear gospel presentation. The problem is a failure to say only about baptism what one can say about circumcision. Getting that relationship right is the key […]

Naked Bible 004: Baptism: Contradictions in Creeds Part 3

Jan 21, 2015 13:36


Contradictions over baptism and salvation in creeds, continued (Part 3). In the previous episode, we saw how the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechisms offered muddled, contradictory statements on salvation by grace through faith and what happens at baptism. This episode details more of the same, this time in the Westminster Confession.

Naked Bible 003: Baptism: Contradictions in Creeds Part 2

Jan 21, 2015 18:44


Contradictions over baptism and salvation in creeds, continued (Part 2). In the previous episode, we saw how the Belgic Confession was, in places, clear on its articulation of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith alone. And yet when it discussed baptism, these ideas were muddled, creating theological confusion. This episode details more of […]

Naked Bible 002: Baptism: Contradictions in Creeds Part 1

Jan 21, 2015 11:37


In the first podcast episode on baptism, I made the comment that many well-known Christian creeds are internally contradictory when it comes to articulating the clear gospel (salvation by faith in Christ apart from any work or merit of our own) and baptism. That might seem hard to swallow, but it’s true. In this episode, […]

Naked Bible 001: Baptism: What You Know May Not Be So

Jan 21, 2015 12:30


Inaugural Episode: Introducing the series on understanding and misunderstanding baptism. Everyone knows about baptism, right? What’s there to think about? Turns out quite a lot. Christian traditions all have positions on baptism, but it is rare to find a coherent articulation of the topic that doesn’t create theological dilemmas with other points of doctrine. Don’t […]