Nourish Balance Thrive

Nourish Balance Thrive

Nourish Balance Thrive


The Nourish Balance Thrive podcast is designed to help you perform better. Christopher Kelly, your host, is co-founder of Nourish Balance Thrive, an online clinic using advanced biochemical testing to optimize performance in athletes. On the podcast, Chris interviews leading minds in medicine, nutrition and health, as well as world-class athletes and members of the NBT team, to give you up-to-date information on the lifestyle changes and personalized techniques being used to make people go faster – from weekend warriors to Olympians and world champions.





NBT People: Tim Harsch

Nov 15, 2019


Tim Harsch is the CEO and Co-Founder of Owler, a business insights company based in San Mateo, California. He’s a lifelong athlete, having played soccer, lacrosse and rugby in his younger years and more recently competing in triathlons. He also has type 1 diabetes (T1D), diagnosed at the relatively late age of 17. We’ve had the pleasure of working with Tim over the past year as a member of our Elite Performance Program.

On this podcast, Tim talks about the tools he uses to manage his diabetes, including a low-carb diet and a continuous glucose monitor. He also discusses the benefits he’s found in working with the NBT team, including weight loss, strength gains, and improved sleep and stress management. He describes the dietary changes that have helped him the most over the last year and his best advice for others living with T1D.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tim Harsch:

[00:00:32] Cal Newport; Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:01:13] Owler.

[00:04:02] Y Combinator.

[00:07:31] Coping with stress; Stress audit.

[00:09:18] Sleep, exercise, eating, drinking, stress management (SEEDS) method; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:10:31] SEEDS Journal.

[00:10:43] Diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) at age 17.

[00:17:46] Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM).

[00:19:44] Estimation of RBC lifespan from the reticulocyte count: RBC survival (days) = 100/[Reticulocytes (percent) / RLS (days)], where RLS = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 days at hematocrits of 45, 35, 25, and 15 percent, respectively. 

[00:22:43] Previous podcasts featuring guests with T1D: 1. How to Achieve Near-Normal Blood Sugar with Type 1 Diabetes with Keith Runyan, MD; 2. NBT People: Will Catterson.

[00:23:46] Managing carbohydrates with T1D.

[00:24:59] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:27:22] Reasons for rejecting the insulin pump.

[00:30:37] Dexcom G6 CGM.

[00:31:35] Factors affecting insulin sensitivity.

[00:32:56] NBT’s Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore, CSCS; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching, with Zach Moore.

[00:35:03] Building a strength-based exercise regimen.

[00:36:30] Bro Research Radio - podcast of Ben House, PhD. Ben’s appearances on NBT’s podcast: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, and Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[00:39:09] NBT Coach Clay Higgins; Podcast: NBT People: Clay Higgins.

[00:40:50] Fixing the gut: Ditching the bulletproof coffee, avoiding dairy.

[00:48:48] Type 1 Diabetes group on Facebook.

[00:48:49] Diabetes resources: diaTribe; Book: Bright Spots & Landmines: The Diabetes Guide I Wish Someone Had Handed Me, by Adam Brown.

[00:49:21] Find Tim on LinkedIn, at Owler, or contact him by email.

Ancient Psychedelic Plant Medicine for Modern Healing

Nov 8, 2019


Daniel Cortez is a Primal Health and Movement Coach, Wim Hof Master Instructor, and Psychedelic Integration Specialist. After tirelessly seeking answers to overcome his own 15-year health struggle, he now guides others along the same path. From his home in Cusco, Peru, he coaches and leads retreats using the power of breath, movement, cold, and plant medicines. 

On this podcast, Daniel shares his personal story of chronic pain and cognitive dysfunction, and the events surrounding his whole-body transformation. He discusses the power of evolutionary science, modern psychology, and ancestral wisdom for restoring health, and describes how psychedelic plants play a critical role in healing.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Daniel Cortez:

[00:01:14] Daniel's health journey.

[00:03:48] Wim Hof.

[00:04:04] Chris Kresser.

[00:04:15] CIRS Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; Ritchie Shoemaker, MD.

[00:04:56] Buck Institute for Research on Aging; Dale Bredesen, MD.

[00:06:03] Cholestyramine for mold; Podcast: NBT People: Mark Alexander.

[00:06:31] Mycometrics testing.

[00:10:34] Lucy Mailing; Podcast: How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome, with Lucy Mailing.

[00:10:46] Dr. Michael Rose; Interview on Dan Pardi's podcast: Is the Paleo Diet Good or Bad for Aging? Podcast with Professor Michael Rose.

[00:11:23] Trader Joe's Paleo.

[00:13:18] Bruce Parry’s documentary on the Matis.

[00:17:10] Psychedelics for altered states.

[00:19:27] Microdosing LSD increases neuroticism; Study: Polito, Vince, and Richard J. Stevenson. "A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics." PloS one 14.2 (2019): e0211023.

[00:19:45] Researcher James Fadiman; Interview on the Tim Ferriss podcast; Book: The Psychedelic Explorer's Guide.

 [00:21:08] Jessica Bertram.

[00:23:04] Book: Keep the River on Your Right, by Tobias Schneebaum.

[00:24:07] Ayahuasca.

[00:27:30] Plants and animals are indistinguishable by some criteria; Diana Rodgers, RD interviews Andrew Smith on the Sustainable Dish Podcast.

[00:31:08] Books by Russ Harris: The Happiness Trap and The Confidence Gap, plus his training courses.

[00:39:38] Stephanie Welch; Podcast: The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World.

[00:44:12] Mircea Eliade.

[00:45:00] Separation from the identity of having an illness.

[00:48:35] Sam Harris; Waking Up app.

[00:50:36] San Pedro cactus.

[00:54:25] Movement coach Ido Portal; Book: The Sports Gene, by David Epstein.

[00:55:31] John Ratey, MD; neuroplasticity through movement.

[00:56:14] A Book of Five Rings, by Miyamoto Musashi.

[00:59:14] Book: 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, by Jordan Peterson.

[01:04:00] Are psychedelics necessary?

[01:05:10] Carl Jung; Collective unconscious.

[01:17:32] Ben House, PhD; Flo Retreat Center; Podcasts with Ben: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, and Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[01:23:06] Find Daniel on his website, Facebook and Instagram.

CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype?

Nov 1, 2019


At the 2019 Ancestral Health Symposium, I managed to catch up with metabolism and fitness expert Mike T. Nelson, PhD. Mike was there presenting on a subject that many in the health space find both intriguing and confusing: cannabinoids and CBD. Really, who amongst us hasn’t wondered if using CBD will get us in hot water at the next work-related drug screening? And is it even legal?

On this podcast, Mike demystifies the terms bantered about when it comes to the cannabis plant.  What exactly is the difference between hemp, THC, and CBD anyway? He cuts through the marketing hype and talks about the specific health conditions that respond best to cannabidiol (CBD). He also shares exactly how he uses it to prevent brain injury during extreme sports.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mike T. Nelson:

[00:00:11] Mike’s Ancestral Health Symposium 2019 talk: Mike Nelson - CBD and Cannabinoids: Beneficial Plant Compounds or All Hype? - AHS19.

[00:02:30] Charlotte's Web cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:03:33] FDA warning letters to CBD companies.

[00:03:43] Mislabeled CBD products (low CBD, high THC); Study: Freedman, Daniel A., and Anup D. Patel. "Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products." Pediatric neurology briefs 32 (2018): 3-3.

[00:04:06] Getting terms straight: Cannabis, hemp, CBD, THC, marijuana, and others.

[00:04:30] Cannabis found in 2700 year old grave in ancient China. Study: Russo, Ethan B., et al. "Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia." Journal of experimental botany 59.15 (2008): 4171-4182.

[00:09:40] Leonhart Fuchs cultivated cannabis sativa in 1542.

[00:09:52] Difficulty in differentiating between Sativa, Indica, and hybrid strains; Study: Schwabe, Anna L., and Mitchell E. McGlaughlin. "Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: Implications for a budding industry." Journal of Cannabis Research 1.1 (2019): 3.

[00:13:20] Entourage effect; Study: Ben-Shabat, Shimon, et al. "An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid glycerol esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity." European journal of pharmacology 353.1 (1998): 23-31.

[00:15:36] THC use associated with survival after traumatic brain injury (TBI); Nguyen, Brian M., et al. "Effect of marijuana use on outcomes in traumatic brain injury." The American Surgeon 80.10 (2014): 979-983.

[00:16:48] Animal studies support the use of cannabinoids for TBI: Maroon, Joseph, and Jeff Bost. "Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids." Surgical neurology international 9 (2018).

[00:17:55] CBD has a cerebroprotective effect; Study: Khaksar, Sepideh, and Mohammad Reza Bigdeli. "Intra-cerebral cannabidiol infusion-induced neuroprotection is partly associated with the TNF-α/TNFR1/NF-кB pathway in transient focal cerebral ischaemia." Brain injury 31.13-14 (2017): 1932-1943.

[00:19:11] Mike's pre-kiteboarding supplement regimen; Cerebroprotective effects of creatine; Study: Sullivan, Patrick G., et al. "Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury." Annals of neurology 48.5 (2000): 723-729.

[00:21:46] Pros and cons of CBD use. Safety: 1. Ahmed, Amir IA, et al. "Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: a randomized controlled trial." European Neuropsychopharmacology 24.9 (2014): 1475-1482; 2. van den Elsen, Geke AH, et al. "Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review." Ageing research reviews 14 (2014): 56-64.

[00:23:36] Cost of 300mg of Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil per day = $7.50/day.

[00:25:06] Rescuing energy metabolism in the brain; Podcast: The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers, with Brianna Stubbs, PhD.

[00:29:08] Effects of cannabidiol on cortisol; Study: Zuardi, A. W., F. S. Guimaraes, and A. C. Moreira. "Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers." Brazilian journal of medical and biological research= Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas 26.2 (1993): 213-217.

[00:31:19] CBD and sleep; Review of clinical trials: Kuhathasan, Nirushi, et al. "The use of cannabinoids for sleep: A critical review on clinical trials." Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology (2019).

[00:33:04] Top 3 potential uses for CBD: Sleep, head trauma, pain.

[00:35:10] THC and CBD for pain.

[00:37:01] Grasshopper for vaping tools. 

[00:37:28] CBD oils.

[00:38:03] Vaping less harmful than cigarettes; Studies: 1. McNeill, Ann, et al. "Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018." A report commissioned by Public Health England. London: Public Health England 6 (2018), 2. Walele, Tanvir, et al. "Evaluation of the safety profile of an electronic vapour product used for two years by smokers in a real-life setting." Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 92 (2018): 226-238.

[00:40:30] CBD in beverages.

[00:42:26] Will CBD get you busted at work? THC amount might be much higher than the label indicates; Study: Freedman, Daniel A., and Anup D. Patel. "Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products." Pediatric neurology briefs 32 (2018): 3-3.

[00:47:03] CBD as an ergogenic aid. Review: Jorm, Anthony F., et al. "Gender differences in cognitive abilities: The mediating role of health state and health habits." Intelligence 32.1 (2004): 7-23.

[00:48:13] State-dependent memory.

[00:50:11] Work with Mike: Flex Diet Certification.

Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top

Oct 25, 2019


Kirk Parsley, MD, inventor of Sleep Remedy, has been a member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine since 2006 and has served as Naval Special Warfare’s expert on Sleep Medicine. A retired Navy SEAL, he is currently a performance consultant, helping others to achieve the highest quality of life possible while realizing their health, performance, and longevity goals.

In this interview, Greg Potter, PhD talks with Dr. Parsley about the critical role sleep plays in cognitive, emotional, and physical health. They discuss the best supplements to help with sleep and some good reasons to avoid pharmaceutical sleeping pills. “Doc” Parsley shares why he recently reformulated Sleep Remedy to be even more effective, not just for falling asleep but also staying asleep at night.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kirk Parsley:

[00:00:08] Greg Potter’s previous podcasts: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health and Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes.

[00:00:28] Doc Parsley's previous podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:01:30] Book: Sleep To Win: How Navy SEALs and Other High Performers Stay on Top, by Kirk Parsley.

[00:02:25] Sleep and the endocrine system.

[00:02:44] Karen R. Kelly, PhD; Research with Navy SEALs.

[00:05:36] Who should take supplements to improve sleep.

[00:10:06] History behind Sleep Remedy; the rationale for changing the formulation.

[00:20:21] Over the counter Melatonin can vary range from -83% to +478% of the labeled content. Study: Erland, Lauren AE, and Praveen K. Saxena. "Melatonin natural health products and supplements: presence of serotonin and significant variability of melatonin content." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13.02 (2017): 275-281.

[00:30:54] High doses of melatonin, chronically, could decrease receptor density.

[00:33:15] Sleep maintenance insomnia; Circadin (time release melatonin).

[00:33:36] Who benefits from Sleep Remedy?

[00:33:55] Sleeping pill use associated with earlier death; Study: Kripke, Daniel F. "Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit." F1000Research 5 (2016).

[00:34:30] The World Health Organization: Shift work is a type 2A carcinogen.

[00:36:53] Robb Wolf’s risk assessment program in Reno, NV: Part 1, Part 2.

[00:38:53] Phosphatidylserine decreases adrenal hormones during intensive exercises; Studies: 1. Monteleone, Palmiero, et al. "Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men." European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 42.4 (1992): 385-388. 2. Starks, Michael A., et al. "The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 5.1 (2008): 11.

[00:43:40] Using Sleep Remedy during jet lag.

[00:46:56] Jet Lag Rooster; Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:50:28] Magnesium: involvement in regulating sleep and wakefulness.

[00:51:25] Magtein (magnesium L-threonate).

[00:53:50] L-theanine and GABA.

[00:58:00] Tracking sleep; Oura Ring, Whoop strap, Garmin watches.

[01:00:01] Blood testing to measure effects of improved sleep.

[01:01:12] Lumosity for neurocognitive testing.

[01:01:44] Sleep deprivation reduces Emotional Quotient (EQ); Studies: Van Der Helm, Els, Ninad Gujar, and Matthew P. Walker. "Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human emotions." Sleep 33.3 (2010): 335-342; 2. Nota, Jacob A., and Meredith E. Coles. "Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep onset latency are related to difficulty disengaging attention from negative emotional images in individuals with elevated transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking." Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry 58 (2018): 114-122; 3. Killgore, William DS, et al. "Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills." Sleep medicine 9.5 (2008): 517-526.

[01:03:02] Sleep deprivations causes contagious social withdrawal and loneliness; Study: Simon, Eti Ben, and Matthew P. Walker. "Sleep loss causes social withdrawal and loneliness." Nature communications 9.1 (2018): 3146.

[01:03:30] Effects of sleep deprivation on couples: Troxel, Wendy M. "It’s more than sex: Exploring the dyadic nature of sleep and implications for health." Psychosomatic medicine 72.6 (2010): 578.

[01:04:38] Start School Later: organization advocating for later school start times for adolescents. Many studies indicating teens aren’t getting enough sleep.

[01:06:37] Kirk’s TEDx Talk: America's biggest problem | Kirk Parsley | TEDxReno.

[01:06:52] Peptides. Epitalon synthetic peptide.

[01:16:00] Sleep enhancing tips.

[01:20:50] Bed rocking improves deep sleep and memory; Study: Perrault, Aurore A., et al. "Whole-night continuous rocking entrains spontaneous neural oscillations with benefits for sleep and memory." Current Biology 29.3 (2019): 402-411.

[01:22:36] Doc Parsley’s website.

How to Win at Angry Birds: The Ancestral Paradigm for a Therapeutic Revolution

Oct 18, 2019


Our resident neurologist and banjo afficionado Josh Turknett, MD is back on the podcast with me to talk about the premise behind his Ancestral Health Symposium 2019 talk, How to Win at Angry Birds. It’s a paradigm for how best to approach health and performance and has far-reaching implications that will help you simplify efforts to optimise your health. 

In this interview, Josh talks about his 4-quadrant model, a detector for finding a signal in the health noise. In an age where specialization and technology have become the norm and the next health trend is around the corner, it’s easy for the big picture to be obscured. Josh offers a model for prioritising interventions that will give you the greatest benefit with the least disruption. 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:44] Josh's 2019 AHS talk: How To Win At Angry Birds: The Ancestral Therapeutic Paradigm.

[00:00:57] Few significant advances in medical therapeutics.

[00:04:05] The parable of Angry Birds: Team Game Level vs. Team Source Code.

[00:09:35] Four-quadrant model. (Here’s my version of Josh’s talk - go to minute 11:34 for a visual of the 4-quadrant model.)

[00:12:49] First quadrant: Game-level supportive interventions (e.g., sleep, diet).

[00:14:09] Second quadrant: Game-level interventions that are exploitative or disruptive (extreme heat/cold, HIIT, mindfulness).

[00:15:16] Third quadrant: Source code level interventions that are supportive in nature (e.g., taking a supplement to correct a deficiency).

[00:16:45] Fourth quadrant - Source-code level interventions that are disruptive (e.g., pharmaceuticals).

[00:25:52] Learning to play anything: feedback loop.

[00:27:19] Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: 1. Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) 2. A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:28:43] Book: First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began, by David W. Deamer.

[00:31:40] Dale Bredesen.

[00:31:53] Book: The Four Tendencies, by Gretchen Rubin.

[00:32:36] The Intelligence Unshackled Podcast.

[00:34:44] First Do No Harm approach to education.

[00:35:34] Josh's on Patreon;

[00:36:38] The Migraine Miracle website; Josh’s previous podcast appearance: The Migraine Miracle.

NBT People: Integrative Oncologist Stacy D’Andre, MD

Oct 11, 2019


Stacy D’Andre, MD is a board-certified internal medicine specialist and oncologist who sees patients at Sutter Health in Northern California. She is also a Principal Investigator for National Cancer Institute-sponsored oncology group clinical trials and studies supported by the Sutter Institute for Medical Research. She has authored numerous publications, book chapters, and abstracts on emerging treatment options for gynecologic and GI cancers. She has also been an NBT client for the last two years.

In this interview, Stacy and I talk about her recent switch to an integrative medicine approach to cancer treatment. She describes some of the progressive cancer therapies she uses in her practice, including lifestyle change, cannabis, and turkey tail mushrooms. She also shares several case studies in which integrative treatment strategies made the difference for her patients.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stacy D’Andre:

[00:00:53] Background as an ice skater.

[00:06:06] Health problems: Keto diet, thyroid problems.

[00:10:00] Gut problems.

[00:10:23] Book: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less, by Greg KcKeown.

[00:10:43] The Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM).

[00:15:00] Book: Payoff: The Hidden Logic that Shapes Our Motivations, by Dan Ariely.

[00:18:05] Answers to, “Why do you think you got cancer?”

[00:19:19] Sutter Health.

[00:20:05] People with high fiber diet 5x more likely to respond to immunotherapy, while those taking probiotics do worse: Study: Spencer, Christine N., et al. "The gut microbiome (GM) and immunotherapy response are influenced by host lifestyle factors." (2019): 2838-2838.

[00:24:02] Calm; Headspace.

[00:24:49] Dealing with stress at the source vs at the target.

[00:27:03] Cannabis; Marinol.

[00:28:05] Synthetic vs natural cannabis.

[00:29:21] Chemovar profile (“strain” of cannabis) is critical for treating specific types of cancer. Study: Russo, Ethan Budd. "The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain." Frontiers in plant science 9 (2018): 1969.

[00:29:50] Cannabinoids effective in glioblastoma multiforme; Study: Twelves, Chris, et al. "A two-part safety and exploratory efficacy randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a 1: 1 ratio of the cannabinoids cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD: THC) plus dose-intense temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)." (2017): 2046-2046.

[00:31:29] Epidiolex, a high-CBD strain for the treatment of seizures in childhood epilepsy.

[00:34:22] THC vs. Cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:35:13] Terpenes - some are sedating, some are activating.

[00:35:34] Pinene - activating.

[00:36:41] Case study #1 - male with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

[00:38:43] Patient #1 - Slides (graph is on page 23).

[00:39:36] Metformin; HumanOS podcast: Does Metformin Block the Health Benefits of Exercise? Podcast with Ben Miller.

[00:40:28] Turkey Tail mushrooms improve natural killer cell function. Study: Torkelson, Carolyn J., et al. "Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor in women with breast cancer." ISRN oncology 2012 (2012).

[00:41:04] Real Mushrooms.

[00:42:03] Book: Radical Remission: Surviving Cancer Against All Odds, by Kelly A. Turner, PhD.

[00:42:25] Meaning vs purpose.

[00:43:22] Book: The Power of Now, by Eckhart Tolle.

[00:44:23] Case study #2: Female with triple-negative breast cancer.

[00:45:36] Elevated bilirubin: Gilbert's syndrome; nutritional treatments.

[00:47:51] Hormetea.

[00:49:00] Case study #3: female with breast cancer.

[00:51:04] Case study #4: 75-year old female with breast cancer.

[00:51:59] Neuropathy and high B6; CBD for peripheral neuropathy.

[00:54:26] Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) test to assess for B12 deficiency.

[00:55:13] Case study #5: 59-year old female with recurrent uterine cancer.

[00:59:15] Anti-cancer properties of green tea and curcumin.

[01:02:08] Preventing cancer: diet, water, exercise, manage stress, sleep.

[01:02:57] Contaminants in drinking water as a contributor to cancer. Study: Evans, Sydney, Chris Campbell, and Olga V. Naidenko. "Cumulative risk analysis of carcinogenic contaminants in United States drinking water." Heliyon 5.9 (2019): e02314.

[01:03:31] Book: Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, by Robert Sapolsky.

[01:04:39] Integrative medicine training courses for doctors: IFM, Andrew Weil Center for Integrative Medicine, American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M).

[01:05:49] Working within the existing health system.

[01:10:43] Work with Stacy at Sutter Health.

[01:11:48] Find a doctor: Society for Integrative Oncology; IFM practitioner database.

[01:12:56] Upcoming speaking engagements: (email Stacy for evites):

Integrative Oncology - Sacramento (10/19/19) Intro to Medical Cannabis - Nevada City (11/14/19) “Mini Med School” series - Mills Peninsula (2/13/20)

Food Lies and the Diet for Peak Human Performance

Oct 4, 2019


Brian Sanders is the filmmaker behind the documentary, Food Lies, and the host of the Peak Human Podcast. Brian’s background is in mechanical engineering and technology, and he’s driven to help others reverse chronic disease using ancestral health and wellness principles. Brian has recently partnered with a physician as a health coach and is building technology to help people communicate with their doctors, track their health, and implement a healthy diet. 

In this podcast, Brian and I talk about his film, which touts the benefits of a nutrient-dense whole food diet and debunks myths about eating meat and saturated fat. We discuss the many aspects of his ancestral-health outreach, including his Nose to Tail farm that ships 100% grass-fed meat and the SAPIEN diet plan he makes freely available to everyone.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brian Sanders:

[00:00:19] Documentary: Food Lies (still being crowdfunded).

[00:00:28] Brian's background; family health problems.

[00:02:17] Mark Sisson.

[00:03:21] Documentary: What the Health.

[00:03:55] Food in Hawaii.

[00:05:48] Weston A Price.

[00:11:03] Veganism in LA.

[00:12:48] Vinnie Tortorich; FAT: A Documentary.

[00:15:26] Carnivore vs vegan as a business model.

[00:16:45] SAPIEN Diet.

[00:20:38] Denise Minger; Kitavans, Tsimane in Bolivia.

[00:24:30] Calories do matter.

[00:26:35] Ted Naiman.

[00:26:59] Amber O'Hearn; Podcast: A Carnivore Diet for Physical and Mental Health.

[00:27:09] Bioavailability of zinc from oysters when eating corn tortillas and beans: Solomons, Noel W., et al. "Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man. II. Absorption of zinc from organic and inorganic sources." Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine (1979).

[00:31:35] Paul Saladino.

[00:32:15] Book: The Good Gut: Taking Control of your Weight, Your mood, and Your Long-Term Health, by Justin Sonnenburg.

[00:32:49] Gary Taubes.

[00:33:07] Bill Lagakos on animal fibre.  Podcast with Bill: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:34:59] Top priority: Get yourself fat adapted.

[00:36:54] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: 1. High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea…, 2. The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, 3. How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[00:41:00] Dr. Gary Shlifer

[00:41:25] Virta Health.

[00:42:48] Nose to Tail; US Wellness Meats.

[00:44:48] Dr. Frank Mitloehner.

[00:45:29] Diana Rodgers, RD, Sacred Cow film; Podcast with Diana Rodgers: Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat.

[00:45:45] Savory Institute; Robb Wolf on sustainable meat farming.

[00:45:55] Book: War on Carbs, by Mark Bell.

[00:48:45] Peak Human Podcast guests: Prof. Tim Noakes, Jeff Volek, Mark Sisson, Paul Saladino. USDA scientist Dr. David Klurfeld.

EMFs: Why You Should Care and What to Do

Sep 26, 2019


Nick Pineault is an investigative health journalist specializing in electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and their effects on human health.  His mission is to spread awareness about the potential dangers of wireless technologies and work with industry and governments to find safe solutions. He has recently authored a book called The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs and has developed a training course for health professionals and optimisers on how to dramatically reduce exposure and symptoms related to EMF radiation.

In this interview, Nick gives practical advice for mitigating exposure to EMFs without giving up the convenience of electronic devices. He shares simple adjustments you can make to keep EMFs from interfering with your sleep and your health and recommends specific tools and devices for managing, measuring and blocking unwanted radiation.  Be sure to download this episode and put your device on Airplane Mode while you listen! 

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nick Pineault:

[00:00:12] Nick’s book: The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs: How to Fix Our Stupid Use of Technology; Training course: Electrosmog RX: The EMF Health Solution.

[00:00:18] Podcast: Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs): The Controversy, the Science, and How to Protect Yourself, with Dr. Joseph Mercola.

[00:00:33] Electromagnetic Fields (EMF): Definition and controversy.

[00:04:52] Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt, MD, PhD, Dr. Dan Pompa, Dr. Zach Bush, MD.

[00:06:52] Dr. Martin Pall, PhD; Dr. Paul Héroux, PhD.

[00:08:04] Dr. Magda Havas, PhD. Dr. Joel Moskowitz, PhD.  

[00:08:45] The EMF Scientist Appeal to the United Nations, Bioinitiative 2012: A Rationale for Biologically-based Exposure Standards for Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation.

[00:09:19] EMF-Portal.

[00:09:51] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick podcasts: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead) (4/16/18) and A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World.

[00:12:55] Faraday cage.

[00:14:26] Nick’s interview with Pawel Wypychowski

[00:15:56] Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

[00:19:31] 5th generation cellular network technology (5G).

[00:24:36] 6G Wireless Summit ‘19 in Finland.

[00:27:14] US Senator Richard Blumenthal raises concerns on 5G health risks.

[00:30:09] Article: Radiation concerns halt Brussels 5G development, for now

[00:30:52] Simon Marshall, PhD on SEEDS; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health.

[00:31:48] Studies on EMF and melatonin: Touitou, Yvan, and Brahim Selmaoui. "The effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol, two marker rhythms of the circadian system." Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 14.4 (2012): 381.

[00:34:35] Geovital consultants.

[00:34:56] EMF effects on electroencephalogram (EEG) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV): 1. Gjoneska, Biljana, et al. "Brain Topography of Emf-Induced Eeg-Changes in Restful Wakefulness: Tracing Current Effects, Targeting Future Prospects." prilozi 36.3 (2015): 103-112; 2. McNamee, David Andrew, et al. "A literature review: the cardiovascular effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields." International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 82.8 (2009): 919-933.

[00:38:26] Mitigating risk while streaming music and podcasts.

[00:39:17] Effects of using Bluetooth.

[00:44:22] Professor Dariusz Leszczynski's blog.

[00:48:15] Grounding your computer using 3-pin power cord.

[00:49:14] Create distance between you and your device. Roost stand.

[00:51:01] Managing your wifi; Ethernet.

[00:53:49] WaveCage.

[00:54:54] EMF Meters.

[00:56:09] Video: How To: Detect & Eliminate Hotel Room EMFs (+ why a router under the bed is bad news).

[00:59:33] A good meter for beginners: ENV RD-10

[01:00:30] Shielded Healing - Brian Hoyer.

[01:02:26] Nick’s YouTube channel.

[01:04:30] Summary of practical steps.

[01:05:35] Putting wifi on a Christmas light timer.

[01:08:13] Nick’s website.

How to Optimise Your Gut Microbiome

Sep 19, 2019


Lucy Mailing is an MD/PhD student at the University of Illinois. She recently completed her PhD in Nutritional Sciences and continues to perform research on the impact of diet and exercise on the gut microbiome in states of health and disease. She has authored several peer-reviewed journal articles related to the microbiome and health and was recently named an Emerging Leader in Nutritional Sciences by the American Society for Nutrition. Lucy has also been a staff research associate for the Kresser Institute for four years and writes about evidence-based gut health on her blog. She plans to begin medical school at the University of Illinois in 2020 after a year dedicated to writing and the launch of a gut-related startup.

In this podcast, Lucy discusses the most promising trends and research in gut health. She talks about the best and worst ways to test for GI problems and the effects of exercise intensity and diet change on the gut microbiota. She also challenges the notion that ketogenic and high-fat diets are bad for the gut, and explains why your SIBO breath test results might be inaccurate. 

Lucy is a fine example of one of the many wonderful experts who have shaped NBT into what it is today—an online clinic helping athletes and likeminded people overcome chronic health complaints and improve performance. If you’re an athlete and you’ve been listening to the podcast for a while and you’re still struggling with your gut health, feel free to come to the front page where you’ll find a button to book a free starter session. During the session, we’ll take a look at your history and share how we’d work with you. We now have a variety of billing options, one of which will make sense for you.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lucy Mailing:

[00:00:21] Ancestral Health Symposium; Lucy’s presentation slides; Look for the video from Lucy’s 2019 presentations to be posted on the AHS YouTube channel in the upcoming months. 

[00:01:17] Becoming interested in the microbiome.

[00:03:01] Working with Chris Kresser; ADAPT Health Coach Training.

[00:07:49] Why the focus on the microbiome?

[00:08:25] Transplanted human microbiome into sterile mice, mice take on phenotype of donor; Study: Zheng, P., et al. "Gut microbiome remodeling induces depressive-like behaviors through a pathway mediated by the host’s metabolism." Molecular psychiatry 21.6 (2016): 786.

[00:09:30] What does a healthy microbiome look like?

[00:13:09] Viome; metatranscriptomics.

[00:14:37] 16S testing; uBiome.

[00:15:06] Proteobacteria as a red flag that colonic epithelial cells are starving for energy. Study: Hughes, Elizabeth R., et al. "Microbial respiration and formate oxidation as metabolic signatures of inflammation-associated dysbiosis." Cell host & microbe 21.2 (2017): 208-219.

[00:16:24] Jason Hawrelak; Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health.

[00:17:29] Butyrate; Is supplementing a good idea? Tesseract, ProButyrate.

[00:21:17] Dietary recommendations: Microbiota accessible carbohydrates (term from Justin Sonnenberg).

[00:22:37] Preliminary evidence that reduced carbohydrate diet may be beneficial for people with inflammatory bowel disease; Study: Suskind, David L., et al. "Clinical and fecal microbial changes with diet therapy in active inflammatory bowel disease." Journal of clinical gastroenterology 52.2 (2018): 155.

00:23:42] Carnivore diet.

[00:25:01] Dr. Michael Mosley; Robb Wolf.

[00:27:59] Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from ketogenic mice; Study: Olson, Christine A., et al. "The gut microbiota mediates the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet." Cell 173.7 (2018): 1728-1741.

[00:29:54] Autologous FMT restores the ecosystem after antibiotics: Study: Taur, Ying, et al. "Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant." Science translational medicine 10.460 (2018): eaap9489.

[00:31:17] Mike T Nelson; Podcasts: 1. High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea…, 2. The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes, 3. How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[00:33:35] Taymount Clinic for FMT.

[00:34:11] Recent FDA report on risks of infection related to FMT.

[00:34:49] Doctor's Data stool testing; PCR sequence-based testing.

[00:35:40] Culture vs PCR.

[00:39:27] Diagnostic Solutions GI-MAP as a PCR DNA stool test.

[00:41:04] Metagenomics; Onegevity, Sun Genomics, DayTwo.

[00:42:37] Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth (SIBO) breath testing; Mark Pimentel, MD.

[00:42:57] Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:43:33] Lucy's blog posts on SIBO breath testing: All about SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth, and What the latest research reveals about SIBO.

[00:43:41] A positive breath test may not be due to SIBO; Study: Connolly, Lynn, and Lin Chang. "Combined orocecal scintigraphy and lactulose hydrogen breath testing demonstrate that breath testing detects orocecal transit, not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome." Gastroenterology 141.3 (2011): 1118-1121.

[00:46:11] Individuals with SIBO may in fact have small intestinal dysbiosis; Study: Saffouri, George B., et al. "Small intestinal microbial dysbiosis underlies symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders." Nature communications 10.1 (2019): 2012.

[00:48:00] What you can learn from a uBiome Explorer 16S test.

[00:54:17] Probiotics, prebiotics; Pomegranate husk powder.

[00:58:02] Response to prebiotics is highly individualized; Study: Venkataraman, A., et al. "Variable responses of human microbiomes to dietary supplementation with resistant starch." Microbiome 4.1 (2016): 33.

[00:59:50] Effects of exercise on the microbiome; Studies: 1. Allen, Jacob M., et al. "Exercise alters gut microbiota composition and function in lean and obese humans." Med Sci Sports Exerc 50.4 (2018): 747-757; 2. Allen, Jacob M., et al. "Voluntary and forced exercise differentially alters the gut microbiome in C57BL/6J mice." Journal of applied physiology118.8 (2015): 1059-1066; 3. Allen, J. M., et al. "Exercise training-induced modification of the gut microbiota persists after microbiota colonization and attenuates the response to chemically-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice." Gut Microbes 9.2 (2018): 115-130.

[01:02:26] Research on the microbiome of marathoners; Study: 1. Zhao, Xia, et al. "Response of gut microbiota to metabolite changes induced by endurance exercise." Frontiers in microbiology 9 (2018): 765; 2. Scheiman, Jonathan, et al. "Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism." Nature Medicine (2019): 1.

[01:02:39] Lauren Petersen; Study: Petersen, Lauren M., et al. "Community characteristics of the gut microbiomes of competitive cyclists." Microbiome 5.1 (2017): 98. Our 2016 podcast with Lauren: The Athlete Microbiome Project: The Search for the Golden Microbiome.

[01:05:51] Find Lucy: NextGen Medicine.

[01:07:04] Dr. Josh Turknett’s Migraine Miracle. Our podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

The Need for Tribal Living in a Modern World

Sep 10, 2019


Ancestral health advocate and pioneer of Evolutionary Feminism Stephanie Welch is back on the podcast today. We met up at the Ancestral Health Symposium in San Diego, California in August where she gave a talk on gender-segregated housing as an alternative to the traditional nuclear family. Stephanie is dedicated to exploring the boundaries of relationships and sexuality, and she makes a compelling case for a living arrangement most of us have never considered.

In this podcast, Stephanie identifies the time in history that humans abandoned tribal living and gravitated to segregated nuclear families and sexual monogamy. She talks about the many ways this change has been a detriment to society, resulting in families and relationships lacking in social support and other basic human needs. She also offers solutions for re-establishing aspects of tribal living in a modern world.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephanie Welch:

[00:00:50] Stephanie's previous podcast: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision.

[00:02:09] Josh Turknett; Intelligence Unshackled Podcast. If you're going to intervene, you better have a good reason to do it.

[00:04:35] Books: Sex at Dawn by Christopher Ryan, et al.; Civilized to Death, by Christopher Ryan; Sex at Dusk, by Lynn Saxon.

[00:06:14] Ancestral Health Symposium videos - look for 2019 presentations to be posted in the next several months.

[00:06:24] Differences in male and female reproductive strategies.

[00:07:56] The need for a robust system of caretakers.

[00:09:41] Bruce Parry, documentary filmmaker, visits modern hunter-gatherers.

[00:10:21] The nuclear family vs. the tribe as a reproductive unit.

[00:12:56] Agriculture as a catalyst to dividing the tribe into nuclear family houses and sexual monogamy.

[00:15:40] Book: Against the grain, by James C. Scott.

[00:21:13] The things a domestic environment should provide: health, social relationships, growth.

[00:22:34] Julian Abel on NBT podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, and Michael Ruscio's podcast: The Importance of Community Interventions in Healthcare.

[00:27:59] The problem with living with a romantic partner.

[00:36:43] Challenging the convention of monogamy.

[00:41:30] Cal Newport; Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:43:06] Steps to take to move in this new direction.

[00:50:13] Our recent podcast with Malcolm Kendrick: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World. His first podcast with us in 2018: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead).

[00:52:00] What about gay people? An evolutionary perspective.

[00:54:49] Robert Epstein on STEM-Talk, the Epstein Sexual Orientation Inventory (ESOI).

[01:01:33] Find Stephanie: Recivilized Woman; Twitter; Paleo Fx; Future Frontiers; Physicians for Ancestral Health.

A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World

Sep 2, 2019


Scottish doctor, writer, speaker, and outspoken cholesterol sceptic Malcolm Kendrick is back on the podcast this week. He continues to challenge the widespread use of statin medications, despite being targeted personally and professionally by those opposing his message. Since we last talked he has authored a new book, A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, elucidating his position against mainstream medicine’s rampant cholesterol-lowering tactics. 

On this podcast, Dr. Kendrick describes in detail exactly what he believes drives the process of cardiovascular disease, informed from 35 years of research on the subject.  He explains specifically why cholesterol has been misunderstood, and how medicine got it wrong. We discuss corruption in medical research and the money supporting the status quo, and Dr. Kendrick shares some of the best ways to avoid heart disease (which have little to do with diet!).

Here’s the outline of this interview with Malcolm Kendrick:

[00:00:07] Our first podcast with Malcolm Kendrick: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead).

[00:00:30] Book: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-health World, by Dr. Malcolm Kendrick. His previous two books: Doctoring Data and The Cholesterol Con.

[00:02:00] Causes vs processes.

[00:03:40] History behind his journey and questioning authority.

[00:07:30] Articles written by Elspeth Smith.

[00:09:00] Karl Rokitansky’s paper discussing an alternative way of looking at CVD: A manual of pathological anatomy, Vol. 4. Day GE, trans. London: Sydenham Society, 1852:261; in print here.

[00:09:06] Rudolf Virchow, researcher who pointed to cholesterol in artery walls.

[00:10:55] Researcher Nikolai N. Anichkov: fed rabbits a high-cholesterol diet and cholesterol appeared in their arteries (sort of).

[00:12:07] Ancel Keys; blaming saturated fat.

[00:14:11] France - highest saturated fat consumption, lowest rate of CVD. Georgia - lowest sat fat consumption, highest rate of CVD.  See graph, here.

[00:15:16] International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS). Study: Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review." BMJ open 6.6 (2016): e010401.

[00:16:50] Pleiotropic effects of statins.

[00:17:29] Movie: 12 Angry Men (1957).

[00:20:30] Robert Ross - response to injury hypothesis; Study: Ross, Russell, John Glomset, and Laurence Harker. "Response to injury and atherogenesis." The American journal of pathology 86.3 (1977): 675.

[00:20:40] TV show: Stranger Things.

[00:22:31] Infectious disease hypothesis.

[00:22:52] Analogy of rust in the paint of a car; Sickle Cell Disease as an example.

[00:27:12] 14-year old boy with Sickle Cell and atherosclerosis; Study: Elsharawy, M. A., and K. M. Moghazy. "Peripheral arterial lesions in patient with sickle cell disease." EJVES Extra 14.2 (2007): 15-18.

[00:28:57] Endothelial progenitor cells, produced in the bone marrow, discovered in 1997.

[00:29:31] Pig study of endothelial turnover: Caplan, Bernard A., and Colin J. Schwartz. "Increased endothelial cell turnover in areas of in vivo Evans Blue uptake in the pig aorta." Atherosclerosis 17.3 (1973): 401-417.

[00:31:48] Vitamin C's role in maintaining collagen and blood vessels.

[00:33:08] Lp(a) molecules - patching cracks in the artery walls.

[00:33:42] Depriving guinea pigs of vitamin C caused atherosclerosis; Study: Willis, G. C. "The reversibility of atherosclerosis." Canadian Medical Association Journal 77.2 (1957): 106.

[00:34:24] Linus Pauling - said CVD was caused by chronic low-level vitamin C deficiency.

[00:35:53] What else damages endothelial cells? Many things, including smoking, air pollution, high blood sugar, Kawasaki disease, sepsis/infection.

[00:41:19] Glycocalyx; Nitric oxide.

[00:43:30] Health benefits of sun exposure.

[00:44:26] Biomechanical stress (blood pressure) - atherosclerosis in arteries but not in veins.

[00:47:57] Things that interfere with repair: steroids, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors.

[00:55:00] The effects of stress on the cardiovascular system.

[00:57:55] Red blood cells are what brings cholesterol into blood clots.

[00:58:59] Cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques come from red blood cells. Study: Kolodgie, Frank D., et al. "Intraplaque hemorrhage and progression of coronary atheroma." New England Journal of Medicine 349.24 (2003): 2316-2325.

[01:00:55] Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are procoagulant; High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is anticoagulant.

[01:03:46] Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH); Factor VIII.

[01:08:15] Cholesterol-lowering pharmaceuticals; Repatha. In the clinical trial, the total number of cardiovascular deaths was greater in the Repatha group than the placebo group. Study: Sabatine, Marc S., et al. "Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease." New England Journal of Medicine 376.18 (2017): 1713-1722.

[01:09:34] David Deamer, biologist and Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering.

[01:10:05] Karl Popper, philosopher.

[01:10:28] Bradford Hill’s Criteria for Causation.

[01:13:52] Michael Mosley, BBC journalist.

[01:16:40] Statin denialism - an internet cult with deadly consequences?

[01:19:18] The money behind the statin and low-fat industries.

[01:20:06] Margarine; Trans-fatty acids, banned in several countries.

[01:24:37] The impact of food; The focus on food to the exclusion of other pillars of health.

[01:26:38] Dr. Phil Hammond; CLANGERS

[01:28:21] Avoiding internet attacks.

[01:32:00] ApoA-1 Milano. Original study: Nissen, Steven E., et al. "Effect of recombinant ApoA-I Milano on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 290.17 (2003): 2292-2300.

[01:33:05] The Heart Protection (HPS) Study in the UK: Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. "MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20 536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo controlled trial." The Lancet 360.9326 (2002): 7-22.

[01:33:36]  Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. "Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)." The Lancet 344.8934 (1994): 1383-1389.

[01:33:49] West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS): Shepherd, James, et al. "Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia." New England Journal of Medicine 333.20 (1995): 1301-1308.

[01:34:21] National Institute of Health’s ALLHAT-LLT trial: Officers, A. L. L. H. A. T. "Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs. usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT)." JAMA 288.23 (2002): 2998-3007.

[01:34:50] 2005 - Regulations guiding clinical trials changed.

[01:35:14] Negative antidepressant studies not published; Study: Turner, Erick H., et al. "Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy." New England Journal of Medicine 358.3 (2008): 252-260.

[01:37:11] Minnesota Coronary Experiment (MCE): Analysis of recovered data: Ramsden, Christopher E., et al. "Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)." bmj 353 (2016): i1246.

[01:39:44] Why Most Published Research Findings Are False: Ioannidis, John PA. "Why most published research findings are false." PLoS medicine 2.8 (2005): e124.

[01:39:55] Richard Horton, editor of the Lancet: half of what is published is not true: Horton, Richard. "Offline: What is medicine’s 5 sigma." Lancet 385.9976 (2015): 1380.

[01:41:11] The problem with reproducibility; a database of clinical trials that cannot be challenged or reproduced.

[01:42:37] Editors of prominent journals losing faith in published research: Marci Angell, Richard Smith

[01:44:55] Parachute study: Yeh, Robert W., et al. "Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma when jumping from aircraft: randomized controlled trial." bmj 363 (2018): k5094.

[01:46:01] Benefits that are major are obvious; no randomized clinical trial necessary.

[01:48:33] Preventing vs. screening.

[01:51:42] Podcast: Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance with physical therapist Zac Cupples.

[01:51:59] Analysis of women who died in various ways, examining breast tissue; found that a high % of women had what you could diagnose as breast cancer. Study: Bhathal, P. S., et al. "Frequency of benign and malignant breast lesions in 207 consecutive autopsies in Australian women." British journal of cancer 51.2 (1985): 271.

[01:53:34] Screening programs not associated with reduced CVD or death; Study: Krogsbøll, Lasse T., et al. "General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis." Bmj 345 (2012): e7191.

[01:54:26] Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan. Podcast: Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, with Ivor Cummins.

[01:54:46] Cardiologist Bernard Lown

[01:58:38] People who had measles/mumps less likely to get CVD; Study: Kubota, Yasuhiko, et al. "Association of measles and mumps with cardiovascular disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study." Atherosclerosis 241.2 (2015): 682-686.

[02:00:55] Life expectancy in US and UK is now falling.

[02:06:46] Physical health doesn't exist without social health and psychological health.

[02:07:40] Negative Twitter messages correlate with rates of heart disease; Study: Eichstaedt, Johannes C., et al. "Psychological language on Twitter predicts county-level heart disease mortality." Psychological science 26.2 (2015): 159-169.

[02:09:58] People who take statins believe they’re protected so they stop exercising. Study: Lee, David SH, et al. "Statins and physical activity in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study." JAMA internal medicine 174.8 (2014): 1263-1270.

[02:11:45] Simple changes: make friends, have good relationships, speak to your kids, exercise, eat natural food, sunshine.

[02:16:53] Blood sugar measurements following funny lecture vs. boring lecture; Study: Hayashi, Keiko, et al. "Laughter lowered the increase in postprandial blood glucose." Diabetes care 26.5 (2003): 1651-1652.

[02:18:08] Dr. Malcolm Kendrick’s blog.

Real Food Initiatives for Public Health in the UK

Aug 27, 2019


Sam Feltham is the Director of the Public Health Collaboration in the UK, a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of public health education. The PHC coordinates campaigns and produces evidence-based reports for improving pressing health issues, such as obesity and diabetes, which are on the rise in the UK and worldwide. I met up with Sam at the Real Food Rocks Festival in July, a family event coordinated by the PHC to bring people together with music, fun, and of course, real food.

In this podcast, Sam and I discuss the current initiatives being pursued by the Public Health Collaboration, including training and deploying a nationwide team of volunteer ambassadors to inform and implement healthier decisions at a local level. We discuss some of the obstacles encountered in educating the public, and Sam shares some of his long-term goals for a healthier future.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sam Feltham:

[00:00:09] Real Food Rocks Festival.

[00:02:25] The Public Health Collaboration (PHC).

[00:03:24] PHC Advisory Board members: Dr. David Unwin and Dr. Jen Unwin, Dr. Trudi Deakin.

[00:07:24] PHC Ambassadors Programme; currently 150 ambassadors across the country.

[00:08:58] Andy Bishop; reversed type-2 diabetes and now runs patient groups

[00:10:11] Current obstacles: perceived cost and the existing government guidelines.

[00:11:28] Sugar infographics, endorsed by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 

[00:12:48] The value of educating in small groups instead of individual sessions.

[00:16:35] Ivor Cummins; Podcasts: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

[00:18:08] People under significant financial stress are 13 times more likely to have a heart attack. Study: Rosengren, Annika, et al. "Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11 119 cases and 13 648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study." The Lancet 364.9438 (2004): 953-962.

[00:20:17] Denmark’s saturated fat taxIt didn’t last long.

[00:20:37] Influencing food policy; Real Food Lifestyle dietary guidelines.

[00:21:49] Tom Watson, deputy of the Labour Party. 

[00:23:55] Type 2 diabetes is currently 10% of the NHS budget.

[00:26:29] War on Plastic show on BBC One.

[00:27:32] The grocery store sugar-laden rat run.

[00:30:50] Patric Holden, founding director of the Sustainable Food Trust.

[00:32:00] Distributed food network.

[00:34:01] Getting people into the system before they have health problems.

[00:35:14] Changing the standards for hypertension in 2017.

[00:37:19] Dr. Michael Mosley; Documentary: Michael Mosley vs. The Superbugs.

[00:41:26] How to become an ambassador;

Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC): A Direct Measure of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Aug 20, 2019


Engineer, podcaster, author and speaker Ivor Cummins is back on the podcast today to talk about a topic that could save your life or the life of someone you love. Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC), a direct measure of arterial calcification obtained with a CT scan, is gaining respect as the best predictor of cardiovascular events. Indirect risk factors - like LDL cholesterol, though beloved by the medical establishment, pale in comparison.

Today Ivor talks about what really causes cardiovascular disease and how best to assess your risk. He discusses the science that supports the use of CAC to identify those most at risk - and by doing so, they can take steps to slow, stop or even reverse disease progression. Further validating Ivor’s work, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association are now formally recommending the CAC for middle-risk patients. As if that wasn’t enough, getting a CAC scan is affordable and probably available near you.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ivor Cummins:

[00:00:03] Real Food Rocks Festival.  

[00:01:33] Prevalence and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

[00:02:19] Decline in CVD between 70s and 90s: Roger, Véronique L., et al. "Time trends in the prevalence of atherosclerosis: a population-based autopsy study." The American journal of medicine110.4 (2001): 267-273. Rates of CVD from 1990-2013: O’Rourke, Kevin, et al. "Cardiovascular disease worldwide, 1990-2013." Jama 314.18 (2015): 1905-1905.

[00:02:39] Causes of CVD.

[00:05:27] Glycocalyx; Study: Noble, M. I. M., A. J. Drake-Holland, and H. Vink. "Hypothesis: arterial glycocalyx dysfunction is the first step in the atherothrombotic process." QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 101.7 (2008): 513-518.

[00:07:07] Glucose spikes causing damage to glycocalyx; Study: Nieuwdorp, Max, et al. "Loss of endothelial glycocalyx during acute hyperglycemia coincides with endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation in vivo." Diabetes 55.2 (2006): 480-486.

[00:07:49] Glycolyx thinning at arterial branch points become regions of atherogenic risk; Study: Gouverneur, Mirella, et al. "Vasculoprotective properties of the endothelial glycocalyx: effects of fluid shear stress." Journal of internal medicine259.4 (2006): 393-400.

[00:08:11] Potential autoimmune component to CVD.

[00:08:18] Gabor Erdosi, admin on the Lower Insulin Facebook group.

[00:09:59] Know your risk. Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan.

[00:10:52] Widowmaker movie.

[00:11:24] David Bobbett; Irish Heart Disease Awareness (IHDA).

[00:12:07] Rivers Hospital in UK.

[00:15:15] An 80-year old with a low score is 20x less likely to have a cardiac event in the next 10 yrs than a 50 yr old with a high score. Study: Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh, et al. "Association of coronary artery calcium and coronary heart disease events in young and elderly participants in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of a prospective, population-based cohort." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 89. No. 10. Elsevier, 2014.

[00:15:52] 2018 ACC/AHA Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol.

[00:17:34] Interpreting and understanding CAC results.

[00:20:03] Value of understanding your cholesterol levels.

[00:22:17] COURAGE trial: Boden, William E., et al. "Optimal medical therapy with or without PCI for stable coronary disease." New England journal of medicine 356.15 (2007): 1503-1516. ORBITA trial: Al-Lamee, Rasha, et al. "Percutaneous coronary intervention in stable angina (ORBITA): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet391.10115 (2018): 31-40.

[00:25:47] Why isn't the medical establishment using the CAC scan to assess for CVD?  

[00:26:05] CAC threatens to interfere with cath lab income, gets shut down.

[00:28:39] Getting your score back to zero.

[00:28:44] Feature documentary: Heart of the Matter.

[00:29:48] Heinz Nixdorf Recall study: Mahabadi, Amir A., et al. "The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study and its potential impact on the adoption of atherosclerosis imaging in European primary prevention guidelines." Current atherosclerosis reports 13.5 (2011): 367.

[00:31:54] Physiological perspective on how CAC can possibly reverse.

[00:33:45] Hyperbolic discounting; Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:34:20] Donal O'Neill; Cereal Killers movie.

[00:35:21] Half-hour Extra Time documentary (at the top of the page).

[00:35:35] Cardiologist Dr. Scott Murray, president of the British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (BACPR).

[00:38:53] How to spread the word about getting scanned.

[00:39:49] The Fat Emperor podcast; Episode 32: Myopia and Eye Problems: How to Resolve via Resolution of Root Causes.

[00:40:11] Robert Lustig, MD.

[00:41:16] LDL Cholesterol not a good predictor of actual calcification (CAC); Study: Ware, William R. "The mainstream hypothesis that LDL cholesterol drives atherosclerosis may have been falsified by non-invasive imaging of coronary artery plaque burden and progression." Medical hypotheses 73.4 (2009): 596-600.

[00:42:44] Assessing your health between CAC scans: blood tests, CIMT (carotid-intima-media thickness).

[00:45:53] Find a scan centre near you. Note: Also try Googling your city/state and “heart scan”.

[00:46:37] If you enjoy this podcast, listen to his first podcast with us in March 2018: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease. You can also check out Ivor’s book, Eat Rich, Live Long and his YouTube channel.

Nutritional Ketosis and Guided Behavior Change to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Aug 12, 2019


James McCarter, MD, PhD. is a researcher and author of over 60 scientific publications and patents. He recently led research and clinical operations for San Francisco-based Virta Health, a nationwide medical provider that delivers the first clinically-proven treatment to safely and sustainably reverse type 2 diabetes without medications or surgery. Dr. McCarter recently directed the Virta - Indiana University Health clinical trial demonstrating reversal of diabetes using nutritional ketosis and guided behavior change. This trial has resulted in changes to the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care and consensus statement on nutrition in 2019, reflecting the benefit of low-carbohydrate diets. 

In this podcast, James discusses the results that have emerged from this research and the incredible outcomes Virta is demonstrating in helping people reverse their type-2 diabetes and improve cardiac risk markers. He also talks about the five facets of treatment behind Virta’s success, and the business model they employ to make treatment more widely available. 

Dr McCarter recently spoke at the AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinology) meeting in Kansas City on ketosis for T2D. These slides provide nice visuals for all of the Virta-IUH trial outcomes as well as background information.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jim McCarter:

[00:00:19] Two-year clinical trial: Athinarayanan, Shaminie J., et al. "Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-year Non-randomized Clinical Trial." Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 348.

[00:00:23] Virta Health.

[00:01:09] Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) affects 30 million people in the US, 400 million worldwide.

[00:02:24] Long term complications of T2D.

[00:04:16] Ketogenic diet: Getting people off the glucose rollercoaster.

[00:08:47] Setting up the clinical trial; Sarah Hallberg, DO, MS, Virta Medical Director.

[00:10:13] Nine papers published by Virta so far: 7 on the trial and 2 reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, plus whitepaper on cardiovascular benefits of Virta treatment.

[00:10:46] 5 facets to treatment: In-house medication management, health coaching, nutrition behavior change education, biometric feedback, online community.

[00:16:05] Podcasts with Doug Hilbert: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor, and Ancestral Health Symposium ‘18 Recap.

[00:16:54] Doug Hilbert’s AHS talk 2018: AHS18 Douglas Hilbert - Virta 1 Year Clinical Trial Results/Patient Outcomes.

[00:18:13] Adherence to the program: 74% of patients completed 2 years of the trial.

[00:18:26] Blog post: Top 10 Keto Myths Debunked After 150,000 Days of Patient Care.

[00:20:30] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD & Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[00:21:20] Ketone metabolism: beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone.

[00:23:05] Beta-hydroxybutyrate as an histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor; Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[00:24:10] Higher levels of ketones correlate with greater reductions of hemoglobin A1c and greater weight loss.

[00:24:29] Ken Ford, Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford (ketone signaling is discussed at minute 54:20).

[00:25:58] Kaiser study on diabetes remission rates: Karter, Andrew J., et al. "Incidence of remission in adults with type 2 diabetes: the diabetes & aging study." Diabetes Care 37.12 (2014): 3188-3195.

[00:29:09] Readout: creating less invasive ways for measuring metabolic markers.

[00:29:28] Dan Ariely; Shapa scale and app.

[00:31:55] Non-scale victories (NSV).

[00:32:56] Ashley Mason podcasts: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD and Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:33:22] Elimination of drugs that cause hypoglycemia (e.g., sulphonylureas).

[00:34:13] Common pitfalls: Electrolytes.

[00:37:46] Myth: Keto causes diabetic ketoacidosis.

[00:38:50] Improvements in cardio risk markers; Study: Bhanpuri, Nasir H., et al. "Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study." Cardiovascular diabetology 17.1 (2018): 56.

[00:44:25] Dave Feldman on The Fat Emperor Podcast with Ivor Cummins: LDL and All-Cause Mortality  - Does Cholestesterol Kill You?; Related NBT podcasts: How to Drop Your Cholesterol, with Dave Feldman, and How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease, with Ivor Cummins.

[00:49:15] American Diabetes Association (ADA) changed their Standards of Care and consensus statement on nutrition in 2019.

[00:51:04] Virta's value-based business model.

[00:54:13] Navigating difficult food environments.

[00:55:52] Robb Wolf; Chickasaw Nation.

[01:01:43] Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 agonist and SGLT2 inhibitor drugs; Studies: Busch, Robert S., and Michael P. Kane. "Combination SGLT2 inhibitor and GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy: a complementary approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes." Postgraduate medicine 129.7 (2017): 686-697, and DeFronzo, Ralph A. "Combination therapy with GLP‐1 receptor agonist and SGLT2 inhibitor." Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 19.10 (2017): 1353-1362.

[01:02:13] Podcast: Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[01:04:50] Find James on Twitter, Medium and LinkedIn.

NBT People: Mark Alexander

Aug 2, 2019


Mark Alexander is an electronics engineer and technology consultant living in San Francisco. He’s been a member of our Elite Performance Program over the past two years, and in that time we’ve seen him overcome health obstacles that were inhibiting his training and quality of life, including mould exposure, heavy metals, and gut pathogens. 

In this podcast, Mark and I discuss his health journey, including the lab tests, coaching, and tools that made the biggest difference for him. He describes the game-changing protocols that helped him gain 6 pounds of muscle mass in 6 months without changing his training. Mark also shares about the major personal and professional shifts he’s made over the past two years, including leaving his engineering job to pursue more fulfilling work and life experiences. 

Here's the outline of this interview with Mark Alexander:

[00:00:25] Dolby Dimension headset with Atmos Soundscape.

[00:03:48] Mark's background.

[00:07:14] Going through the NBT Elite Performance Program.

[00:08:53] Book: The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman, by Tim Ferriss.

[00:09:15] Working with a functional medicine doctor; food sensitivities.

[00:12:24] Gut pathogen whack-a-mole.

[00:16:03] Supplements for mitochondrial support: nicotinamide riboside, lecithin, creatine.

[00:17:24] Heavy metal testing; Quicksilver Scientific.

[00:18:02] Clearlight Sanctuary 2 Sauna.

[00:18:24] Bryan Walsh Detox program.

[00:20:35] Valter Longo, PhD; Prolon Fasting Mimicking Diet.

[00:21:55] Mold Exposure; Great Plains mycotoxin test.

[00:25:34] Cholestyramine to bind mycotoxins.

[00:26:19] Dr. Deborah Gordon; Podcast: How to Fix Autoimmunity in the over 50s.

[00:26:28] Video: Dr. Gordon at the Ancestral Health Symposium: Mycotoxin Illness: The Great Impostor.

[00:27:42] Supplements vs food for nutrition.

[00:30:02] Gymnastic Bodies program.

[00:30:16] Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[00:32:04] Awaken Gym in Denver, CO.; Co-founder Orench Lagman.

[00:35:56] How work was affecting Mark's health.

[00:38:56] Book: Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.

[00:39:15] Working with people: mindset vs. techniques.

[00:40:37] Tranquil Wisdom Insight Meditation.

[00:42:28] The Tide Turners Workshop.

[00:43:21] Cal Newport Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World.

[00:44:19] Passion for helping others.

[00:49:44] What's next for Mark; ketogenic ice cream.

[00:50:41] Eating clean while travelling.

[00:52:37] Find Mark: TacticalKeto; Linkedin.

How to Optimise Nutrition for Postpartum Recovery

Jul 28, 2019


Lily Nichols, RDN, CDE is a Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist, Certified Diabetes Educator, author and researcher, specializing in evidence-based prenatal nutrition and exercise. She’s been with us on the podcast before, discussing her bestselling books, Real Food for Gestational Diabetes and Real Food for Pregnancy.  

Lily joins us on this podcast to talk about postpartum nutrition and healing, including nose-to-tail eating, carbohydrate restriction, and supporting mom’s recovery and energy needs after the baby arrives. We discuss nutrient requirements for new moms, and factors that affect readiness to resume work and exercise. Lily also shares details about her new webinars on postpartum recovery and nutrition at the Women’s Health Nutrition Academy.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lily Nichols:

[00:02:40] Environmental mismatches.

[00:03:19] Preparing for postpartum.

[00:06:11] Preparing new moms for what to expect.

[00:08:53] Book: Real Food for Pregnancy: The Science and Wisdom of Optimal Prenatal Nutrition, by Lily Nichols.

[00:10:24] Appropriate postpartum activities, from an ancestral health perspective.

[00:11:20] Katy Bowman.

[00:15:40] The role of nutrient depletion in postpartum recovery.

[00:16:12] Supporting connective tissue and collagen.

[00:17:34] Nose-to-tail in traditional postpartum meals.

[00:19:34] Postpartum energy needs.

[00:27:41] Measuring micronutrient status: what and when to test.

[00:29:28] Risk of anemia 75x higher for women who lost 1000mL of blood at delivery.

[00:33:31] Increased MCTs in the breast milk when mothers eat carbohydrates. Study: Read, W. W. C., PHYLLIS G. LUTZ, and ANAHID TASHJIAN. "Human milk lipids: II. The influence of dietary carbohydrates and fat on the fatty acids of mature milk. A study in four ethnic groups." The American journal of clinical nutrition 17.3 (1965): 180-183.

[00:33:40] Dietary MCTs get passed through breast milk; Study: Francois, Cindy A., et al. "Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk." The American journal of clinical nutrition 67.2 (1998): 301-308.

[00:34:36] Carbohydrate restriction during lactation.

[00:37:35] Better insulin sensitivity in early postpartum period.

[00:41:03] Gestational diabetes.

[00:42:27] Webinars at Women’s Health Nutrition Academy: Postpartum Recovery and Nutrient Repletion; and Nutrition for Breastfeeding.

[00:44:35] Ayla Barmmer.

[00:45:06] All available courses.

[00:47:15] Podcast: The Human Milk-Oriented Microbiota: Babies and Beyond, with Megan Sanctuary.

[00:49:29] Lily’s Blog.

Movement Analysis and Breathing Strategies for Pain Relief and Improved Performance

Jul 21, 2019


Physical Therapist and Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach Zac Cupples has a passion for human anatomy and helping people meet their health and performance goals. He excels at providing individualized treatment through rehab, training, nutrition, sleep, stress management, and sports science.  What’s amazing to me is that he does online consultation, and helped me fix my chronic back pain by video conference!

On this podcast, Zac and I discuss his approach to working with clients and mentoring other practitioners. He talks about some of his assessment methods and strategies for helping people reduce pain while getting remarkable health and performance results. He shares simple breathing techniques that helped me tremendously and discusses some tried-and-true methods for improving client adherence with daily exercises.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zac Cupples:

[00:00:06] Dr. Ben House; Podcast: Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica.

[00:00:52] How Zac got into physical therapy.

[00:02:04] Book: Bad Science: Quacks, Hacks, and Big Pharma Flacks, by Ben Goldacre.

[00:03:19] Physical Therapist Bill Hartman.

[00:05:48] Shawn Baker; Podcast: Life at the Extremes: Fueling World-class Performance with a Carnivore Diet.

[00:06:25] Working with NBA basketball players.

[00:10:23] Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:11:36] Sleep as a keystone behaviour; Ashley Mason podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems.

[00:13:43] The effect of sleep on performance; Zac’s post: He Sleeps He Scores: Playing Better Basketball by Conquering Sleep Deprivation.

[00:15:53] Fixing pain.

[00:21:01] Assessing movement.

[00:22:02] Variability in movement positively associated with health and performance. Study: Stergiou, Nicholas, and Leslie M. Decker. "Human movement variability, nonlinear dynamics, and pathology: is there a connection?." Human movement science 30.5 (2011): 869-888.

[00:22:16] Study of javelin throwers: Bartlett, Roger, Jon Wheat, and Matthew Robins. "Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists?." Sports biomechanics 6.2 (2007): 224-243.

[00:24:26] Doing assessments remotely/online.

[00:27:13] NBT Head of Strength and Conditioning, Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[00:27:37] Pain vs. tissue damage.

[00:30:30] Book: Back Mechanic by Stuart McGill.

[00:30:46] Barbell Medicine videos on YouTube.

[00:31:06] Harvard Health article: Babying your back may delay healing.

[00:34:21] Consulting with Zac on my chronic lower back pain.

[00:39:29] Using the anal sphincter to tilt the pelvis.

[00:43:35] Breathing for 3D expansion of the body; Video: “Stacking” the Ribcage on top of the Pelvis.

[00:45:55] Influencing client behaviour to ensure follow-through.

[00:53:54] Tim Ferris, author of The 4-Hour Work Week.

[00:55:11] Minimal effective dose.

[00:56:56] Lesley Paterson, Braveheart Coaching, Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:58:30] Altis; Dan Pfaff and Stuart McMillan.

[00:59:55] Comparing recovery postures; Study: Michaelson, Joana V., et al. "Effects of Two Different Recovery Postures during High-Intensity Interval Training." Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 4.4 (2019): 23-27.

[01:01:47] Zac’s website.

[01:02:08] Human Matrix Seminars.

[01:05:21] Find Zac on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube.

[01:05:40] Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World, by Cal Newport. Podcast: How to Live Well in a High Tech World, with Cal Newport.

How to Live Well in a High Tech World

Jul 11, 2019


Cal Newport is a computer science professor at Georgetown University and the author of 6 books, including New York Times bestseller Digital Minimalism. His writing focuses on the impact of new technology and social media on our ability to be productive and lead satisfying lives. Not surprisingly, his research suggests we’re becoming less connected and getting less done as technology permeates every moment of our day.

For this podcast, I got to sit down face to face with Cal to discuss his ideas on digital minimalism. He describes how big business has manipulated us into constantly checking our phones, and is now profiting off of our attention. We discuss the consequences of pervasive technology, and the damaging effect it can have on our drive to create and connect with others in meaningful ways.  Fortunately, Cal also has a solution for turning your attention back to the things that really matter.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Cal Newport:

[00:00:35] Cal's background.

[00:02:18] Book: So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love, by Cal Newport.

[00:02:54] Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, by Cal Newport.

[00:03:43] Book: Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World, by Cal Newport.

[00:04:17] Joshua Fields Millburn; The Minimalists Podcast, featuring Christopher Kelly and Dr. Tommy Wood: Health Problems.

[00:04:42] Brad Stulberg; Podcast featuring Brad; Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:05:39] Book: Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson.

[00:06:37] The myth of preexisting passion.

[00:07:50] We didn't sign up for this.

[00:08:32] Why we’re always looking at our phones.

[00:12:26] Social media as an arms race for your attention.

[00:13:56] Evolutionary psychology; attention engineers.

[00:14:29] BJ Fogg's Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford.

[00:14:56] Tristan Harris; Adam Alter.

[00:15:52] Effects of intermittent reinforcement on behavior and dopamine.

[00:16:47] Video: Dopamine Jackpot! Sapolsky on the Science of Pleasure.

[00:17:19] Minimalism; Marcus Aurelius; Henry David Thoreau (author of Walden); Voluntary Simplicity; Marie Kondo.

[00:19:01] Digital hoarding.

[00:24:17] Digital decluttering: Stepping away from optional personal technology for 30 days.

[00:26:29] Book: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time by Mark Haddon.

[00:28:27] Boredom as a drive that gets us to do things that have meaning and value.

[00:32:24] Book: Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection, by John Cacioppo.

[00:33:11] Book: Lead Yourself First: Inspiring Leadership Through Solitude, by Raymond M. Kethledge and Michael S. Erwin.

[00:38:58] Connection vs communication.

[00:44:56] Josh Turknett’s Intelligence Unshackled Podcast; Podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:46:30] The effects of technology on biology.

[00:48:55] Digital Declutter Experiment for 30 days: step away, you get back in touch with what matters, use that as the foundation for very carefully rebuilding your digital life.

[00:53:44] Conversation office hours.

[00:57:46] Craftsman's approach to deciding whether or not to use a tool.

[01:02:18] Article: Neuroscientists can predict decisions 11 seconds before we make them, based on this study: Koenig-Robert, Roger, and Joel Pearson. "Decoding the contents and strength of imagery before volitional engagement." Scientific reports9.1 (2019): 3504.

[01:02:45] Will this have any impact? What's next?

[01:05:31] Apple Screen Time reports.

[01:08:30] Upcoming book: A World Without Email (tentative title).

[01:15:15] Cal's website.

A Stop on the Functional Medicine (+Family) Tour

Jul 5, 2019


It’s not often I have the opportunity to interview Dr. Bryan Walsh in person, but I managed to pull him aside for a quick chat during his Functional Medicine (+ Family) Tour stop in Santa Clara, CA last weekend. As expected, the course was full of little-known actionable information that health practitioners can use with their clients before resorting to expensive advanced lab testing.

In this podcast, Bryan talks about seeing past the marketing and hype that comes alongside new trends in health science. We discuss the wisdom of spending less time consuming new information and instead mining tried-and-true blood chemistry markers for clues to cellular dysfunction. Bryan is sitting on a goldmine of information collected through years of meticulous research.  There are only 4 stops left on his tour - I highly recommend grabbing yourself a spot before they sell out!

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bryan Walsh:

[00:00:02] Dr. Bryan Walsh’s previous podcasts:  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[00:02:00] How the Functional Medicine tour came about.

[00:04:30] Bryan’s Wellness FX videos.

[00:06:20] Knowledge vs. wisdom.

[00:08:16] Mental shortcuts and getting back to the basics.

[00:08:20] Simon Marshall, PhD and System 1 vs System 2 thinking.

[00:14:01] What’s the rationale for advanced lab testing?

[00:15:42] The time-consuming research behind developing optimal reference ranges.

[00:17:23] Organizing research papers; Zotero.

[00:18:49] Does the body know what it's doing? Pathology vs. defence mechanism.

[00:21:13] Digging deeper to understand why a certain lab value might be off (e.g., vitamin D).

[00:23:53] Keeping up with changing science.

[00:25:21] Levels of organization.

[00:26:44] Considering everything that contributes to healthy cells.

[00:27:08] Who the weekend is for: any practitioner who sees patients or clients.

[00:28:39] Sign up to attend one of the remaining stops on the tour:

Nudge Tactics for Performance and Health

Jun 28, 2019


I’ve recently taken the new course created by Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD called Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching. He’s leveraging new behavioural science on how people make decisions about their health. Turns out scaring people or educating them is not enough to overcome the difficulty inherent in adopting healthier habits.

On this podcast Simon discusses the latest strategies that actually work when it comes to persuading, nudging, and motivating people (or yourself) to overcome self-sabotage and create better habits. He introduces the SEEDS method - a system of adopting up to 15 teeny tiny behaviours, and then self-monitoring and reviewing progress. He also describes a powerful way to cope with catastrophic thinking when things inevitably go wrong, so you can stay on track.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:00:09] Simon’s new course: Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching. A Health & Wellness Coach’s guide to the science of behavioral economics.

[00:00:36] The science of decision making.

[00:02:10] Behavioral economics.

[00:04:09] Symptoms and behaviours that could be helped by behavioural economics.

[00:04:52] Procrastination.

[00:05:16] Hyperbolic discounting: Our relationship with reward depends in part on how close the reward is to us at that time.

[00:06:19] Commitment vs. motivation to change.

[00:07:20] Old versions of behaviour change: Scaring people, education-based approaches.

[00:10:18] The intention-behaviour relationship.

[00:12:23] Libertarian paternalism.

[00:13:38] Psychological needs theory: People's needs must be respected (autonomy, competence, and relatedness).

[00:15:49] Stages of change model; Precontemplators: the proud couch-potatoes.

[00:18:31] Dr. Tommy Wood’s Highlights email on sunscreen being a terrible idea.

[00:20:52] Professor Susan Michie from UCL; Behavior Change Taxonomy: Michie, Susan, et al. "The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions." Annals of behavioral medicine 46.1 (2013): 81-95.

[00:21:17] The Behavior Change Taxonomy app: for iOS and Android.

[00:22:29] The most potent strategies: Self-monitoring, setting goals and reviewing.

[00:25:27] The science of self-control: Friese, Malte, et al. "Does self-control training improve self-control? A meta-analysis." Perspectives on Psychological Science 12.6 (2017): 1077-1099

[00:26:00] The original marshmallow study: Mischel, Walter, and Ebbe B. Ebbesen. "Attention in delay of gratification." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 16.2 (1970): 329. Details and follow up studies described here.

[00:26:52] Book: Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength by Roy F. Baumeister and John Tierney.

[00:33:18] Stroop effect.

[00:34:07] Book: Endure: Mind, Body, and the Curiously Elastic Limits of Human Performance, by Alex Hutchinson.

[00:37:28] Recent attempt to replicate the marshmallow study: Watts, Tyler W., Greg J. Duncan, and Haonan Quan. "Revisiting the marshmallow test: A conceptual replication investigating links between early delay of gratification and later outcomes." Psychological science 29.7 (2018): 1159-1177.

[00:38:43] SEEDS: Sleep, Exercise, Eating, Drinking and Stress management.

[00:40:09] Book: Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones, by James Clear.

[00:40:43] How the SEEDS method works.

[00:44:14] Always do less than you want to.

[00:47:18] Traffic light system: a remedy for catastrophic thinking.

[00:54:15] SEEDS Journal.

[00:55:53] Sign up for the challenge and pick some SEEDS.

How to Treat Hashimoto’s using the Autoimmune Protocol

Jun 20, 2019


Functional medicine physician Rob Abbott, MD is back on the podcast this week.  Since he was with us last year his career and practice has evolved in exciting ways. While seeing patients at Resilient Roots Functional and Evolutionary Medicine in Charlottesville, Virginia, he is also the medical advisor at Autoimmune Wellness and is conducting collaborative research with founders Angie Alt and Mickey Trescott.

Today Rob talks about the results of his recently published pilot study of the Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) diet for women with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. He describes the crowdfunding that made the research possible, the tools and supports they used with the participants, and the dramatic results found at the end of 10 weeks.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Rob Abbott:

[00:00:08] Rob's previous podcast: How to Become a Functional Medicine Doctor.

[00:02:23] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) Diet.

[00:04:24] Study: Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet as part of a multidisciplinary supported lifestyle intervention for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

[00:05:30] Mickey Trescott and Angie Alt, Autoimmune Wellness.

[00:06:18] Study on AIP for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Konijeti, Gauree G., et al. "Efficacy of the autoimmune protocol diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Inflammatory bowel diseases 23.11 (2017): 2054-2060.

[00:07:12] Angie Alt's SAD to AIP in SIX.

[00:09:00] Crowd-funding research.

[00:13:10] Rob Abbott and Adam Sadowski on the 30/30 Health Podcast.

[00:16:20] Study design and questions they set out to answer; Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM).

[00:20:02] Quality of life questionnaire, SF-36.

[00:20:19] Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ).

[00:20:55] The study participants.

[00:24:45] How support was delivered during the study.

[00:31:21] James Maskell and Dr. Kelly Brogan.

[00:32:23] The study results.

[00:39:36] Graph of hs-CRP (figure 6 from study).

[00:41:50] The most surprising results.

[00:44:14] Are we putting too much stock in thyroid antibodies as a measure of health?

[00:47:20] Tommy Wood, MD on thyroid autoantibodies.

[00:50:28] Specific Carbohydrate Diet.

[00:52:40] Angie's quarterly SAD to AIP in SIX Program starts in September.

[00:53:01] Lucy Mailing.

[00:53:54] 2019 Ancestral Health Symposium, San Diego, CA.

[00:54:33] Attending AHS19: Megan, Zach, Clay, Josh, Mike T. Nelson.

[00:55:24] Resilient Roots: Functional and Evolutionary Medicine is our full name of the clinic, along with Nutritionist Ryan Hall.

[00:58:07] Crowdfunding for the next study: Eczema-Psoriasis and AIP.

Life at the Extremes: Fueling World-class Performance with a Carnivore Diet

Jun 14, 2019


Dr. Shawn Baker is an orthopaedic surgeon, athlete, and an advocate of a carnivore diet.  Shawn has a rich history in sport: playing semi-professional rugby in New Zealand, competing in and winning Strongman competitions, and setting records as a powerlifter and Highland Games Masters World Champion. In the meantime, he also climbed the ranks as an officer in the US Air Force, conducting surgeries under pressure in war zones of Afghanistan.

In this podcast, Shawn and I discuss his athletic and military background, and his current athletic passion: Concept2 rowing, in which he has repeatedly broken world records. Shawn talks about his choice to excel at sport without the use of performance-enhancing drugs. He also makes a compelling case for the health and performance benefits of eating zero-carb, offering many examples from anthropological data that suggest man evolved to eat meat.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Shawn Baker:

[00:00:20] The Minimalists; Paul Saladino; Rich Roll.

[00:00:43] The Human Performance Outliers Podcast.

[00:01:23] Shawn's background: Rugby and moving to New Zealand.

[00:07:02] Joining the US Air Force and becoming an orthopaedic surgeon.

[00:14:17] Hardware used in orthopaedic surgery; risks of infection.

[00:18:03] The rise of chronic disease in orthopaedics.

[00:21:58] Paleo diet; Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf.

[00:22:21] Highland Games; Scottish Hammer Throw, Caber Toss.

[00:25:59] Strongman Competitions.

[00:28:01] On not using drugs to maximize performance.

[00:31:13] Concept2 Rowing.

[00:34:04] Shawn's YouTube channel.

[00:34:49] Dietary recommendations for patients.

[00:37:37] Carnivore Diet.

[00:38:51] The downsides of eating vegetables for some people; oxalates.

[00:40:08] Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Karsten Anderson ate exclusively meat diet at Bellevue Hospital; Study: Tolstoi, Edward. The effect of an exclusive meat diet lasting one year on the carbohydrate tolerance of two normal men. Waverly Press, Incorporated, 1929.

[00:40:42] Dr. Gary Fettke, Australian orthopaedic surgeon.

[00:41:53] Hormesis and plant compounds - When does the negative outweigh the positive?

[00:43:04] Dr. Rhonda Patrick; sulforaphane.

[00:49:35] George Diggs.

[00:50:57] Plant foods containing carcinogens; Study: Ames, Bruce N., Margie Profet, and Lois Swirsky Gold. "Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural)." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences87.19 (1990): 7777-7781.

[00:55:21] Minimalists podcast, featuring Christopher Kelly and Dr. Tommy Wood: Health Problems.

[00:58:41] Shawn’s podcast featuring vegan doctor, Dr. Joel Kahn.

[00:59:21] Zach Bitter.

[01:00:29] Athletes doing well on a carnivorous diet; Owen Franks, Paul Jordaan, Sarah Thackray.

[01:02:29] Book (available 8/20/19): The Carnivore Diet, by Shawn Baker, MD. World Carnivore Tribe Facebook group.

[01:05:41] Anthropological data that suggest people are facultative carnivores.

[01:19:39] Shawn’s website, Human Performance Outliers Podcast, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, Meat Heals, Coming soon: Animal Based Nutrition Network.

A Consumer’s Guide to Integrative Medicine

Jun 6, 2019


We’re happy to welcome Dr. Tim Gerstmar back on the podcast this week. Tim is a naturopathic physician, specializing in the treatment of digestive and autoimmune problems. He has spent the past 10 years seeing patients locally at Aspire Natural Health in the Seattle area, and he offers virtual consultation, both nationally and internationally. Tim is also a faculty member at Bastyr University, where he trains and mentors medical students.

In this podcast, Tim talks about choosing a practitioner that has the specific expertise you need and highlights the benefits of working with a health coach. He discusses his new book, The Clear Path to Health, and the mission behind it: making integrative medicine understandable to consumers. (Find out how to get the book for free if you take action by 6/7/19!)

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tim Gerstmar:

[00:00:10] Tim’s previous podcasts: Methylation and Environmental Pollutants and How to Test and Predict Blood, Urine and Stool for Health, Longevity and Performance.

[00:00:26] Ancestral Health Symposium.

[00:00:52] Tim's mission: To make integrative medicine understandable to consumers.

[00:03:03] Book: The Clear Path to Health: Gain Clarity So You Can Feel Your Best Today, Tomorrow, and Into The Next Decade, by Tim Gerstmar.

[00:05:21] No one doctor has all the answers; finding a doctor that has the expertise to help you.

[00:15:10] Gina's story.

[00:17:07] Principles, strategies, and tactics.

[00:25:16] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:28:29] Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD; Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:29:02] The value of having health coaches to support people in lifestyle changes.

[00:31:00] Health coaches have a PR problem.

[00:32:35] Simon's training course: Nudge Tactics for Health Coaching.

[00:32:43] Book: Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.

[00:37:03] The value of prescription medication as a tool with a specific use.

[00:41:00] Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult (LADA)

[00:43:50] Podcast: Run for Your Life: An Ancestral Health Approach to Running, with Mark Cucuzzella.

[00:44:32] The dark sides of conventional and functional medicine.

[00:46:50] Book: The Happiness Trap: How to Stop Struggling and Start Living: A Guide to ACT, by Russ Harris.

[00:47:06] The problems that can't be solved.

[00:50:26] Secondary benefits of being sick.

[00:53:48] Special offer: Free ebook until 6/7/19.  

[00:54:50] Email to be entered in a raffle for a paperback book.

[00:55:54] Final thoughts: Context matters and take a step back/find a practitioner to help you.

[00:58:22] Work with Tim: (425) 202-7849 or at

How to Harness Productive Passion and Avoid Burnout

May 29, 2019


Brad Stulberg is a writer, performance coach, and speaker, specializing in developing and harnessing productive passion using evidence-based principles of mastery and success.  He has co-authored two books, Peak Performance and The Passion Paradox, which explore the science and practice of passion and world-class performance. Currently a columnist for Outside magazine, Brad has also written for the New York Times, Wired, New York Magazine, Sports Illustrated, and more. His work also includes coaching executives, entrepreneurs, and athletes.

In this podcast, Brad and I talk about passion - specifically the idea of developing your passion, rather than “finding” it. Brad discusses how passion can be a blessing or a curse, highlighting examples of people whose obsessive approach to their work has led to their downfall. He discusses the myth of living a balanced life and offers advice for people nearing burnout. Brad also describes what the research says about quitting your day job to pursue your passion.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brad Stulberg:

[00:00:00] Blood Chemistry Calculator package; email support; book an appointment with NBT.

[00:00:32] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:00:47] Book: The Passion Paradox: A Guide to Going All In, Finding Success, and Discovering the Benefits of an Unbalanced Life, by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:05:13] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:05:44] Passion vs. addiction.

[00:06:37] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[00:07:04] 75% of people believe in the “fit mindset of passion”; Study: Chen, Patricia, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, and Norbert Schwarz. "Finding a fit or developing it: Implicit theories about achieving passion for work." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41.10 (2015): 1411-1424.

[00:09:48] Developing vs finding your passion.

[00:11:48] Lower your expectations (like Lisa from The Simpsons).

[00:12:24] Passion can be a gift or a curse; Obsessive passion vs. harmonious passion.

[00:15:15] Burnout.

[00:16:16] Elizabeth Holmes, CEO of Theranos, and Lance Armstrong as an examples of obsessive passion.

[00:18:53] Podcast: The Science and Practice of Training Elite Road Cyclists, with David Bailey, PhD.

[00:19:59] 24-48 hour rule.

[00:21:32] Book: Peak Performance: Elevate Your Game, Avoid Burnout, and Thrive with the New Science of Success,

by Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness.

[00:23:01] The biology driving the behavior; dopamine.

[00:25:37] Hedonic adaptation: adapting to your current state of happiness; suffering.

[00:26:54] Podcast: Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems, with Ashley Mason, PhD.

[00:29:30] Ellen Langer, PhD.; Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster.

[00:30:11] The myth of living a "balanced" life.

[00:31:21] Rich Roll.

[00:34:55] Podcast: How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance, with James Hewitt.

[00:36:54] People pursuing passions don’t view themselves accurately.

[00:38:01] Being on the same journey as his readers, rather than having it all figured out.

[00:39:40] Practice: We build our practice up and then it falls apart.

[00:40:32] Mid-life crises.

[00:42:10] Should you quit your day job? Study: Raffiee, Joseph, and Jie Feng. "Should I quit my day job?: A hybrid path to entrepreneurship." Academy of Management Journal 57.4 (2014): 936-963.

[00:45:38] Up to 40% of white collar work is wasted time.

[00:48:30] Don't try to be the best; be the best at getting better.

[00:49:03] Advice for someone at the burnout point.

[00:50:20] Mentoring.

[00:51:54] Co-author Steve Magness.

[00:53:19] Similarities between fit mindset and fixed mindset.

[00:53:52] Josh Turknett, MD; Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:55:00] Where to find Brad: Twitter; Brad’s website.

NBT People: Graeme Muirhead

May 19, 2019


Graeme Muirhead has been a member of our Elite Performance Program since February 2018. Born in Hong Kong and raised in Edinburgh Scotland, he studied computer science at Heriot-Watt University. His career in technology brought him to the US in 2009, and he is now a Managing Director at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in New York.

On this episode of the podcast, Graeme talks about his transformation from obesity, drinking, smoking, and back pain, to becoming a triathlete, now having completed fourteen Ironman events in Europe and the US. He discusses the moment he made the commitment to get healthy, and the methodical steps he took to develop his running, cycling, and swimming skills. Graeme also shares about his experience as an NBT client over the past year and the coaches at strategies that have helped him to improve his health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Graeme Muirhead:

[00:00:38] Becoming an athlete.

[00:05:04] 300 pounds, drinking, smoking, in pain, and the moment it all changed.

[00:06:35] Building healthy habits.

[00:10:29] Becoming a more serious athlete.

[00:11:23] Starting cycling.

[00:14:14] Treating two slipped discs with the yellow pages and masking tape.

[00:17:10] Becoming a marathon runner.

[00:19:47] Becoming a triathlete; Royal Windsor Triathlon.

[00:22:07] Ignoring negative self-talk and developing confidence.

[00:24:48] Breaking things down into chunks; divide and conquer.

[00:25:23] Moving to the USA.

[00:28:50] Full distance Ironman.

[00:32:13] Working with NBT.

[00:32:33] Triathlete Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:33:15] Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:36:53] Gut challenges.

[00:37:30] Holistic approach to health and performance.

[00:39:17] Metal toxicity.

[00:39:50] Bryan Walsh’s detox protocol; Podcast: Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification.

[00:41:47] Working with NBT Scientific Director and Coach Megan Roberts. Podcasts with Megan: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:42:03] Trello.

[00:44:28] Braveheart Coaching; Lesley's camp in San Diego.

[00:45:40] Kona: Ironman World Championship.

[00:46:16] Bob Babbitt; Breakfast with Bob.

[00:46:42] Next challenge: mountain biking.

[00:46:52] Eggbeater pedals.

[00:48:30] Graeme’s website.

[00:49:19] Christmas pudding.

The Science and Practice of Training Elite Road Cyclists

May 13, 2019


Sports Physiologist and Performance Nutritionist David Bailey, PhD is the Head of Performance for the Bahrain-Merida Pro Cycling Team. He manages and delivers scientific support to elite athletes competing at the highest level in international cycling. He also coaches, providing training prescription, nutritional support and performance interventions. He has worked with World Champions and Olympic medalists for the past 15 years.

In this podcast, Sports Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD talks with David about his role supporting a team of elite road cyclists. They discuss what it takes to prepare athletes for the Tour de France, and some of the subtle aspects of training and physical development that lead to improved performance. David weighs in on doping controversies, and also offers tips for amateur cyclists and “weekend warriors”.

Here’s the outline of this interview with David Bailey:

[00:00:11] Previous podcasts featuring Simon Marshall, PhD: 1, 2, 3, 4

[00:00:26] Head of Performance for the Bahrain Merida Professional Cycling Team.

[00:02:28] The Brownlee brothers.

[00:03:36] Some of David’s previous research; Studies: Thompson, D., et al. "Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from eccentric exercise." European journal of applied physiology 92.1-2 (2004): 133-138; and Bailey, D. M., et al. "Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running." Journal of sports sciences 25.11 (2007): 1163-1170.

[00:06:29] Anatomy of a road cycling team; Olympic sport vs. professional sport.

[00:09:54] Friction between science and practice.

[00:12:20] Mistakes made along the way.

[00:14:17] Changing your relationship with failure and defining success.

[00:17:55] Marginal gains.

[00:18:18] Dave Brailsford.

[00:23:22] Preparing a team for the Tour de France.

[00:29:59] The physical demands and support needed for competing cyclists.

[00:35:59] Richie Porte.

[00:36:44] Body types that tend to be successful.

[00:38:30] Identifying new up-and-coming riders.

[00:41:00] A typical day for the head of performance.

[00:45:33] Training regimens.

[00:50:11] Simon Yates and Adam Yates; Aaron Thomas.

[00:51:32] Chris Froome; Lance Armstrong.

[00:52:10] Technologies for measuring performance and adaptation.

[00:58:38] Partnering with McLaren Formula One team.

[01:00:45] Effects of cycling order and time in a drafted position on overall performance.

[01:02:56] Chris Boardman has set up a wind tunnel in the UK for amateurs to rent.

[01:05:01] Advice for amateur cyclists and weekend warriors.

[01:08:43] Functional threshold power (FTP) test.

[01:12:29] MAF training.

[01:13:52] Tools for the amateur cyclist.

[01:14:04] Study: Sanders, Dajo, et al. "Analysing a cycling grand tour: Can we monitor fatigue with intensity or load ratios?." Journal of sports sciences 36.12 (2018): 1385-1391.

[01:15:46] Performance enhancing drugs; How to define doping?

[01:17:46] Geraint Thomas.

[01:22:02] Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE).

[01:25:14] Vincenzo Nibali.

Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Strategies for Diabetes and Sleep Problems

May 5, 2019


Integrative Clinical Psychologist Ashley Mason, PhD. is back on the podcast to discuss her clinical work and research within the UCSF Department of Psychiatry. She is now the Co-Director for the UCSF Center for Obesity Assessment, Study, and Treatment, and the Director of the Sleep, Eating, and Affect (SEA) Lab. Her areas of interest include problematic eating and sleep-related behaviors, and nonpharmaceutical interventions to address them.

In this interview, Ashley and I discuss her current research, which focuses on treating individuals with type-2 diabetes using reduced-carbohydrate diets, mindful eating techniques and environmental management. She shares her insights on some of the root causes fueling the diabetes epidemic, and the factors that keep her research subjects motivated to make difficult lifestyle changes. We also discuss her clinical work treating people struggling with sleep, and the behavioral methods she uses to help them turn things around in a matter of weeks.

Support Ashley’s work.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ashley Mason:

[00:00:18] Ancestral Health Symposium 2014 in Berkeley.

[00:00:39] Assistant Professor at UCSF.

[00:01:27] Osher Center for Integrative Medicine.

[00:02:19] Pairing diet change with behavioral change for type 2 diabetes.

[00:04:00] How are people becoming diabetic?

[00:05:20] Only 12% of the population is metabolically healthy; Study: Araújo, Joana, Jianwen Cai, and June Stevens. "Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016." Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17.1 (2019): 46-52.

[00:07:02] Grubhub; DoorDash.

[00:01:50] Food reward; hyperpalatable foods.

[00:08:11] Ashley’s previous podcast: Paleo Psychology with Ashley Mason PhD.

[00:11:07] Getting people to change their behavior; identifying the why behind wanting to change.

[00:11:49] Low carbohydrate diets can result in reduced need for diabetic medications; Virta Health Studies: McKenzie, Amy L., et al. "A novel intervention including individualized nutritional recommendations reduces hemoglobin A1c level, medication use, and weight in type 2 diabetes." JMIR diabetes 2.1 (2017): e5; and Hallberg, Sarah J., et al. "Effectiveness and safety of a novel care model for the management of type 2 diabetes at 1 year: an open-label, non-randomized, controlled study." Diabetes Therapy 9.2 (2018): 583-612.

[00:15:54] Motivational interviewing.

[00:16:15] Stages of change model (diagram).

[00:17:40] Fundamental reasons for wanting to change.

[00:18:30] Handling the social pressure of eating differently.

[00:24:39] How to work with people in the pre-contemplative stage.

[00:28:01] USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, eighth edition.

[00:29:25] Taste and price drive decision making.

[00:30:01] Arranging the environment to support better dietary choices.

[00:31:56] Companies with self-insured health plans have incentive to keep employees healthy.

[00:33:05] Mindful eating; paying attention while you're eating. Studies: Brewer, Judson, et al. "Can mindfulness address maladaptive eating behaviors? Why traditional diet plans fail and how new mechanistic insights may lead to novel interventions." Frontiers in psychology 9 (2018): 1418; and Mason, A. E., et al. "Examining the Effects of Mindful Eating Training on Adherence to a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes (the DELISH Study): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial." JMIR research protocols 8.2 (2019): e11002-e11002.

[00:43:39] Sleep as a lynchpin to health behavior.

[00:45:54] Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI); Improving sleep as a platform for making other behavior change possible.

[00:46:30] Getting people off of benzodiazepines.

[00:49:50] Previous podcast episodes on chronotypes, meal timing, and sleep hygiene: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:50:16] CBTI strategies for improving sleep.

[00:54:51] Oura Ring; the value of self-report over electronic devices.

[00:58:38] Dealing with external factors: kids, pain.

[01:05:26] Impact of timing bright light, eating, movement, socialization.

[01:08:07] Rhonda Patrick's interview with Satchin Panda, PhD; Our podcast with Satchin Panda: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[01:13:10] Funding research; for crowdfunding; You can support Ashley’s research here.

[01:13:24] Richard Feinman, PhD.

[01:14:49] Ashley’s current and published research.

[01:15:12] Sea Lab; Osher Center Sleep Group.

[01:15:51] Book: Quiet Your Mind & Get to Sleep, by  Colleen E. Carney, PhD and Rachel Manber, PhD.

[01:16:27] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the Fuck Down and Rise to the Occasion​, by Simon Marshall, PhD.

The Latest Research on Exogenous Ketones and Other Performance Enhancers

Apr 24, 2019


Back on the podcast today, we have researcher and athlete Brianna Stubbs, PhD. Brianna has been a world-champion rower and is now competing in cycling, running, and triathlon. She is also Research Lead for HVMN, advancing the science on human optimisation and creating content and products to improve physiology, metabolism, and cognition.

As a world expert on ketone metabolism, Brianna is here with me to talk about the latest research on exogenous ketones. We discuss their effects on athletic performance, brain injury, and cognition, and she weighs in on the controversy regarding the effect of ketone esters on the inflammasome. We also look at the misunderstood role of lactate and how it’s now being used to improve athletic performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:35] Our previous podcasts with Brianna: 1, 2, 3.

[00:02:00] Podcast: Professor Tim Noakes: True Hydration and the Power of Low-Carb, High-Fat Diets.

[00:02:19] Andrew Bosch at the University of Cape Town.

[00:05:03] Training for full Ironman.

[00:05:19] Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:07:39] Using ketone esters to fuel for a race.

[00:10:18] Who's using the ketone ester?

[00:11:08] Effects of ketone esters on cognitive function; Study: Evans, Mark, and Brendan Egan. "Intermittent Running and Cognitive Performance after Ketone Ester Ingestion." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 50.11 (2018): 2330-2338.

[00:12:21] Rescue of ATP in the brain of mice given exogenous ketones; Study: Prins, M. L., et al. "Increased cerebral uptake and oxidation of exogenous βHB improves ATP following traumatic brain injury in adult rats." Journal of neurochemistry 90.3 (2004): 666-672.

[00:13:46] Unpublished research on ketone esters in hypoxia: Ketone Esters for Optimization of Cognitive Performance in Hypoxia.

[00:15:33] One hour cycling record; Vittoria Bussi.

[00:16:00] Bradley Wiggins; The Flying Scotsman Graeme Obree; Jens Voigt.

[00:19:19] Professor Tim Noakes; Central governor model of fatigue: Noakes, Timothy D. "The central governor model of exercise regulation applied to the marathon." Sports medicine 37.4-5 (2007): 374-377.

[00:19:32] Cyclists go slower from the first pedal stroke when you put them in a hot laboratory; Study: Tucker, Ross, et al. "The rate of heat storage mediates an anticipatory reduction in exercise intensity during cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion." The Journal of physiology 574.3 (2006): 905-915.

[00:19:43] Cold water in mouth reduces perceived effort and improves performance. Study: Burdon, Catriona A., et al. "The effect of ice slushy ingestion and mouthwash on thermoregulation and endurance performance in the heat." International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 23.5 (2013): 458-469.

[00:19:57] Cooling mouthwash improves performance; Study: Jeffries, Owen, Matthew Goldsmith, and Mark Waldron. "L-Menthol mouth rinse or ice slurry ingestion during the latter stages of exercise in the heat provide a novel stimulus to enhance performance despite elevation in mean body temperature." European journal of applied physiology 118.11 (2018): 2435-2442.

[00:22:25] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:22:56] Potential therapeutic applications of ketone esters.

[00:23:43] Ketogenic diet may help with alcohol withdrawal. Study: Dencker, Ditte, et al. "Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research42.2 (2018): 270-277.

[00:24:43] Dr. Stephen Cunnane; MCT study: Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre, et al. "Emulsification increases the acute ketogenic effect and bioavailability of medium-chain triglycerides in humans: protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism." Current developments in nutrition 1.7 (2017): e000851.

[00:28:13] Ketone esters as nootropics.

[00:30:23] Mitigating traumatic brain injury (TBI); lactate.

[00:31:41] Improved outcomes with lactate infusion in intensive care; Study: Nalos, Marek, et al. "Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart failure: a pilot randomised controlled clinical trial." Critical care 18.2 (2014): R48; and Ichai, Carole, et al. "Half-molar sodium lactate infusion to prevent intracranial hypertensive episodes in severe traumatic brain injured patients: a randomized controlled trial." Intensive care medicine 39.8 (2013): 1413-1422.

[00:32:22] Professor George Brooks; Study: Thomas, Claire, et al. "Effects of acute and chronic exercise on sarcolemmal MCT1 and MCT4 contents in human skeletal muscles: current status." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 302.1 (2011): R1-R14.

[00:33:07] Ketones: the ugly duckling of metabolism. Study: VanItallie, Theodore B., and Thomas H. Nufert. "Ketones: metabolism's ugly duckling." Nutrition Reviews 61.10 (2003): 327-341.

[00:34:20] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:35:28] Lactate increase carbohydrate usage and improves performance; Study: Azevedo Jr, John L., et al. "Lactate, fructose and glucose oxidation profiles in sports drinks and the effect on exercise performance." PLoS One 2.9 (2007): e927.

[00:37:24] Cytomax, Muscle Milk.

[00:39:11] L-Lactate vs D-Lactate; D-lactate free probiotics.

[00:40:01] Podcast: How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health, with Jason Hawrelak, PhD.

[00:40:44] Butyrate and exogenous ketones; Study: Cavaleri, Franco, and Emran Bashar. "Potential Synergies of β-Hydroxybutyrate and Butyrate on the Modulation of Metabolism, Inflammation, Cognition, and General Health." Journal of nutrition and metabolism 2018 (2018).

[00:41:21] Effect of patents on innovation.

[00:42:34] Richard Stallman, president of the Free Software Foundation.

[00:44:10] Paper recently accepted for journal publication on GI symptoms associated with ketone esters (not yet published).

[00:44:53] Acetoacetate diester causing GI symptoms; Study: Leckey, Jill J., et al. "Ketone diester ingestion impairs time-trial performance in professional cyclists." Frontiers in physiology 8 (2017): 806.

[00:49:45] Study: Dearlove, David James, et al. "Nutritional ketoacidosis during incremental exercise in healthy athletes." Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 290.

[00:51:21] Dominick D’Agostino, PhD; β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) blocks inflammation; Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263.  

[00:52:32] Newer study showing greater inflammatory response with ketone ester: Neudorf, Helena, et al. "Oral Ketone Supplementation Acutely Increases Markers of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Monocytes." Molecular nutrition & food research(2019): 1801171.

[00:53:46] Denmark study on effect of ketones on LPS-induced inflammation: Thomsen, Henrik H., et al. "Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies." The American journal of clinical nutrition 108.4 (2018): 857-867.

[00:59:32] How to find Brianna and HVMN: Twitter: @BriannaStubbs and @HVMN; Instagram: HVMN; Website:; HVMN blog.

[01:00:00] HVMN podcast on Apple Podcasts;  HVMN on YouTube.

NBT People: Greg White

Apr 16, 2019


Greg White writes for television in Los Angeles. He has written for Comedy Central, Netflix, Cartoon Network, Disney, and has developed his own material for networks such as FX and MTV. A former endurance running junkie, his interests include strength training, functional movement, and meditation. He has been an NBT client since 2015 and credits this for helping him connect the dots and find the nexus between health, longevity and performance.

In this episode, Greg and I talk about his transition from a life of overtraining and injury to one of balance and vitality.  He discusses his shift in values from performance to longevity, along with his new passion for strength training. We get into gut health, diet, and the mindset that works for both writing and sport.  Greg also manages to pin me down on our exact calorie and carbohydrate intake recommendations for athletes.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg White:

[00:01:03] Greg’s history as a client of Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:01:21] Chris on Ben Greenfield’s podcast in 2016: Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!

[00:01:29] The MAF Method; Trailrunner Nation - Podcasts.

[00:02:25] Organic Acids Test (OAT).

[00:03:23] Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:03:41] Phil Maffetone.

[00:09:34] Book: Mindset, by Carol Dweck.

[00:15:34] Greg's gut health journey.

[00:19:29] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:20:01] Oura Ring.

[00:21:43] Ancestral-Paleo Diet.

[00:22:44] Our exact calorie and carbohydrate intake recommendations for athletes.

[00:24:20] Tommy's AHS18 talk: The Athlete's Gut: Pitfalls of Fueling Modern Performance.

[00:25:46] Zach Moore, NBTs Head of Strength and Conditioning.

[00:27:36] 7-Minute Analysis Health Questionnaire.

[00:29:15] Brad Kearns Get Over Yourself podcast. Episodes featuring Dr. Tommy Wood: 1, 2.

[00:30:14] Risk of undereating with a whole-foods diet.

[00:31:57] TED Talk: Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O'Keefe.

[00:33:30] Podcast: How to Reconcile Performance with Longevity, with Simon Marshall and Tommy Wood.

[00:35:25] Podcast: Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training, with Paul Laursen, PhD.

[00:35:50] Shift in focus from performance to longevity.

[00:36:48] Yaktrax for running/walking in winter.

[00:39:12] Onnit equipment.

[00:39:18] Tawnee Prazak.

[00:40:10] Luna sandals.

[00:42:15] Podcast: NBT People: Will Catterson.

[00:45:17] Katy Bowman.

[00:46:01] Kelly Starrett; Mobility/WOD (M/WOD).

[00:46:12] Beginning strength training.

[00:49:52] Functional Range Conditioning (FRC).

[00:51:14] HOKA shoes.

[00:53:55] NBT on Patreon for premium podcasts and forum access.

[00:54:30] “Inspiration is for amateurs - the rest of us just show up and get to work.” - Chuck Close, painter.

[01:00:54] Tony Robbins.

[01:01:20] Strength training getaways.

[01:04:22] Greg’s YouTube channel.

[01:04:33] TV shows Greg has worked on: Season One of Animaniacs Reboot for Hulu (out in 2020). Comedy Central: Ugly Americans, TripTank; Netflix: The Adventures of Puss in Boots.

[01:05:46] Josh Turknett MD on Patreon. Podcast with Josh: The Migraine Miracle.

How to Use Probiotics to Improve Your Health

Apr 6, 2019


Dr. Jason Hawrelak, PhD. is a researcher, educator, and clinician, specializing in gastrointestinal health, the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics to improve health outcomes. Jason has written extensively in the medical literature on these topics and has been in clinical practice for almost 20 years. He also coordinates and teaches the Evidence-based Complementary Medicine Program at the University of Tasmania in Australia.

In this podcast, Jason and I discuss probiotics: what they are, what they do, and how to use them to improve your health. Jason talks about assessing the gut microbiota, some common misconceptions about probiotics, and specific strains to look for that are backed by research. He also discusses his industry-independent, evidence-based online courses and database, created to help guide clinical practice.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jason Hawrelak:

[00:00:53] Jason’s background.

[00:01:48] Studying people with IBS; learning about FODMAPs the hard way.

[00:06:15] Jason's Probiotic Advisor courses.

[00:06:36] Jason’s scientific publications.

[00:09:39] Manipulating the microbiota to improve health outcomes.

[00:12:20] Tools for assessing the gut microbiota: breath and stool testing.

[00:12:55] The limits of lactulose testing for SIBO.

[00:14:20] Interconnectedness amongst organisms in the microbiome; Mouse study: Qiu, Xinyun, et al. "Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis." Scientific reports 5 (2015): 10416.

[00:15:11] Apex predators in the gut ecosystem.

[00:15:36] Course: Advanced Probiotic Prescribing.

[00:15:40] Probiotics: live microbes that when administered in adequate amounts produces therapeutic effects.

[00:16:51] Current applications for probiotics.

[00:20:02] Debunking myths about probiotics regarding colonization and quick fixes.

[00:21:34] Fermented foods and drinks.

[00:24:12] The characteristics of a species is strain-specific.

[00:25:01] What to look for in a probiotic product (and red flags for what to avoid).

[00:26:08] Minimum therapeutic dose: one billion colony forming units (CFU).

[00:28:40] The Probiotic Advisor database.

[00:32:31] Promising probiotic strains that aren't yet available on the market.

[00:35:35] Justin Sonnenburg.

[00:35:50] Improving diversity of the gut ecosystem.

[00:36:30] 40 plant foods per week.

[00:39:06] uBiome.

[00:39:24] Genova GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile.

[00:42:07] Using uBiome results.

[00:43:33] Connection between the microbiome and mood. Course: Depression, Anxiety, and the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota.

[00:44:32] Transmitting depression from one organism to another via fecal transplant; Study: Kelly, John R., et al. "Transferring the blues: depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat." Journal of psychiatric research 82 (2016): 109-118.

[00:46:53] Jason’s clinic.

[00:48:00] Join the Gut Microbiota Explorer Challenge when you support us on Patreon.

Science and Application of High Intensity Interval Training

Mar 30, 2019


Paul Laursen, PhD is an author, endurance coach, high-performance consultant and entrepreneur. He has competed in 17 Ironman triathlon races and has published over 125 peer-reviewed papers in exercise and sports science journals. We’ve had him on the podcast once before to discuss High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), and he’s since co-authored a book and developed an online course on the topic.

In this podcast, Paul and I take an even deeper dive into HIIT, including the specific physiological benefits that just aren’t available with lower intensity aerobic training. He describes his book and training course, which bridge the gap between the science and application of HIIT. We also get into some of the technology, gadgets, and sports psychology concepts that Paul uses in his coaching.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Paul Laursen:

[00:00:04] Paul's first podcast: Why Do and How to High-Intensity Interval Training.

[00:00:33] Book: Science and Application of High-Intensity Interval Training, by Paul Laursen, PhD and Martin Buchheit, PhD.

[00:01:20] Revelstoke Mountain Resort.

[00:02:50] Mountain biking trails in Revelstoke, British Columbia.

[00:05:40] Phil Maffetone; MAF method.

[00:06:25] High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT).

[00:07:09] What does HIIT training do?

[00:11:43] Type 2 fast-twitch muscle fibers.

[00:11:55] Ken Ford; Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[00:11:56] Joe Friel; Book: Fast After 50; Podcast: Joe Friel: World-Class Coach of Elite Athletes

[00:13:30] Paul's online video online training course: Science and Application of High-Intensity Interval Training.

[00:14:08] History of the book and the course; Martin Buchheit, PhD.

[00:14:25] Literature Review: Part 1: Buchheit, Martin, and Paul B. Laursen. "High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle." Sports medicine 43.10 (2013): 927-954; Part 2: Buchheit, Martin, and Paul B. Laursen. "High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle." Sports medicine 43.10 (2013): 927-954.

[00:16:15] Daniel Plews, PhD.

[00:16:23] Marc Quod, Sports Physiologist from Orica-Greenedge cycling team.

[00:17:28] Josh Turknett, MD; Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:19:45] Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson. Podcasts featuring Simon: 1, 2, 3, 4; and Lesley: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:20:30] Using HIIT to train an elite triathlete.

[00:22:40] Kyle Buckingham.

[00:28:08] Measuring intensity; GPS watches, heart rate; rating of perceived exertion (RPE).

[00:29:44] TrainingPeaks.

[00:29:50] How work periods are prescribed; 5-zone model.

[00:33:37] Gadget interference in training; Stages; SRM.

[00:35:57] Quarq.

[00:36:28] Garmin Connect.

[00:37:29] The importance of carrying out a HIIT session as prescribed.

[00:38:37] Fartlek.

[00:39:29] Interval training vs. Fartlek; Study: Das, Aditya Kumar, M. Sudhakara Babu, and Kota Satish. "Effect of continuous running fartlek training and interval training on selected motor ability and physiological variables among male football players." International Journal of Physical Education Sports Management and Yogic Sciences 4.1 (2014): 13-18.

[00:41:36] Use of stationary bikes to ensure precision with intervals.

[00:44:55] The psychology of HIIT.

[00:45:44] Book: The Chimp Paradox by Dr. Steve Peters.

[00:49:03] How much better can you get with HIIT?

[00:53:23] HIITscience.

[00:53:33] Book: Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning by Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark A McDaniel.

[00:54:51] A need for accredited HIIT science instructions and tools to support HIIT prescription.

[00:55:28] Heart rate variability (HRV).

[00:56:11] Martin Buchheit as head of performance for Paris Saint-Germain Football Club.

[00:57:33] Free content at; Social media: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram.

An Interpretable Machine Learning Model of Biological Age

Mar 22, 2019


When we launched the Blood Chemistry Calculator (BCC) in early 2018 we couldn’t have predicted the changes the software would undergo or the projects it would lead to. One such project has been researching and writing a scientific paper on the use of machine learning to predict and interpret biological age. The paper is currently in the peer review process on F1000Research, an open research publishing platform.

In this podcast, I talk with lead author Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, about the importance of knowing your biological age and understanding how it can be derived from basic blood chemistry markers.  Tommy and I discuss the peer-review process and the changes we’re making to the software as a result of the feedback that’s been provided. We also discuss the individual markers that have the greatest impact on biological age, and how you can get a free predicted age report.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:00:58] Tommy got bit by a snake.

[00:02:38] Going to the doctor vs. changing lifestyle.

[00:03:32] Iatrogenic antibiotic injury.

[00:03:49] Antivenom: what it is, what it does and the side effects.

[00:06:49] Snake oral microbiota.

[00:10:23] Effects of antibiotics on gut.

[00:13:29] DUTCH (Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones).

[00:15:54] Our article: An interpretable machine model of biological age.

[00:17:15] Why is biological age important?

[00:19:12] Other tests of biological age; telomeres.

[00:20:31] Epigenetic testing.

[00:20:59] Effects of environment on epigenetic methylation; Studies: Nilsson, Emma, and Charlotte Ling. "DNA methylation links genetics, fetal environment, and an unhealthy lifestyle to the development of type 2 diabetes." Clinical epigenetics 9.1 (2017): 105; and Yet, Idil, et al. "Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins." Epigenomics 8.1 (2016): 105-117. Effects of lifestyle change on epigenetic methylation; Studies: Arpón, Ana, et al. "Impact of consuming extra-virgin olive oil or nuts within a Mediterranean diet on DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra randomized controlled trial: A role for dietary lipids." Nutrients 10.1 (2018): 15; and Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette, et al. "Dietary modifications, weight loss, and changes in metabolic markers affect global DNA methylation in Hispanic, African American, and Afro-Caribbean breast cancer survivors." The Journal of nutrition 145.4 (2015): 783-790.

[00:21:05] Epigenetic shifts and aging; Study: Pal, Sangita, and Jessica K. Tyler. "Epigenetics and aging." Science advances 2.7 (2016): e1600584.

[00:21:48] Insilico Medicine - Deep Biomarkers of Human Aging:

[00:22:46] Blood Chemistry Calculator (BCC).

[00:23:33] Find out your biological age with the free partial BCC report.

[00:24:04] How the biological age score is determined.

[00:28:13] Why we published the paper.

[00:28:40] Medscape article: Journal Editors on Peer Review, Paywalls, and Preprints.

[00:31:26] F1000Research.

[00:33:54] GitHub; XGBoost; Python.

[00:35:32] The reviewers for the peer review process: Alex Zhavoronkov and Peter Fedichev.

[00:39:10] Ideas that came out of the peer review process.

[00:42:49] Shapley Values and SHAP plots.

[00:43:51] Machine learning competition website: Kaggle.

[00:45:20] The most important blood markers for predicting biological age.

[00:48:02] Total cholesterol and BUN for predicting biological age.

[00:50:48] Nourish Balance Thrive on Patreon; NBT Forum.

A Carnivore Diet for Physical and Mental Health

Mar 13, 2019


At the recent Physicians for Ancestral Health Winter Retreat I had the opportunity to sit down in person with L. Amber O’Hearn, an outspoken advocate of plant-free eating. Since learning about the zero-carb carnivore approach in 2009, Amber has become an international speaker, researcher, and writer on the subjects of ketosis and the health benefits of eating meat.

In this podcast, Amber and I discuss her health journey from veganism to low carb, and then to the more radical carnivore diet. She explains how shunning plant foods led to a dramatic improvement in both her physical and mental health, ending her 20-year battle with bipolar disorder, without the use of medication. She also describes her own version of zero-carb and discusses how a carnivore diet affects ketosis.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Amber O’Hearn:

[00:00:23] Physicians for Ancestral Health.

[00:02:01] Amber's background.

[00:03:02] The path that led her to a low carb diet.

[00:09:23] Zooko Wilcox-O’Hearn.

[00:11:53] David Chaum.

[00:12:37] Zcash.

[00:16:10] The Ketogenic Diet for Health:

[00:16:49] The value of end-to-end citations.

[00:21:52] Amber's post on gluconeogenesis: If You Eat Excess Protein, Does It Turn Into Excess Glucose?

[00:26:04] Josh Turknett MD; Talk: How to Win at Angry Birds: Moving Towards a More Efficient Practice Model.

[00:26:14] Richard David Feinman; blog: The Other.

[00:28:28] Reevaluating previous recommendations: Salt and DHA.

[00:33:03] Bipolar disorder and pharmaceutical treatment.

[00:40:31] Identifying the root cause of psychiatric illness.

[00:45:06] Unwanted side effects from mood stabilizing drugs.

[00:47:16] Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT).

[00:53:45] Zero carb/plant free diet; Zeroing In On Health, ZIOH. ZIOH Facebook group.

[00:57:05] Charles Washington, founder of ZIOH group.

[00:57:49] Dry fasting leads to increased fat breakdown; Study: Rutkowska, Joanna, et al. "Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches." Journal of Experimental Biology 219.17 (2016): 2623-2628.

[01:03:58] Pregnancy: Carbohydrate cravings and hyperemesis gravidarum.

[01:05:50] Paleo Baby Podcast: Chloe Archard: Paleo advocate, mom, and host of the “Eat Better” podcast.

[01:06:51] Rat study: Thompson, Betty J., and Stuart Smith. "Biosynthesis of fatty acids by lactating human breast epithelial cells: an evaluation of the contribution to the overall composition of human milk fat." Pediatric research 19.1 (1985): 139.

[01:07:56] Keto Summit; Jeremy Hendon.

[01:09:28] Talk at Low Carb Breckenridge: L. Amber O'Hearn - Ketosis Without Starvation: The Human Advantage.

[01:10:03] The Boulder Carnivore Conference.

[01:10:54] What does a carnivore diet consist of?

[01:11:44] Financial considerations.

[01:13:56] Paleomedicina Clinic  (ICMNI) uses a Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet.

[01:14:59] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[01:15:24] Optimal ketone levels graphic from The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney.

[01:17:30] Autoimmune Protocol Diet (AIP).

[01:18:39] Shawn Baker.

[01:20:26] Andrew Scarborough.

[01:21:41] Ability to eat more protein while remaining in ketosis.

[01:26:07] Georgia Ede, MD.

[01:26:54] Podcast: Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision, with Stephanie Welch.

[01:27:35] Amber’s blog:

[01:27:46] Twitter: @ketocarnivore. Amber’s book-in-progress: You can also support Amber’s work on Patreon.

Disruptive Anthropology: An Ancestral Health Perspective on Barefooting and Male Circumcision

Mar 4, 2019


Stephanie Welch is a humanist and ancestral health advocate, challenging commonly held societal beliefs and taboos in an effort she calls Disruptive Anthropology. In 2013 she became a full-time urban barefooter in Boston and in 2014 she took up intactivism, combating both male and female circumcision as a matter of health and human rights. Two years later she began studying and speaking on sexual commerce as it relates to male and female interpersonal dynamics.

On this podcast, Stephanie and I talk about some of the stances she’s taken during her years of ancestral advocacy. We talk about the ways that wearing shoes undermines our innate biomechanical development and the social norms she challenges by going barefoot. We also discuss the physical and sexual consequences of male circumcision and the critical aspects of community and connection that have been lost to modern American culture.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephanie Welch:

[00:00:08] PAH Winter Retreat.

[00:06:30] Noticing patterns in people’s bodies, as a massage therapist.

[00:07:43] What kind of deleterious effects could happen from wearing shoes?

[00:09:45] The sense of touch that comes through the sole of the foot; mechanoreceptors.

[00:11:37] Flat feet.

[00:14:36] Minimalist footwear; stress fractures.

[00:16:49] What about sharp objects?

[00:17:36] Bruce Parry TV series: Tribe (Going Tribal in the US).

[00:18:16] Toughening up the feet.

[00:21:46] Navigating social norms and conventions.

[00:23:11] Etsy: Barefoot sandals.

[00:24:12] NBT on Patreon; Forum challenge ideas.

[00:27:31] Why circumcision is not Paleo; Video: Not So Vestigial: The Anatomy and Functions of Male Foreskin by Stephanie Welch BA, MA, LMT.

[00:28:33] Parental disagreement about child’s circumcision: News story.

[00:30:41] Medical benefits of the foreskin.

[00:32:13] Does circumcision reduce the risk of disease?

[00:35:49] Functions of the foreskin: protection, lubrication, sensation, mechanical action, partner stimulation, erectile stimulation and penis size.

[00:36:40] Greater force needed during intercourse for circumcised men; Study: O’Hara, Kristen, and Jeffrey O’Hara. "The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female partner." BJU international 83.S1 (1999): 79-84. (Note: This may not be the specific study described by Stephanie in the podcast).

[00:39:11] The role of the foreskin in lubrication.

[00:41:54] The role of the foreskin in male stimulation.

[00:43:18] Why are people getting circumcised?

[00:52:29] Circumcision later in life.

[00:54:49] Evolutionary Feminism: Rekindling Women’s Sexual Power.

[00:55:45] Nuclear families as the domestic unit of society.

[00:56:36] Compassionate Communities; Podcast: Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health, with Julian Abel, MD.

[00:58:14] Tribal living vs. modern households.

[01:03:55] Stephanie’s Paper: Welch, Stephanie. "Shoes Are Not Paleo." Journal of Evolution and Health 2.1 (2017): 16.

[01:04:01] Paleo f(x).

[01:04:22] Stephanie at the Ancestral Health Symposium.

[01:04:31] Future Frontiers in Austin, Tx.

How to Treat Chronic Sports Injuries Using Minimally Invasive Methods

Feb 23, 2019


Kimberly Harmon, MD, is board certified in Family Practice with a Certificate of Added Qualification in Sports Medicine. She is the Head Football Team Physician for the University of Washington Huskies, as well as a UW Professor in the Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Kimberly has lectured nationally and has authored numerous peer-reviewed papers on topics relating to sports injury and novel approaches to treatment.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, Kimberly draws from her own research and experience to describe options for the treatment of sport-related tendon and joint injuries using minimally-invasive procedures. They discuss interventions ranging from physical therapy techniques to platelet-rich plasma to relieve pain and improve function. She also discusses some of the main medical and safety challenges faced by today’s college athletes.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kimberly Harmon:

[00:01:15] Non-surgical approaches to sport-related joint and tendon problems.

[00:04:16] Assessment and treatment; eccentric exercises.

[00:06:48] Early intervention; Physical therapy techniques: Astym and Graston.

[00:07:10] Extracorporeal shockwave therapy.

[00:07:43] Nitrous Oxide; nitro patch.

[00:10:27] Tenotomy.

[00:10:52] Injecting whole blood into the tendon; Platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

[00:12:54] Reviews of PRP studies: 1. Salamanna, Francesca, et al. "New and emerging strategies in platelet-rich plasma application in musculoskeletal regenerative procedures: general overview on still open questions and outlook." BioMed research international 2015 (2015). 2. Barile, Antonio, et al. "Anaesthetics, steroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures." The British journal of radiology 89.1065 (2016): 20150355. 3. Jeong, D. U., et al. "Clinical applications of platelet-rich plasma in patellar tendinopathy." BioMed research international 2014 (2014).

[00:14:03] Kim’s research on PRP - about 80% of people respond Mautner, Kenneth, et al. "Outcomes after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic tendinopathy: a multicenter, retrospective review." PM&R 5.3 (2013): 169-175.

[00:15:35] Cortisol vs. PRP.

[00:17:12] Working treatment into recommendations for athletes.

[00:18:40] Joints; treatment with PRP.

[00:20:02] PRP improves joint pain and function; Studies: Bousnaki, M., A. Bakopoulou, and P. Koidis. "Platelet-rich plasma for the therapeutic management of temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review." International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 47.2 (2018): 188-198; and Tietze, David C., Kyle Geissler, and James Borchers. "The effects of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of large-joint osteoarthritis: a systematic review." The Physician and sportsmedicine 42.2 (2014): 27-37.

[00:21:00] Joint replacement.

[00:21:40] Viscosupplementation; brands: Synvisc, Orthovisc, Euflexxa, Supartz; hyaluronic acid.

[00:22:12] PRP vs. hyaluronic acid; Study: Ye, Ye, et al. "Platelet rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid in patients with hip osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." International Journal of Surgery (2018).

[00:24:00] Stem cells.

[00:28:00] Ablations of the nerves for arthritis; radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

[00:29:36] Being the on-call doctor for the University of Washington Husky football team.

[00:31:23] Problems seen in college athletes; sleep.

[00:33:20] Chair of the Pac-12 Student Athlete Health and Well-Being Board.

[00:34:42] Injury record database; sports analytics.

[00:37:02] Find Kim: Sports Medicine Clinic at Husky Stadium; see her research on PubMed.

Run for Your Life: An Ancestral Health Approach to Running

Feb 16, 2019


Dr. Mark Cucuzzella, MD is a family medicine physician and Air Force Reserve Lieutenant Colonel, as well as a Professor at West Virginia University School of Medicine. Mark has been a competitive runner for almost four decades, with more than one hundred marathon and ultramarathon finishes, and he continues to compete as a national-level masters runner. Mark also owns the first minimalist running and walking shoe store, Two Rivers Treads.

In this podcast Dr. Tommy Wood, MD talks with Mark about his new book Run For Your Life, which outlines the science and the soul of running and nutrition for maintaining a vigorous life. They discuss the aspects of physiology that suggest humans evolved to run, and the features of modern living that can result in foot pain and arthritis. Mark shares his best training tips for both new and experienced runners, as well as resources for healing painful foot conditions.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mark Cucuzzella:

[00:00:23] Book: Run for Your Life: How to Run, Walk, and Move Without Pain or Injury and Achieve a Sense of Well-Being and Joy, by Dr. Mark Cucuzzella.

[00:01:54] Books: Fat Chance and The Fat Chance Cookbook, by Dr. Robert Lustig.

[00:02:07] Gary Taubes.

[00:04:33] The process of writing a book.

[00:05:44] Co-writer Broughton Coburn.

[00:07:18] Collaboration between Tommy and Mark on low-carb paper: Cucuzzella, Mark T., et al. "A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal." Journal of Insulin Resistance 2.1 (2017): 1-25.

[00:08:09] Running.

[00:08:39] Book: Born to Run by Christopher McDougall.

[00:08:42] Features of human physiology and skeleton that support bipedal running; Study: Bramble, Dennis M., and Daniel E. Lieberman. "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo." Nature 432.7015 (2004): 345.

[00:09:31] Book: Story of the Human Body, by Dan Lieberman.

[00:11:20] Zones of training.

[00:12:10] Minimal shoes.

[00:15:12] The road to health for people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

[00:15:34] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD and Jeff Volek, PhD, RD.

[00:16:41] Slow jogging; Dr. Hiroaki Tanaka. Videos: 1, 2, and how to slow jog, with Dr. Tanaka.

[00:18:46] The facia and how it relates to running.

[00:20:37] Lawrence van Lingen.

[00:20:53] Book: Anatomy Trains, by Thomas Myers.

[00:21:23] Book: Functional Atlas of the Human Fascial System, by Carla Stecco, MD.

[00:22:17] Videos: Gil Hedley: Fascia and stretching: The Fuzz Speech and Strolling Under the Skin.

[00:23:50] Foam rolling.

[00:25:04] The gastrocsoleus complex.

[00:28:23] Plantar fasciitis; Mark’s ebook.

[00:29:47] Hallux valgus (bunion).

[00:31:06] Relieving foot pain: Correct Toes.

[00:32:59] Insole: Barefoot Science.

[00:33:47] Knee osteoarthritis and pain.

[00:34:28] Dr. Casey Kerrigan; Jay Dicharry.

[00:36:11] Modern-day influences on osteoarthritis; Study: Berenbaum, Francis, et al. "Modern-day environmental factors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis." Nature Reviews Rheumatology(2018): 1.

[00:37:17] Dick Beardsley, Roger Robinson.

[00:39:35] Meb Keflezighi.

[00:41:14] Cardiovascular benefits vs complications of training.

[00:42:44] Podcast: How to Reconcile Performance with Longevity.

[00:44:22] Bernard Lagat.

[00:44:56] Eliud Kipchoge.

[00:48:48] and

[00:50:58] PAH Winter Retreat in Scottsdale, AZ.

Ben House, PhD on Strength Training: a Discussion at the Flō Retreat Center in Costa Rica

Feb 6, 2019


This past January several of the NBT team members and I met up for sun and camaraderie at the Flō Retreat Center, in Uvita, Costa Rica. Flō is run by strength coach, Ben House, PhD, who’s been on the podcast once before. Previously we talked about his work with clients and the effects of hormones on building strength and lean mass. It’s now a year later and we’re continuing the conversation.

On this podcast, Ben is joined by myself, Dr. Tommy Wood, Megan Roberts, and Dr. Lindsay Taylor for a discussion of some of the practical and philosophical aspects of strength training and public health. Ben also shares his strategy for evaluating scientific literature and explains why everyone can benefit by building muscle.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ben House:

[00:00:00] Hikecast with Kim House.

[00:00:07] Flō Retreat Center, Uvita, Costa Rica.

[00:03:03] Addictions.

[00:05:27] Indicators of longevity: grip strength, leg strength and muscle mass, VO2 max.

[00:08:46] Megan's transformation.

[00:09:47] Fat free mass index (FFMI).

[00:10:02] Muscle mass and mortality; Study: Abramowitz, Matthew K., et al. "Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study." PloS one 13.4 (2018): e0194697.

[00:13:27] FFMI Calculator.

[00:16:16] Working as a personal trainer.

[00:17:56] Getting a PhD: Learning how to learn.

[00:21:32] Glycogen shunt; Studies: Shulman, Robert G. "Glycogen turnover forms lactate during exercise." Exercise and sport sciences reviews 33.4 (2005): 157-162; and Shulman, R. G., and D. L. Rothman. "The “glycogen shunt” in exercising muscle: a role for glycogen in muscle energetics and fatigue." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98.2 (2001): 457-461.

[00:24:47] Dr. Josh Turknett. Podcast: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:25:22] Different types of cells identified in mouse brain; Study: Tasic, Bosiljka, et al. "Shared and distinct transcriptomic cell types across neocortical areas." Nature 563.7729 (2018): 72.

[00:27:18] Dr. Richard Feinman blog post: Meta-analysis is to analysis…

[00:31:58] Keto not conducive to muscle gain in clinical trials; Studies: Vargas, Salvador, et al. "Efficacy of ketogenic diet on body composition during resistance training in trained men: a randomized controlled trial." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 15.1 (2018): 31. Additional studies showing loss of lean body mass on keto: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[00:32:42] Luis Villaseñor, KetoGains.

[00:34:27] Solving nuanced health problems.

[00:35:49] Precision Nutrition.

[00:40:36] Books: The Power of Moments and Switch by Chip Heath and Dan Heath.

[00:42:01] Behavior change.

[00:43:13] Is obesity solvable on a macro level?

[00:50:34] Uncoupling proteins; Podcast: Mitochondria: More Than a Powerhouse, with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:52:00] Lindsay Taylor; Podcast: Brain Training for the Primal Keto Endurance Athlete.

[01:03:24] Mike T Nelson; Podcast: How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use.

[01:03:43] Retreats at the Flō Retreat Center.

[01:06:52] Bro retreats; hypertrophy camps.

[01:08:35] 2019 Functional Medicine Costa Rica Retreat: Speakers include Bryan Walsh, Pat Davidson, Seth Oberst.

[01:09:46] Zac Cupples; Course: Human Matrix.

[01:10:07] Lucy Hendricks, Ryan L'Ecuyer.

[01:13:16] 30 minutes 2x a week to get to a sufficient FFMI.

[01:14:26] Mechanisms for increasing muscle mass: muscular tension and metabolic stress.

[01:19:35] Zach Moore; Podcast: Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching.

[01:19:48] Nourish Balance Thrive on Patreon.

[01:26:47] Is the Flō Retreat Center replicable?

[01:30:15] Ben’s Facebook page; Functional Medicine Costa Rica;; Email:

Morning Larks and Night Owls: the Biology of Chronotypes

Jan 27, 2019


Back on the show today is Greg Potter, PhD, Content Director at Last time Greg was here we discussed entraining circadian rhythm to attain perfect sleep. Today we’re examining circadian biology from a different angle, focusing specifically on chronotypes. Are we biologically wired to be morning larks or night owls? Or do these tendencies stem from social conditioning and modern influences?

On this podcast, Dr. Tommy Wood talks with Greg about the biological underpinnings that may have resulted in distinct chronotypes. They discuss the environmental factors that contribute to early or late tendencies and the impact of having a “late” chronotype on health outcomes. Greg also shares his best practical strategies to optimize the circadian system for the purposes of health, sleep, and productivity.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:

[00:00:00] Try a humanOS Pro Membership for $1 for the first month (use code: NBT).

[00:00:10] Greg’s previous podcast: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health.

[00:02:04] Satchin Panda podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health.

[00:02:12] Bill Lagakos podcast: Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology).

[00:02:44] Chronotypes.

[00:03:33] Michael O'Shea, author of Aspects of Mental Economy (1900).

[00:04:03] Colin Pittendrigh and Serge Daan.

[00:04:40] Horne and Östberg study: Horne, Jim A., and Olov Östberg. "A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms." International journal of chronobiology(1976).

[00:04:45] Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ).

[00:05:45] Composite Scale of Morningness; Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ).

[00:07:19] Objective measures of biological timing: actimetry; Actiwatch; melatonin rhythm, core body temperature, cortisol.

[00:09:20] The circadian system explained.

[00:12:19] Time cues (zeitgebers).

[00:11:39] Entrainment.

[00:15:12] Phase angle of entrainment; Jeanne Duffy, PhD.

[00:17:36] Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells; David Berson, PhD; Samer Hattar.

[00:18:49] Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); Studies: Moore, Robert Y., and Victor B. Eichler. "Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat." Brain research(1972); and Abe, K., et al. "Effects of destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei on the circadian rhythms in plasma corticosterone, body temperature, feeding and plasma thyrotropin." Neuroendocrinology 29.2 (1979): 119-131.

[00:19:36] Phase Response Curve.

[00:22:03] Sleep homeostasis: the pressure to sleep that accumulates with more time awake.

[00:24:26] David Samson, PhD; Sentinel hypothesis, study: Samson, David R., et al. "Chronotype variation drives night-time sentinel-like behaviour in hunter–gatherers." Proc. R. Soc. B 284.1858 (2017): 20170967.

[00:28:35] Kenneth Wright, Jr.; Study: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle." Current Biology 23.16 (2013): 1554-1558; Follow up study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:32:49] Weaker time cues: 88% of time indoors, light pollution.

[00:35:56] Twin studies on diurnal type: Vink, Jacqueline M., et al. "Genetic analysis of morningness and eveningness." Chronobiology international 18.5 (2001): 809-822.

[00:36:24] Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome; Study: Toh, Kong L., et al. "An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome." Science 291.5506 (2001): 1040-1043.

[00:37:48] Delayed sleep phase disorder; study: Patke, Alina, et al. "Mutation of the human circadian clock gene CRY1 in familial delayed sleep phase disorder." Cell 169.2 (2017): 203-215.

[00:38:17] Gene variants involved in the sleep timing; Studies: Hu, Youna, et al. "GWAS of 89,283 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with self-reporting of being a morning person." Nature communications 7 (2016): 10448; and Jones, Samuel E., et al. "Genome-wide association analyses in> 119,000 individuals identifies thirteen morningness and two sleep duration loci." Biorxiv (2016): 031369.

[00:41:33] Economic benefit of later school start times: Hafner, Marco, Martin Stepanek, and Wendy M. Troxel. "Later school start times in the US." An economic analysis (2017).

[00:46:03] Health effects of late chronotype.

[00:47:23] Study: Knutson, Kristen L., and Malcolm von Schantz. "Associations between chronotype, morbidity and mortality in the UK Biobank cohort." Chronobiology international (2018): 1-9.

[00:48:35] Chronotype and cognitive performance; Study: Kyle, Simon D., et al. "Sleep and cognitive performance: cross-sectional associations in the UK Biobank." Sleep medicine 38 (2017): 85-91; and van der Vinne, Vincent, et al. "Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes." Journal of biological rhythms 30.1 (2015): 53-60.

[00:50:10] Social jetlag; Study: Wittmann, Marc, et al. "Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time." Chronobiology international 23.1-2 (2006): 497-509.

[00:51:10] Social jet lag and poor health; Study: Roenneberg, Till, et al. "Social jetlag and obesity." Current Biology 22.10 (2012): 939-943.

[00:53:01] Calculating social jetlag; Article: Jankowski, Konrad S. "Social jet lag: Sleep-corrected formula." Chronobiology international 34.4 (2017): 531-535.

[00:55:23] The effect of seasonality on circadian rhythm.

[00:57:40] Seasonal changes in gene expression; Study: Dopico, Xaquin Castro, et al. "Widespread seasonal gene expression reveals annual differences in human immunity and physiology." Nature communications 6 (2015): 7000.

[00:58:54] Latitudinal differences in chronotype; Study: Putilov, Arcady A., et al. "Genetic-based signatures of the latitudinal differences in chronotype." Biological Rhythm Research (2018): 1-17.

[00:59:22] Effect of latitude on delayed sleep phase syndrome: Pereira, Danyella S., et al. "Association of the length polymorphism in the human Per3 gene with the delayed sleep-phase syndrome: does latitude have an influence upon it?." Sleep 28.1 (2005): 29-32.

[01:01:46] Book: The Power of When By Michael Breus, PhD.

[01:02:31] Molding the environment to support health outcomes.

[01:04:26] The most important ways to optimize the functions of the circadian system.

[01:05:06] James Hewitt podcast: How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance.

[01:07:12] Blog post: Writing a To-Do List Might Help You Fall Asleep Faster.

[01:08:55] Digital sunset: f.lux, Twilight (Android). Night Shift (iOS).

[01:11:21] Body Scan meditation: Mark Williams or Sharon Salzberg.

[01:14:12] Video: AHS18 - The Athlete's Gut: Pitfalls of Fuelling Modern Performance.

[01:14:25] Effects of irregular meal pattern; Study: Alhussain, Maha H., Ian A. Macdonald, and Moira A. Taylor. "Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women, 2." The American journal of clinical nutrition 104.1 (2016): 21-32.

Formula One Team Medicine: Dr. Luke Bennett

Jan 16, 2019


Join us at the Physicians for Ancestral Health Winter Retreat

Dr. Luke Bennett, MD is the Medical and Sports Performance Director with Hintsa Performance, and the team doctor for the Mercedes - AMG Petronas Formula One (F1) racing team. His role with F1 involves providing general medical practice for 200 staff on the road and overseeing a team of coaches, trainers, and nutritionists who work with the drivers on the Formula One grid.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Luke discusses his background in critical and intensive care medicine in Australia and the events that launched him from lifelong fan of motorsport to Formula One team doctor. They discuss the training, business, and performance psychology needs of F1 drivers and some of the challenges associated with life on the road.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Luke Bennett:

[00:00:12] Peter Attia Podcast: The Drive.

[00:00:20] Hintsa Performance.

[00:02:30] Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia.

[00:05:18] Taking a patient history.

[00:06:35] Transitioning to working with Formula One.

[00:07:47] Dr. Aki Hintsa.

[00:08:39] Formula One.

[00:09:33] Team doctor for the Mercedes-AMG Petronas team.

[00:11:28] Haile Gebrselassie; Mika Häkkinen.

[00:12:44] Pete McKnight and Dave Ferguson; Book: The Science of Motorsport, by David P. Ferguson.

[00:13:55] Finding the right coach for the right driver.

[00:17:14] The Core: a close and deliberate examination of what makes a person tick.

[00:18:33] Psychology of sports performance in F1.

[00:21:20] The complex social tapestry of F1 racing.

[00:23:19] Hintsa Chairman Juha Äkräs and CEO, Jussi Raisanen.

[00:25:01] Knowing where to assign your time.

[00:29:23] Tim Ferriss; Financial Times, Sky News; The West Wing Weekly.

[00:30:24] Sam Harris, Waking Up Podcast.

[00:31:19] Shane Parrish; Farnam Street blog.

[00:32:11] Ornithology.

[00:34:35] Hintsa on Twitter and Facebook.

Building Compassionate Communities to Improve Public Health

Jan 10, 2019


Julian Abel, MD has been a consultant in palliative care since 2001, as well as the Vice President of Public Health Palliative Care International, and the Director of Compassionate Communities UK. Since 2016 Julian has been collaborating with Frome Medical Practice in the UK to roll out their innovative model of building social connection within the community to improve health outcomes and quality of life. The initial results have been remarkable, with dramatic decreases in local emergency admissions compared to surrounding areas.

On this podcast with Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, Julian describes the compassionate community model of care, including the financial and social benefits that come with weaving social support into an existing health care system. He explains how creating stronger connections within the community is a public health imperative and a socially conscious alternative to rising health care costs. He’s also developed a replicable system for bringing the concept to other communities and businesses.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Julian Abel:

[00:02:19] Compassionate communities: Things that matter most to people who are dying and the supportive networks that surround them.

[00:03:08] Palliative care.

[00:05:18] The impact of kindness and compassion on how we function.

[00:06:01] Death: how best to help people with terminal illness.

[00:08:40] Frome Medical Practice in Somerset; Health Connections Mendip.

[00:10:47] Impact of social connection: 14% reduction in emergency admissions in Frome, compared to 28.5% increase in admissions within Somerset; Study: Abel, Julian, et al. "Reducing emergency hospital admissions: a population health complex intervention of an enhanced model of primary care and compassionate communities." Br J Gen Pract 68.676 (2018): e803-e810.

[00:11:53] Social relationships and mortality; Study: Holt-Lunstad, Julianne, Timothy B. Smith, and J. Bradley Layton. "Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review." PLoS medicine 7.7 (2010): e1000316.

[00:12:37] Bringing compassionate communities into health services.

[00:14:35] Benefits to health, medicine, and society.

[00:16:23] Compassionate Communities UK.

[00:18:32] Key functions of the model.

[00:23:16] Reciprocity and altruism.

[00:24:31] Systematic program implementation: How to bring these practices to new communities.

[00:26:16] Public Health Palliative Care International; Compassionate City Charter.

[00:29:00] Implementation within companies for staff retention and recruitment, employee morale, productivity.

[00:30:25] Physicians: Emotional distance vs. compassion.

[00:33:49] Placebo effect and therapeutic relationship.

[00:37:14] Fitting the model into even very brief medical consultations.

[00:37:31] Health Connections Mendip service directory.

[00:38:48] A “malnourishment of compassion”, across all age groups.

[00:41:34] Resurgence & Ecologist Magazine article: Compassion is the best medicine, by Julian Abel and Lindsay Clarke.

[00:41:37] Guardian article: The town that’s found a potent cure for illness – community, by George Monbiot.

[00:42:13] Highlights email discussing compassionate communities paper and intervention.

How to Support Childhood Cognitive Development

Jan 1, 2019


We’ve got neurologist Josh Turknett, MD back on the podcast today to talk about “unschooling”, a homeschooling method in which the direction of education is strongly influenced by the student’s interests and choices. It is becoming a popular alternative to traditional schooling, which forces kids to stay indoors, sit still, and be quiet for hours every day, while limiting access to activities they are developmentally wired to appreciate, such as art, drama, and music.

On this podcast Josh and I talk about how best to support a child’s natural cognitive development, specifically using the principles of unschooling. Josh describes this emerging paradigm and explains the benefit it holds for all children - not only those struggling within the traditional school system. We also discuss the best resources we’ve found for educating our own kids and encouraging their cognitive development.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett:

[00:00:13] Previous podcast episode: The Migraine Miracle, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:01:10] Physicians for Ancestral Health (PAH); PAH Podcast.

[00:02:33] PAH website:

[00:05:38] Intelligence Unshackled Podcast.

[00:08:30] Book: The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat: And Other Clinical Tales, by Oliver Sacks.

[00:09:02] Geoffrey Hinton: This Canadian Genius Created Modern AI.

[00:09:44] Study: Richards, Blake A., and Paul W. Frankland. "The persistence and transience of memory." Neuron 94.6 (2017): 1071-1084.

[00:10:37] Book: The Forgetting Machine: Memory, Perception, and the "Jennifer Aniston Neuron", by Rodrigo Quian Quiroga.

[00:12:07] Paleo Baby Podcast.

[00:12:52] Letter To High Meadows Elementary School.

[00:16:58] Arts and music as undervalued disciplines in traditional school systems.

[00:20:15] Harder is not necessarily better.

[00:21:36] Forest school.

[00:23:12] Using the outdoors for primary education.

[00:25:32] Traditional schooling: suppressing activities that come most naturally.

[00:26:03] ADD/ADHD; sleep deprivation and nutrition.

[00:29:57] Unschooling.

[00:33:42] Learning formula: intrinsic motivation, feedback mechanism, learning constructed knowledge.

[00:36:15] Day to day unschooling schedule.

[00:37:10] The myth of poor socialization when homeschooling.

[00:39:37] Balancing interests with general education.

[00:42:37] Duolingo.

[00:42:55] Educational materials.

[00:43:07] Khan Academy; 3Blue1Brown; Smartick.

[00:45:17] Assessing knowledge and progress.

[00:50:37] Book: Selfish Reasons to Have More Kids: Why Being a Great Parent is Less Work and More Fun Than You Think, by Bryan Caplan.

[00:53:59] Book: Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Peter C. Brown.

[00:54:12] Movie: Class Dismissed.

[00:54:26] Brainjo on Patreon.

[00:55:24] Censorship on Wikipedia.

[00:55:59] Sam Harris.

[00:57:25] Brainjo.

[01:01:40];; Brainjo Education Facebook group.

[01:03:00] Physicians for Ancestral Health; PAH winter retreat.

[01:04:01] Book: Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, by Tim Harford.

Startups, Investing, and Technology in Health with Kevin Rose

Dec 27, 2018


Internet entrepreneur, venture capitalist, and software coder Kevin Rose had his first taste of success in business when he co-founded Digg, a social news website, in 2004. A few years later he was named one of the top 35 innovators under age 35 by the MIT Technology Review. He’s gone on to create other websites and companies, with a current focus on building health-related mobile apps and investing in promising startups.

In this podcast, Dr. Tommy Wood and I interview Kevin about his professional life as an innovator and entrepreneur. We delve into his remarkable ability to predict societal trends and discuss the direction he sees technology heading next. Kevin also shares some of the practices and supplements he uses to enhance his own cognitive performance and quality of life.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kevin Rose:

[00:01:03] Kevin's background.

[00:04:05] Combining marketing and programming; TechTV; The Screen Savers.

[00:04:25] Digg.

[00:06:11] Fake news: Turning Obama audio clips into realistic lip-synched video.

[00:06:42] Techmeme for tech news.

[00:10:46] Investing in Facebook and Twitter.

[00:12:23] Anonymous decentralized internet.

[00:13:19] Tor; InterPlanetary File System (IPFS); Blockstack.

[00:14:13] Social media making people miserable.

[00:16:06] Oak meditation app.

[00:16:30] Headspace, Calm.

[00:19:23] The Light Phone; Palm.

[00:20:12] Google Pixel 3.

[00:23:31] Zero fasting tracker app.

[00:24:11] Satchin Panda; Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD.

[00:24:16] Valter Longo.

[00:24:46] The Kevin Rose Show podcast.

[00:25:59] Paul Graham: Sitcom startup ideas.

[00:27:29] Wearable technology; Oura ring.

[00:28:29] Continuous glucose monitoring; Study: Beck, Roy W., et al. "Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes using insulin injections: the DIAMOND randomized clinical trial." Jama 317.4 (2017): 371-378.

[00:28:53] Dexcom G6.

[00:29:43] Peter Attia; Peter Attia Drive; Podcast: The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan, with Peter Attia.

[00:30:03] Tim Ferriss.

[00:32:08] Cold and heat; Wim Hof method.

[00:35:34] Peloton: A spin class in your home.

[00:36:30] 23andMe; MTHFR.

[00:37:36] Rapamycin; Ben Greenfield.

[00:38:06] Cognitive benefits: Lion’s mane mushroom; Bacopa.

[00:38:56] Studies: Hericium (lion's mane) and BDNF: Rupcic, Zeljka, et al. "Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum." International journal of molecular sciences 19.3 (2018): 740; and Bacopa: Neale, Chris, et al. "Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes." British journal of clinical pharmacology 75.3 (2013): 728-737.

[00:39:04] ReCODE protocol; Book: The End of Alzheimer's: The First Program to Prevent and Reverse Cognitive Decline, by Dale Bredesen.

[00:39:48] Blockchain; Electronic health records.

[00:41:13] WellnessFX.

[00:42:06] Book: Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones, by James Clear.

[00:42:19] Reasons people come to meditation apps.

[00:43:14] Book: The Illuminated Mind by June D’Estelle.

[00:44:06] Sam Harris.

[00:46:43] User churn.

[00:52:34] Where to find Kevin:; Instagram.

How to Use Breathing, Heat, and Cold for Health and Athletic Performance

Dec 19, 2018


Coach PJ Nestler is a human performance specialist with a life mission to help athletes and coaches realize their full potential. With over 10 years of experience preparing top athletes for competition, PJ has trained dozens of athletes from the UFC, NFL, NHL, and MLB. He has also worked extensively with over 100 fighters, including Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu World Champions and Top 10 ranked UFC fighters.

On this podcast, NBT Coach Clay Higgins talks with Coach PJ about his role as the Director of Performance with XPT Life, which includes researching, educating, and training based on XPTs Breathe-Move-Recover foundational pillars. PJ discusses the value of breathing protocols to sustain health and improve athletic performance. They also look at exposure to extreme heat and cold for hormetic benefits and offer some things to consider before adding these strategies to your training regimen.

Here’s the outline of this interview with PJ Nestler:

[00:01:00] XPT Experience; Laird Hamilton and Gabby Reece.

[00:02:39] Pool training exercises.

[00:07:08] Exploration breathing sessions.

[00:09:22] The rise of breath work as the key to performance.

[00:13:30] Dysfunction in breathing: causes and effects.

[00:16:05] Controlling breath to create the intra-abdominal pressure needed to lift.

[00:17:46] Relief of anxiety.

[00:19:27] The physiology behind different breathing protocols: Understanding the why.

[00:22:41] Identifying the best breathing protocol for an individual.

[00:26:00] Mouth taping.

[00:27:06] Somnifix strips.

[00:29:39] Sleep hygiene; circadian rhythm.

[00:30:41] Functional Range Conditioning (FRC).

[00:30:59] Controlled Articular Rotations (CARS).

[00:31:50] Nighttime routine.

[00:34:19] ChiliPad.

[00:35:48] Cold therapy.

[00:36:41] Using breath to lower heart rate and blood pressure, decrease sympathetic nervous system activity; Studies: Zou, Yan, et al. "Meta-Analysis of Effects of Voluntary Slow Breathing Exercises for Control of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases." The American journal of cardiology 120.1 (2017): 148-153; and Hering, Dagmara, et al. "Effects of acute and long-term slow breathing exercise on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in untreated male patients with hypertension." Journal of hypertension 31.4 (2013): 739-746.

[00:38:28] Physiological benefits of exposure to extreme heat; Studies: For depression in cancer patients: Koltyn, K. F., et al. "Changes in mood state following whole-body hyperthermia." International journal of hyperthermia 8.3 (1992): 305-307; In cardiovascular disease: Laukkanen, Jari A., Tanjaniina Laukkanen, and Setor K. Kunutsor. "Cardiovascular and other health benefits of sauna bathing: a review of the evidence." Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol. 93. No. 8. Elsevier, 2018; In diabetes: Krause, Mauricio, et al. "Heat shock proteins and heat therapy for type 2 diabetes: pros and cons." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 18.4 (2015): 374-380; In rheumatic disease, asthma, and chronic bronchitis: Hannuksela, Minna L., and Samer Ellahham. "Benefits and risks of sauna bathing." The American journal of medicine 110.2 (2001): 118-126.

[00:39:20] Hormesis.

[00:40:47] Sauna and cold exposure: What temperature and for how long?

[00:42:10] Research suggests benefit at 175 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit for 15-30 minutes, 2+ times/week.

[00:46:28] Cold exposure for athletic recovery; Study: Versey, Nathan G., Shona L. Halson, and Brian T. Dawson. "Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations." Sports medicine 43.11 (2013): 1101-1130.

[00:48:19] Find PJ on Instagram, on YouTube, Facebook,

Calorie Restriction for Healthy Aging and Longevity

Dec 12, 2018


Researcher Jon Ramsey, PhD is Professor in the Department of Molecular Biosciences within the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis. His study of animals focuses on nutrition as it relates to obesity and aging. The goal of his research is to understand the biological mechanisms that contribute to the aging process and to develop dietary interventions that promote healthy aging and weight loss.

In this podcast, NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts interviews Dr. Ramsey about his research in the area of calorie restriction and its beneficial effects on longevity and healthspan. They examine the scientific literature on energy and macronutrient restriction, including some of the possible biological mechanisms driving the anti-aging effects of these interventions. They also discuss what this all means in practical terms for those seeking optimal health as they age.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jon Ramsey:

[00:01:35] Calorie restriction for increasing lifespan.

[00:02:01] Theories of aging.

[00:04:40] Osborne and Mendel; Study: Osborne, Thomas B., Lafayette B. Mendel, and Edna L. Ferry. "The effect of retardation of growth upon the breeding period and duration of life of rats." Science 45.1160 (1917): 294-295.

[00:04:58] Clive McCay; Studies: McCay, Clive Maine, and Mary F. Crowell. "Prolonging the life span." The Scientific Monthly 39.5 (1934): 405-414 and McCay, Carl M., Mary F. Crowell, and Lewis A. Maynard. "The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span and upon the ultimate body size: one figure." The journal of Nutrition 10.1 (1935): 63-79.

[00:06:25] Calorie restriction literature in animals.

[00:07:39] Types of rodents studied.

[00:08:09] Comparing effect of caloric restriction (CR) on different strains of mice; Study: Liao, Chen‐Yu, et al. "Genetic variation in the murine lifespan response to dietary restriction: from life extension to life shortening." Aging cell 9.1 (2010): 92-95.

[00:09:08] Time restricted feeding in animal models.

[00:11:51] Calorie restriction vs. malnutrition.

[00:12:00] Different levels of calorie restriction. Study: Weindruch, Richard, et al. "The retardation of aging in mice by dietary restriction: longevity, cancer, immunity and lifetime energy intake." The Journal of nutrition 116.4 (1986): 641-654.

[00:13:36] Effects of 10% dietary restriction: Richardson, Arlan, et al. "Significant life extension by ten percent dietary restriction." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1363.1 (2016): 11-17.

[00:15:09] CALERIE study and resulting Publications.

[00:17:56] Analyses of CALERIE data. Studies: Belsky, Daniel W., et al. "Change in the rate of biological aging in response to caloric restriction: CALERIE Biobank Analysis." The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 73.1 (2017): 4-10. and Redman, Leanne M., et al. "Metabolic slowing and reduced oxidative damage with sustained caloric restriction support the rate of living and oxidative damage theories of aging." Cell metabolism 27.4 (2018): 805-815.

[00:19:21] Dietary restriction and oxidative stress; Study: Walsh, Michael E., Yun Shi, and Holly Van Remmen. "The effects of dietary restriction on oxidative stress in rodents." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 66 (2014): 88-99.

[00:20:29] Podcast: How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan, with Megan Roberts.

[00:20:40] Effects of CR on reactive oxidative species production; Study: Ramsey, Jon J., Mary-Ellen Harper, and Richard Weindruch. "Restriction of energy intake, energy expenditure, and aging." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 29.10 (2000): 946-968.

[00:20:59] Effects of fasting on the liver; Study: Salin, Karine, et al. "Decreased mitochondrial metabolic requirements in fasting animals carry an oxidative cost." Functional Ecology (2018).

[00:21:56] Control of food intake: Do animal models accurately reflect human behavior?

[00:25:06] Enriched environment; Study: McMurphy, Travis, et al. "Implementation of environmental enrichment after middle age promotes healthy aging." Aging (Albany NY) 10.7 (2018): 1698.

[00:26:16] Monkey studies; Study: Ramsey, J. J., et al. "Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study." Experimental gerontology 35.9-10 (2000): 1131-1149.

[00:26:35] University of Wisconsin study: Colman, Ricki J., et al. "Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys." Science 325.5937 (2009): 201-204.

[00:26:35] National Institute on Aging study: Mattison, Julie A., et al. "Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study." Nature 489.7415 (2012): 318.

[00:31:34] Biological mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of CR.

[00:33:09] Central metabolism sensors.

[00:35:28] Mitochondrial proton leak.

[00:37:41] Study: Bevilacqua, Lisa, et al. "Effects of short-and medium-term calorie restriction on muscle mitochondrial proton leak and reactive oxygen species production." American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 286.5 (2004): E852-E861.

[00:40:59] The influence of dietary fat source; Study: Villalba, José Manuel, et al. "The influence of dietary fat source on liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial modifications and lifespan changes in calorie-restricted mice." Biogerontology 16.5 (2015): 655-670.

[00:42:16] Effects of protein restriction on longevity; Studies: 1. Davis, Teresa A., Connie W. Bales, and Roy E. Beauchene. "Differential effects of dietary caloric and protein restriction in the aging rat." Experimental gerontology 18.6 (1983): 427-435; 2. Pugh, Thomas D., Roger G. Klopp, and Richard Weindruch. "Controlling caloric consumption: protocols for rodents and rhesus monkeys☆." Neurobiology of aging 20.2 (1999): 157-165.

[00:42:23] More recent studies on protein restriction: 1. Pamplona, Reinald, and Gustavo Barja. "Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: the protein and methionine connection." Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics 1757.5-6 (2006): 496-508; 2. Caro, Pilar, et al. "Effect of 40% restriction of dietary amino acids (except methionine) on mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis, AIF and SIRT1 in rat liver." Biogerontology 10.5 (2009): 579-592.

[00:43:42] Morris Ross study: Ross, Morris H. "Length of life and nutrition in the rat." The Journal of nutrition 75.2 (1961): 197-210.

[00:44:03] Effects of dietary lipid composition on lifespan; Study: López-Domínguez, José A., et al. "The influence of dietary fat source on life span in calorie restricted mice." Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 70.10 (2014): 1181-1188.

[00:45:07] Anthony J. Hulbert.

[00:48:46] Omega-3 study: Aung, Theingi, et al. "Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with cardiovascular disease risks: meta-analysis of 10 trials involving 77 917 individuals." JAMA cardiology 3.3 (2018): 225-234.

[00:50:02] Ketogenic Diets.

[00:50:05] Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546. Podcast: A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice, with Megan (Hall) Roberts.

[00:53:47] Intermittent fasting study: Mitchell, Sarah J., et al. "Daily fasting improves health and survival in male mice independent of diet composition and calories." Cell metabolism(2018).

[00:54:19] Valter Longo, PhD.

[00:54:49] Weight cycling; Study: Smith Jr, Daniel L., et al. "Weight cycling increases longevity compared with sustained obesity in mice." Obesity 26.11 (2018): 1733-1739.

[00:55:22] Exercise in the context of carb restriction and longevity.

[00:56:08] Study: Holloszy, John O., et al. "Effect of voluntary exercise on longevity of rats." Journal of applied physiology 59.3 (1985): 826-831.

[00:58:41] Take home points.

[01:01:08] With unlimited resources, what would you study?

[01:02:08] Jon Ramsey, PhD at UC Davis.

Why You Should Eat Breakfast (and Other Secrets of Circadian Biology)

Dec 5, 2018


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Researcher and writer Bill Lagakos, PhD earned his doctorate in Nutritional Biochemistry and Physiology from Rutgers University, with a focus on obesity, insulin resistance, and circadian biology. He went on to post-doctoral research on inflammation and diabetes, which led to an interest and course of study on circadian rhythm with the Mayo clinic. Bill is the author of the book, “The Poor, Misunderstood Calorie,” and maintains an active blog where he explores health-related topics in the scientific literature.

On this podcast with Tommy Wood, MD, Bill discusses critical aspects of entraining circadian rhythm, including the importance of early time-restricted eating. They challenge the concept of chronotypes and discuss why your intermittent fasting program may not be giving you the results you want. Bill also shares his impressions on macronutrient requirements, and the effects of ketosis on body composition and athletic performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bill Lagakos:

[00:00:22] Bill's Patreon page.

[00:00:41] Blog: Calories Proper.

[00:03:47] Circadian rhythm and metabolism.

[00:05:11] Metabolism is gimped at night; Study: Bo, S., et al. "Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study." International Journal of Obesity 39.12 (2015): 1689.

[00:05:26] Meal timing and the circadian regulation of nutrient partitioning; Study: Jakubowicz, Daniela, et al. "Influences of breakfast on clock gene expression and postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals and individuals with diabetes: a randomized clinical trial." Diabetes care (2017): dc162753.

[00:05:54] Studies: Jacobs, H., Thompson, M., Halberg, E., Halberg, F., Fraeber, C., Levine, H. & Haus, E. (1975) Relative body weight loss on limited free-choice meal consumed as breakfast rather than as dinner. Chronobiologia 2 (suppl 1): 33; and Hirsh, E., Halberg, F., Goetz, F.C., Cressey, D., Wendt, H., Sothern, R., Haus, E., Stoney, P., Minors, D., Rosen, G., Hill, B., Hilleren, M. & Garett, K. (1975) Body weight change during 1 week on a single daily 2000-calorie meal consumed as breakfast (B) or dinner (D). Cronobiologia 2 (suppl 1): 31–32.

[00:06:40] Study: Lombardo, Mauro, et al. "Morning meal more efficient for fat loss in a 3-month lifestyle intervention." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 33.3 (2014): 198-205.

[00:08:57] Study: Gasmi, Maha, et al. "Time-restricted feeding influences immune responses without compromising muscle performance in older men." Nutrition 51 (2018): 29-37.

[00:10:20] Study: Gabel, Kelsey, et al. "Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot study." Nutrition and Healthy Aging Preprint: 1-9.

[00:12:19] Breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper.

[00:12:30] Early Time-Restricted Feeding; Study: Sutton, Elizabeth F., et al. "Early time-restricted feeding improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and oxidative stress even without weight loss in men with prediabetes." Cell metabolism 27.6 (2018): 1212-1221.

[00:13:56] Podcast: How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health, with Satchin Panda, PhD.

[00:14:16] Continuous energy restriction vs. Intermittent Fasting; Study: Sundfør, T. M., M. Svendsen, and S. Tonstad. "Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial." Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (2018).

[00:15:00] Circadian rhythm disruption and disease risk.

[00:16:10] Electronics at night as circadian rhythm disruption.

[00:16:44] Artificial light at night and cancer; Studies: Yuan, Xia, et al. "Night shift work increases the risks of multiple primary cancers in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 articles." Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 27.1 (2018): 25-40; and Kubo, Tatsuhiko, et al. "Prospective cohort study of the risk of prostate cancer among rotating-shift workers: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study." American journal of epidemiology 164.6 (2006): 549-555.

[00:20:27] Chronotypes as a species-level distinction.

[00:23:33] Philips goLITE BLU Energy Light.

[00:24:17] Best advice for shift workers.

[00:25:20] Genetic polymorphisms; MTNR gene.

[00:26:38] Sleep deprivation leads to increased calorie consumption. Study: Broussard, Josiane L., et al. "Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction." Obesity 24.1 (2016): 132-138.

[00:27:41] Sleep contributes to the maintenance of lean body mass. Study: Nedeltcheva, Arlet V., et al. "Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity." Annals of internal medicine 153.7 (2010): 435-441.

[00:29:12] Macronutrient composition of diet.

[00:29:23] Book: The Poor, Misunderstood Calorie, by William Lagakos, PhD.

[00:30:12] Reduced industrial foods resulting in weight loss; Study: Ebbeling, Cara B., et al. "Effects of a low–glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial." Jama 297.19 (2007): 2092-2102.

[00:30:31] Calories less important when eating processed foods; Monkey study: Kavanagh, Kylie, et al. "Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys." Obesity 15.7 (2007): 1675-1684.

[00:32:16] Protein intake recommendations.

[00:34:44] The glucose-sparing effect of ketones.

[00:35:47] Protein needed to maintain lean-muscle mass during keto. Study: Meckling, Kelly A., Caitriona O’sullivan, and Dayna Saari. "Comparison of a low-fat diet to a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition, and risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in free-living, overweight men and women." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89.6 (2004): 2717-2723.

[00:36:43] Ketogenic diets and mental health.

[00:37:24] Neuroprotective properties of keto; Study: Maalouf, Marwan, Jong M. Rho, and Mark P. Mattson. "The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies." Brain research reviews 59.2 (2009): 293-315.

[00:37:40] Poor adherence to keto in more severe dementia. Study: Taylor, Matthew K., et al. "Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer's disease." Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 4 (2018): 28-36.

[00:38:02] MCT oil used to moderate cognitive decline; Study: Henderson, Samuel T., et al. "Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial." Nutrition & metabolism 6.1 (2009): 31.

[00:38:39] Keto for Bipolar Disorder; Study: Phelps, James R., Susan V. Siemers, and Rif S. El-Mallakh. "The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder." Neurocase 19.5 (2013): 423-426.

[00:39:14] Consultation with clients.

[00:41:02] Blog post on changing sleep duration: Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation, and human performance.

[00:42:21] Athletics and adaptation to ketosis.

[00:43:25] Wingate test.

[00:43:46] Olympic weightlifters; Study: Greene, David A., et al. "A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Mass Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 32.12 (2018): 3373-3382.

[00:45:52] Blog; Twitter; Patreon.

How to Sustain High Cognitive Performance

Nov 27, 2018


Speaker, author, and scientist James Hewitt is back on the podcast today to discuss his latest research involving cognitive endurance. As the Chief Innovation Officer for Hintsa Performance, James has studied the sleep, stress, and cognitive performance of knowledge workers. In doing so, he has identified behaviors and habits that can derail mental stamina, as well as the ones that lead to sustainable high performance and wellness.

On this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, James shares his observations on cognitive load and inhibitory control, factors that impact our ability to remain committed to goals and excel in areas requiring attention and self-control. He offers specific strategies for enhancing cognitive endurance by optimising the rhythms of work, rest, and peak performance. They also discuss the effect of cognitive load on sports performance, and the evolving role of augmented intelligence in the workplace.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Hewitt:

[00:00:06] Previous podcast: How to Avoid the Cognitive Middle Gear, with James Hewitt.

[00:00:18] Hintsa Performance.

[00:03:16] Actigraph.

[00:04:07] Placebo sleep; Study: Draganich, Christina, and Kristi Erdal. "Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 40.3 (2014): 857.

[00:04:35] Oura ring - Study: de Zambotti, Massimiliano, et al. "The sleep of the ring: comparison of the ŌURA sleep tracker against polysomnography." Behavioral sleep medicine (2017): 1-15.

[00:05:18] Cognitive gears.

[00:06:18] Knowledge work.

[00:06:57] Intensity zones.

[00:08:35] Middle gear: pseudo work.

[00:10:50] Inhibitory control.

[00:14:35] Accountability in groups.

[00:16:07] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:17:22] Simon Marshall, PhD. on growth mindset. Podcast: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do.

[00:20:14] Cognitive task load: time pressure, complexity, switching.

[00:21:39] Switching; study: Mark, Gloria, Daniela Gudith, and Ulrich Klocke. "The cost of interrupted work: more speed and stress." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2008.

[00:22:35] Study: Hines, Carolyn B. "Time-of-day effects on human performance." Journal of Catholic Education 7.3 (2013): 7.

[00:23:15] Study: Adan, Ana, et al. "Circadian typology: a comprehensive review." Chronobiology international 29.9 (2012): 1153-1175.

[00:24:17] Synchronizing cognitive load with time of day.

[00:25:07] Book: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, by Cal Newport.

[00:27:33] Pomodoro technique.

[00:28:44] We check in with our communication tools once every 6 minutes.

[00:32:33] Book: Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker.

[00:33:33] Circadian entrainment to natural light-dark cycles; Study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:38:30] Cognitive load and decision making in the era of augmented intelligence.

[00:38:56] McKinsey Global Institute (2017): A Future That Works.

[00:39:19] Humans and machines working together.

[00:44:29] Video: Augmented Intelligence.

[00:45:02] Roy Baumeister, ego depletion; Study: Baumeister, Roy F., Ellen Bratslavsky, and Mark Muraven. "Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource?." Self-Regulation and Self-Control. Routledge, 2018. 24-52.

[00:48:06] Self-control as a value-based choice; Study: Berkman, Elliot T., et al. "Self-control as value-based choice." Current Directions in Psychological Science 26.5 (2017): 422-428.

[00:49:14] Book: Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:50:10] Linking behaviors to goals.

[00:51:54] Flow; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - 8 elements of flow.

[00:56:38] Screen Time on iOS.

[00:58:15] Effect of cognitive load on sports performance.

[00:58:27] Brain endurance training; Study: Marcora, Samuele M., Walter Staiano, and Victoria Manning. "Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans." Journal of applied physiology 106.3 (2009): 857-864.

[01:00:10] Superior inhibitory control in road cyclists; Study: Martin, Kristy, et al. "Superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue in professional road cyclists." PloS one 11.7 (2016): e0159907.

[01:02:29] Measuring inhibitory control. Go-No Go Task.

[01:03:13] Stroop task.

[01:03:40] Improving inhibitory control.

[01:06:57] The value of switching off.

[01:08:14] Hintsa;; Twitter.

The Critical Factors of Healthspan and Lifespan

Nov 20, 2018


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Dr. Peter Attia, MD is the founder of Attia Medical, PC, a medical practice that focuses on increasing healthspan by minimizing the risk of chronic disease and preserving quality of life. Peter trained for five years at Johns Hopkins in general surgery and then spent two years at NIH as a surgical oncology fellow.  He has since been mentored by some of the most experienced and innovative physicians and scientists in the US and Canada.

On this podcast Dr. Tommy Wood, MD talks with Peter about the critical components of lifespan and healthspan, including the factors he has identified as most important. They also discuss the controversial role of statin medication and take a close look at the necessity and sufficiency of risk factors for atherosclerosis. If you want to learn more about Peter’s work, he has a blog, a podcast and an active social media presence.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Peter Attia:

[00:00:35] Mellow Johnny’s Bike Shop.

[00:04:01] Eddy Merckx.

[00:04:16] Healthspan. Video: Peter Attia - Reverse engineered approach to human longevity.

[00:05:23] Components of healthspan: cognitive, physical, emotional.

[00:07:21] Lewis Hamilton; Ayrton Senna.

[00:08:35] Reverse engineering healthspan.

[00:11:34] Strength, power, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, flexibility.

[00:14:57] Injuries affecting healthspan.

[00:16:27] Exercise dosing studies: Marshall, Simon J., et al. "Translating physical activity recommendations into a pedometer-based step goal: 3000 steps in 30 minutes." American journal of preventive medicine 36.5 (2009): 410-415; Merghani, Ahmed, Aneil Malhotra, and Sanjay Sharma. "The U-shaped relationship between exercise and cardiac morbidity." Trends in cardiovascular medicine 26.3 (2016): 232-240.

[00:17:26] Atrial fibrillation; mitochondrial injury.

[00:18:39] Study: Nakayama, Hiroyuki, and Kinya Otsu. "Mitochondrial DNA as an inflammatory mediator in cardiovascular diseases." Biochemical Journal 475.5 (2018): 839-852.

[00:19:28] Functional threshold power (FTP).

[00:23:58] Podcast: The High-Performance Athlete with Drs Tommy Wood and Andy Galpin.

[00:23:59] Twin study: Bathgate, Katherine E., et al. "Muscle health and performance in monozygotic twins with 30 years of discordant exercise habits." European journal of applied physiology 118.10 (2018): 2097-2110.

[00:24:50] The emotional component of healthspan.

[00:24:56] The Drive Podcast: Paul Conti, M.D.: trauma, suicide, community, and self-compassion.

[00:25:59] Dave Feldman; Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol.

[00:26:40] Sam Harris: Meditation.

[00:29:30] Video: Commencement speech by David Foster Wallace from 2005 at Kenyon College, This is Water.

[00:30:45] Vulnerability as a practitioner.

[00:33:46] Time-restricted feeding.

[00:34:23] Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); Oura ring.

[00:35:38] Factors contributing to longevity: deprivation of calories and rapamycin.

[00:37:54] Benefits of fasting.

[00:41:04] Free T3:Reverse T3 ratios during fasting.

[00:42:50] Study: Finkelstein, Joel S., et al. "Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men." New England Journal of Medicine 369.11 (2013): 1011-1022.

[00:43:30] Robert Lustig.

[00:45:07] Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

[00:46:09] Statins; side effects.

[00:48:36] Lipoprotein(a) - Lp(a).

[00:49:19] Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scan.

[00:54:03] The Drive podcasts: Dave Feldman, Ron Krauss, Tom Dayspring: (parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

[00:54:32] Risk factors for atherosclerosis: necessity and sufficiency.

[00:56:16] Lead study: Lanphear, Bruce P., et al. "Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study." The Lancet Public Health 3.4 (2018): e177-e184.

[00:59:03] LDL cholesterol; ApoB.

[01:01:15] Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH).

[01:04:41] Hyper-responders.

[01:06:25] Saturated fat/cholesterol study: Jones, P. J., A. H. Lichtenstein, and E. J. Schaefer. "Interaction of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol level on cholesterol synthesis measured using deuterium incorporation." Journal of lipid research 35.6 (1994): 1093-1101.

[01:09:43] Feldman Protocol.

[01:11:48] The Drive podcast;

How to Use Data to Take Control of Your Health

Nov 13, 2018


David Korsunsky spent 15 years working for industry-leading technology firms, and in 2015 founded Heads Up Health, a San Francisco-based startup helping people to aggregate and learn from their own health information. The company can retrieve lab work from over 30,000 providers across the US, building a single health history and a timeline that can help to make sense of your current challenges.

In this podcast, I’m talking with David about his mission to help 100 million people take control of their health. We talk about the Heads Up Health platform, which integrates with apps and devices and eliminates that dusty old pile of lab reports you weren’t sure what to do with.  David also shares his own story as a case study, demonstrating the value of having easy, mobile, shareable access to all of your health information.

Here’s the outline of this interview with David Korsunsky:

[00:01:09] Heads Up Health.

[00:01:24] Robb Wolf's Podcast featuring Dave Korsunsky.

[00:02:08] The story behind Heads up Health.

[00:05:48] WellnessFx.

[00:06:18] Applying engineering mindset to health.

[00:11:36] Devices; Oura ring.

[00:11:53] Elite HRV; CorSense device; Jason Moore.

[00:13:30] MyFitnessPal, My Macros+, Cronometer; Keto-Mojo.

[00:13:56] LEVL, Ketonix.

[00:16:51]; Grace Liu; Ulta Labs.

[00:17:17] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:18:20] DUTCH, OAT, Genova, Doctor's Data, BioHealth Labs.

[00:22:50] Reference Ranges.

[00:26:14] Dave Feldman; Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol.

[00:28:52] Tracking symptoms; seizures.

[00:29:51] Potential applications of machine learning.

[00:32:28] Elimination diet.

[00:33:30] Video: Bryan's H. Pylori case study.

[00:35:28] 23andme DNA testing.

[00:36:49] Data-Driven Health Radio: Episode 20 - Carrie Brown.

[00:37:26] Care team access.

[00:39:18] Dexcom 5; Quantified Self; Freestyle Libre, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM).

[00:41:14] Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD. Podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:42:40] Challenges to progress; Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) movement.

[00:43:12] Podcast: How to Teach Machines That Can Learn, with Pedro Domingos, PhD.


[00:46:21] Amazon AWS for data storage.

[00:47:53] Data-Driven Health Radio podcast.

[00:49:44] How to get started on Heads up Health.


Blood Chemistry in Athletes

Nov 7, 2018


Over the past year, we’ve made the Blood Chemistry Calculator our primary screening and feedback tool for the athletes we work with. In that time we’ve noted some clear patterns in the effects of long-term and vigorous exercise on blood chemistry. We’ve learned that while certain tests seem to be directly affected by hard training sessions, some can also provide clues for how best to enhance athletic performance.

In this podcast I’m talking with Dr Tommy Wood, MD, PhD about blood chemistry in athletes: which markers are affected by intense exercise, how to know if your labs indicate a problem, and what to do about it. We discuss the markers associated with athletic power and lifespan, and why knowing your own blood chemistry numbers may be the best thing you do for your health and performance.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:01:24] Liver enzymes (ALT, AST).

[00:04:44] Optimal vs standard reference ranges.

[00:06:28] Differences among ethnic groups.

[00:08:15] Recovery of liver enzymes after exercise; Study: Pettersson, Jonas, et al. "Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men." British journal of clinical pharmacology 65.2 (2008): 253-259.

[00:10:40] Creatinine.

[00:12:22] Podcast: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health, with Greg Potter; HumanOS Podcast.

[00:12:52] Creatinine vs creatine.

[00:13:36] Creatine monohydrate; Creapure Creatine; Douglas Labs Creatine Monohydrate.

[00:14:12] Blood Chemistry Calculator; Predicted Age Score.

[00:15:53] Creatinine - U shaped curve.

[00:16:54] Creatinine and kidney function.

[00:17:44] Battle of the quads: Robert Forstemann vs. Andre Greipel.

[00:18:13] Hematocrit.

[00:18:42] Blood doping.

[00:18:44] Book: The Secret Race: Inside the Hidden World of the Tour de France, by Tyler Hamilton.

[00:19:22] Higher hematocrit = higher power.

[00:20:15] Adaptations that reduce hematocrit.

[00:21:48] Testosterone.

[00:23:27] MCV, RDW.

[00:24:39] Reticulocytes.

[00:26:02] Grigory Rodchenkov; World Anti-Doping Agency.

[00:26:23] Podcast: How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), with Nicky Keay.

[00:26:33] Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN).

[00:27:40] Dr. Tamsin Lewis; Causes of a high BUN.

[00:31:54] Higher RDW = increased risk of mortality.

[00:34:34] Triglycerides ideally < 100.

[00:34:44] Fasting blood glucose - once past 110 not much change in mortality risk.

[00:35:44] Blood glucose and biological age.

[00:36:49] High fasting blood glucose in athletes.

[00:38:35] Machine learning to identify diabetic retinopathy; Study: Gulshan, Varun, et al. "Development and validation of a deep learning algorithm for detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal fundus photographs." Jama 316.22 (2016): 2402-2410.

[00:40:51] Calcium; lower levels in athletes.

[00:42:26] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford; Grip strength; Study: Fain, Elizabeth, and Cara Weatherford. "Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms." Journal of Hand Therapy 29.4 (2016): 483-488.

[00:43:25] Article: Optimizing Vitamin D for Athletic Performance, by Brad Dieter, PhD with contributions from Tommy Wood, MD and Christopher Kelly.

[00:43:46] Cholesterol levels in athletes; Study: Creighton, Brent C., et al. "Paradox of hypercholesterolaemia in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes." BMJ open sport & exercise medicine 4.1 (2018): e000429.

[00:43:50] Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol, with Dave Feldman.

[00:44:40] Higher cholesterol = higher lifespan. Studies: 1. Stückle, Druckerei. "Towards a Paradigm Shift in Cholesterol Treatment. A Re-examination of the Cholesterol Issue in Japan: Abstracts." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 66.Suppl. 4 (2015): 1-116 and 2. Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review." BMJ open 6.6 (2016): e010401.

[00:46:04] How often to run a blood test for an athlete?

[00:47:02] Elite Performance Program (EPP); Patreon; Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

Women in Science: Bridging the Gender Gap

Nov 1, 2018


Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) - It’s a group of academic disciplines and professions that have historically been male-dominated. In 2017, women held 47% of all jobs in the US, but only 24% of STEM jobs. As a result, we are lacking the perspectives of women in fields that contribute heavily to our progress as a society.

On the podcast today, NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts is talking with Elizabeth Nance, PhD, and Brianna Stubbs, PhD, scientists leading teams of researchers in the areas of biotechnology and physiology. The trio talk about the unique aspects of being women in scientific fields, including the importance of allies and mentors, imposter syndrome, and identifying your own biases.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Elizabeth Nance and Brianna Stubbs:

[00:00:23] Elizabeth's STEM-Talk podcast.

[00:00:49] Previous podcasts: Elizabeth: Nanotechnology: The Big Impact of Tiny Particles; Brianna: World Champion Rower and Ketone Monoester Researcher Brianna Stubbs; The D-BHB Ketone Monoester Is Here.

[00:01:08] HVMN.

[00:03:01] Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

[00:09:50] Positive Discrimination

[00:12:59] Nature vs nurture; causes of women’s underrepresentation in science. Studies: Ceci, Stephen J., and Wendy M. Williams. "Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011): 201014871, and Cheryan, Sapna, et al. "Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?." Psychological Bulletin 143.1 (2017): 1.

[00:15:57] Freakonomics Podcast: What Can Uber Teach Us About the Gender Pay Gap?

[00:18:36] Chemical engineering: 30% women.

[00:21:57] Mentorship.

[00:22:53] Prof. Kieran Clarke, University of Oxford.

[00:23:36] #MeToo Movement.

[00:24:28] Allies in the workplace.

[00:25:25] Service to the department.

[00:29:00] Diversity and mentorship.

[00:31:01] Fluid mentor/mentee roles and boundaries.

[00:34:05] Women in Chemical Engineering.

[00:37:37] Gender differences in mentoring.

[00:40:44] Work-life balance.

[00:47:02] Judgment and criticism from others.

[00:50:29] Parenting.

[00:56:44] Letting the work speak for itself vs. focusing on minority status.

[01:00:22] Book: Whistling Vivaldi: How Stereotypes Affect Us and What We Can Do (Issues of Our Time), by Claude M. Steele.

[01:00:26] Self-fulfilling effect of stereotypes.

[01:05:35] Imposter syndrome.

[01:12:15] Embracing failure.

[01:14:27] University of Washington Resilience Lab.

[01:17:15] Being a catalyst for progress.

[01:17:17] Conscious use of language. Article: Letters of recommendation for women more likely to raise doubts.

[01:25:52] Defining success.

[01:28:36] Brene Brown Ted Talks: The Power of Vulnerability and Listening to Shame.

[01:29:04] Book: How Successful Women Think: It's All In The Mind, by Latrell King.

[01:30:00] Additional articles: 1. These labs are remarkably diverse — here’s why they’re winning at science; 2. 4 Ways Women Can Build Relationships When They Feel Excluded at Work; 3. The uncomfortable question powerful women should answer; 4. Where Women Must Defy the Odds to Become Scientists; 5. These are the 10 best and worst states for women.

Mitochondria: More Than a Powerhouse

Oct 23, 2018


The mitochondria are commonly known as the “powerhouse” of the cell, but energy production is only one of the critical roles played by these organelles. This is why mitochondrial dysfunction tends to have many different signs and symptoms, causing practitioners to chase the wrong things. In fact, the average person with a disorder of the mitochondria will see at least 8 doctors before being properly diagnosed.

Dr. Bryan Walsh, ND is with me today to take an in-depth look at how the mitochondria operate and their roles in the body.  We discuss free radicals and antioxidants (hint - those supplements don’t do what we think they do!). Bryan describes mitochondrial dysfunction - what causes it, how to assess for it, and what can happen when it goes untreated. If you want to take a deep dive into this subject, go take Bryan’s new course, Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Mitochondria - an amazing 16-hour training for practitioners and biochemistry enthusiasts.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bryan Walsh:

[00:03:30] Patients seeing an average of 8.19 doctors before getting diagnosis; Study: Grier, Johnston, et al. "Diagnostic odyssey of patients with mitochondrial disease: Results of a survey." Neurology Genetics 4.2 (2018): e230.

[00:04:20] Functions of mitochondria.

[00:07:22] Systemic problems; widespread hormonal effects.

[00:08:10] Signs of mitochondrial dysfunction.

[00:10:44] STEM-Talk podcast Episode 67: Doug Wallace talks about mitochondria, our human origins and the possibility of mitochondria-targeted therapies.

[00:11:30] Podcasts: How to Track Effectively and The Ideal Weight Program with Dan Pardi.

[00:13:46] Khan Academy.

[00:14:05] Insulin resistance as cellular antioxidant defense mechanism; Study: Hoehn, Kyle L., et al. "Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(2009): pnas-0902380106.

[00:16:47] Antioxidants.

[00:20:01] Poor outcomes associated with antioxidant supplementation; Studies: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:20:39] Ben Goldacre.

[00:24:22] How mitochondria work; Free radicals.

[00:26:47] Podcast: How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan, with Megan Roberts.

[00:27:32] Blood markers of oxidative stress: Bilirubin, GGT, Uric Acid.

[00:29:05] GGT as a marker of oxidative stress; Study: Lee, Duk-Hee, Rune Blomhoff, and David R. Jacobs. "Review is serum gamma glutamyltransferase a marker of oxidative stress?." Free radical research 38.6 (2004): 535-539.

[00:29:11] GGT as a marker of xenobiotic exposure; Study: Lee, Duk-Hee, and David R. Jacobs Jr. "Is serum gamma-glutamyltransferase a marker of exposure to various environmental pollutants?." Free radical research 43.6 (2009): 533-537.

[00:29:16] GGT as a marker of glutathione deficiency in the liver; Study: Koenig, Gerald, and Stephanie Seneff. "Gamma-glutamyltransferase: a predictive biomarker of cellular antioxidant inadequacy and disease risk." Disease markers 2015 (2015).

[00:30:00] Bilirubin 0.4 or below associated with all-cause mortality; Study: Ong, Kwok-Leung, et al. "The relationship between total bilirubin levels and total mortality in older adults: the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004." PLoS One 9.4 (2014): e94479.

[00:31:35] Study: Siems, Werner G., et al. "Uric acid and glutathione levels during short-term whole body cold exposure." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 16.3 (1994): 299-305.

[00:32:20] Uric acid and the ketogenic diet.

[00:37:01] Causes of mitochondrial dysfunction.

[00:39:02] Nutrient deficiencies; Study: Ames, Bruce N., Hani Atamna, and David W. Killilea. "Mineral and vitamin deficiencies can accelerate the mitochondrial decay of aging." Molecular aspects of medicine 26.4-5 (2005): 363-378.

[00:43:26] Infections.

[00:43:41] Do Mitochondria Have An Immune System? Study: Popkov, V. A., et al. "Do mitochondria have an immune system?." Biochemistry (Moscow) 81.10 (2016): 1229-1236.

[00:43:54] Theory: Mitochondria as bacteria.

[00:45:06] Bacteria, viruses target mitochondria; Studies: Lobet, Elodie, Jean-Jacques Letesson, and Thierry Arnould. "Mitochondria: a target for bacteria." Biochemical pharmacology 94.3 (2015): 173-185, and D Williamson, Chad, Roberta L DeBiasi, and Anamaris M Colberg-Poley. "Viral product trafficking to mitochondria, mechanisms and roles in pathogenesis." Infectious Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Infectious Disorders) 12.1 (2012): 18-37.

[00:45:50] Podcast: Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification, with Bryan Walsh.

[00:45:52] Walsh detox protocol; Elite Performance Program.

[00:46:17] Mitochondria as a target of xenobiotic exposure; Study: Meyer, Joel N., et al. "Mitochondria as a target of environmental toxicants." toxicological sciences 134.1 (2013): 1-17.

[00:47:26] 35% of pharmaceuticals tested caused mitochondrial dysfunction; Studies: Dykens, James A., and Yvonne Will. "The significance of mitochondrial toxicity testing in drug development." Drug discovery today 12.17-18 (2007): 777-785, and Meyer, Joel N., and Sherine SL Chan. "Sources, mechanisms, and consequences of chemical-induced mitochondrial toxicity." (2017): 2-4.

[00:48:59] Classes of medications that cause dysfunction.

[00:49:20] Absence of exposure to physical stressors.

[00:52:08] Hormetea; Podcast: Hormesis, Nootropics and Organic Acids Testing.

[00:53:37] Book: Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment, by Robert Wright.

[00:57:12] Resveratrol study: Kjær, Thomas Nordstrøm, et al. "No beneficial effects of resveratrol on the metabolic syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 102.5 (2017): 1642-1651. From our Highlights email series.

[00:57:13] Appropriately applied stress in the right amount.

[00:58:10] Dietary interventions.

[00:58:27] Ketogenic, low carb, calorie restriction, time restricted feeding; Study: Vidali, Silvia, et al. "Mitochondria: The ketogenic diet—A metabolism-based therapy." The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 63 (2015): 55-59.

[00:59:47] Therapeutic uncoupling; protonophore.

[01:02:27] 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP).

[01:05:33] DNP mouse study: Perry, Rachel J., et al. "Controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore reverses diabetes and steatohepatitis in rats." Science 347.6227 (2015): 1253-1256.

[01:07:21] Curcumin.

[01:08:56] Podcast: A Guide to Flawed Studies with Richard Feinman. Cartoon: The car analogy of metabolic inhibitors.

[01:10:37] Metabolic Fitness Pro.

[01:11:40] Course: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Mitochondria.

How to Connect with Clients as a Health Practitioner

Oct 16, 2018


I’m joined again today by one of my good friends and mentors, Jeremy Hendon. Jeremy is an international speaker, consultant, and entrepreneur who has founded and grown several successful companies. I had the pleasure of working with Jeremy on the Keto Summit in 2016 and I can attest to his genius in business and marketing, particularly in the domain of health and wellness.

Jeremy is with me today to talk about marketplace trends that impact health practitioners, and the strategies that cause some businesses to stand out from the crowd. He shares his method for building trust with consumers who are new to diet and lifestyle change. We also discuss the importance of weaving story into your business messaging to attract and strengthen connection with your audience.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jeremy Hendon:

[00:00:40] Previous podcast episodes: The Essential Keto Cookbook, and Paleo Entrepreneurship with Jeremy Hendon.

[00:01:35] Keto Summit.

[00:03:14] Docuseries: The Truth about Cancer; Broken Brain.

[00:05:10] Louise Hendon.

[00:09:06] Curation; Jay Abraham.

[00:13:02] Doing business in health.

[00:15:48] Sell people what they want.

[00:21:23] Uber; Jump; Airbnb.

[00:22:48] Innovation in health coaching.


[00:26:03] Creating a better user experience.

[00:29:43] Network effects.

[00:31:38] Building trust and connection.

[00:34:32] Accountability; StickK.

[00:40:23] New directions for NBT.

[00:43:28] Engineering referrals.

[00:45:24] Nourishing Brands.

[00:47:27] CoBionic Foundation.

[00:48:30] Plant based diets.

[00:51:02] Job opportunity.

[00:52:50] The power of story in marketing.

[00:54:35] Book: The Wisdom of Psychopaths: What Saints, Spies, and Serial Killers Can Teach Us About Success, by Kevin Dutton.

[00:55:10] The Memory Palace Podcast; Nate DiMeo.

[00:55:23] Story Grid Podcast; Shawn Coyne and Tim Grahl .

[00:56:15] Book: Wired for Story: The Writer's Guide to Using Brain Science to Hook Readers from the Very First Sentence, by Lisa Cron.

[00:56:17] Book: Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting, by Robert McKee.


[00:57:20] Ketosummit; Paleoflourish, Healingautoimmune; CoBionic.

How to Create a Career Doing a Sport You Love

Oct 10, 2018


Jeff Kendall-Weed’s interest in cycling began at a young age when he got his first bike - a used girls’ cruiser from the local Goodwill. Growing up in the mountains of Santa Cruz, California he quickly moved on to BMX and mountain biking and hasn’t stopped since. During and after college Jeff raced in the US and Europe and went on to work for industry leaders Ibis and WTB. Today he is producing stunning cycling videos from the trails he visits around the world.  

On this podcast, Jeff and I talk about the many roles he’s had in the world of mountain biking, and his decision to leave his stable job for a life as an entrepreneur and family man. Don’t let his modesty fool you - Jeff is one of the best bike handlers I’ve seen. You can visit his YouTube channel to see for yourself.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jeff Kendall-Weed:

[00:02:43] Soquel Demonstration Forest.

[00:04:51] Raging River State Forest.

[00:05:44] Sea Otter Classic.

[00:10:01] Truvativ; Lezyne.

[00:11:59] Ibis; Scot Nicol.

[00:12:14] Hans Heim.

[00:13:08] Mojo Carbon.

[00:13:59] European vs US racing.

[00:16:07] Roxy Lo.

[00:16:41] Red Hot.

[00:18:16] Mojo HD 160; Tranny.

[00:21:14] Wilderness Trail Bikes (WTB).

[00:22:37] Making videos.

[00:25:10] Kitsbow cycling apparel; Kali Protectives.

[00:25:44] Leavenworth, WA trails.

[00:26:17] Video: Jeff Kendall-Weed in Tahoe with Kitsbow.

[00:27:37] Trailforks app.

[00:28:14] Video: Jeff Kendall-Weed visits the Pacific Northwest.

[00:30:58] Leaving job security.

[00:33:02] Toxoplasmosis study: Johnson, Stefanie K., et al. "Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries." Proc. R. Soc. B 285.1883 (2018): 20180822.

[00:36:04] Brandon Semenuk; Video.

[00:37:17] Costa Rica.

[00:39:10] Getting injured.

[00:43:07] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion by Simon Marshall, PhD. and Lesley Paterson.

[00:43:50] Video: Costa Rica: ripping jungle trails & surviving the emergency room!

[00:48:04] Biking for a living vs. leisure.

[00:51:20] Backpack video: I ALWAYS carry this!

[00:53:21] Jeff's Patreon page.

[00:57:24]; YouTube channel; Instagram; Facebook.

[00:58:51] Jeff's podcasts.

Nanotechnology: The Big Impact of Tiny Particles

Oct 2, 2018


Dr. Elizabeth Nance received her Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and is now an Assistant Professor at the University of Washington. She leads a research team in the study of nanoparticles that are capable of targeting disease in the brain. Elizabeth has received numerous awards for her groundbreaking work, and was named one of Forbes 30 under 30 in Science in 2015, described as one of the “most disruptive, game-changing and innovating young personalities in science.”

In this podcast NBT Scientific Director Megan Roberts interviews Elizabeth about her research in nanotechnology and its application in medical development and delivery. They discuss the potential applications of her work for the diagnosis and treatment of debilitating diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. They also talk about the message behind Elizabeth’s 2016 TED talk on the importance of exploring unfamiliar territory as a catalyst for growth and mastery.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Elizabeth Nance:

[00:00:41] Book: How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence, by Michael Pollan.

[00:06:30] Nanotechnology.

[00:11:42] Justin Hanes, PhD.

[00:11:51] Mucosal barrier.

[00:15:36] Increasing distribution of particles within brain.

[00:17:28] Polyethylene glycol.

[00:20:39] Diffusion and convection.

[00:27:25] Nanoparticles.

[00:33:28] Increasing diffusive capability for improved drug efficacy.

[00:34:05] Curcumin study: Joseph A., Wood T., Chen C-C., Corry K., Juul S., Snyder J., Parikh P., Nance E. Curcumin-loaded brain penetrating nanoparticles for treatment of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy. In press, Nano Research.

[00:35:13] Nanotechnology in cancer.

[00:39:10] Generalizing from animal models.

[00:46:40] Childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

[00:48:25] Video: Specializing in Not Specializing | Elizabeth Nance | TEDxUofW.

[00:48:53] Interdisciplinary collaboration.

[00:53:14] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck, Ph.D.

[01:00:02] Freedom to fail.

[01:01:45] Blood Chemistry Calculator; Tommy Wood, MD, PhD; Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[01:02:06] Machine learning.

[01:06:12]; blog; Facebook; Instagram.

NBT Olympians: Alex O’Brien

Sep 26, 2018


Join me on Patreon

From 1992 to 2001 Alex O’Brien competed as an elite professional tennis player on the ATP World Tour. Career highlights include playing for the US Davis Cup team and the 2000 US Olympic Team in Sydney, Australia. Alex also won the US Open doubles championship in 1999 and ranked as the No. 1 world doubles player in May 2000.

We’ve been working with Alex as a member of our own Elite Performance Program. He’s on the podcast with me today to talk about his journey to becoming a professional tennis player and sharing some of the moments that stand out to him from his years on the court. We also discuss his reasons for coming to NBT for health coaching and the progress he’s made since then.

It’s also worth mentioning that in 1998 Alex created the Alex O’Brien Tennis Foundation - a nonprofit organization that brings tennis to underprivileged kids in his hometown of Amarillo, Texas. It’s still going strong after 20 years.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Alex O’Brien:

[00:03:28] Dick Gould, John Whitlinger.

[00:06:30] Playing tennis professionally.

[00:06:39] Jim Courier.

[00:08:35] John McEnroe, Ivan Lendl.

[00:10:36] Strength training.

[00:11:25] Gustavo Kuerten.

[00:13:00] Growth Mindset. Previous podcasts discussing mindset (both with Simon Marshall, PhD): Why We Self-Sabotage (And What to Do Instead) and Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do.

[00:14:13] Learning from losses.

[00:16:00] Coping strategies for the pressure.

[00:19:29] Björn Borg.

[00:20:34] Becoming a doubles player.

[00:22:09] Sébastien Lareau, Boris Becker, Andre Agassi, Sandon Stolle.

[00:23:36] Wayne Ferreira, Jared Palmer.

[00:24:29] Winner: 1999 US Open - Men’s Doubles.

[00:25:50] Olympics.

[00:27:30] Brandon Slay.

[00:31:11] Health challenges.

[00:33:56] Ben Greenfield Fitness Podcast: Why Is My Cortisol High Even Though I’m Doing Everything Right? Hidden Causes Of High Cortisol, The DUTCH Test & More!, with Christopher Kelly.

[00:39:00] Blood Chemistry Calculator; 5-Year Wellness Score.

[00:40:17] Glycomark.

[00:41:51] MTHFR.

[00:42:48] Signal-to-noise ratio.

[00:44:00] Homocysteine; organ meat.

[00:45:07] Coping strategies for stress.

[00:47:05] Making meditation a habit.

Overcoming Adversity and Strength Coaching

Sep 18, 2018


Zach Moore is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist with a true passion for helping people reach their fitness goals. Zach has been providing nutrition and strength coaching for years, both in-person and online, most recently through Precision Nutrition and Ketogains. Earlier this year Zach became the Head of Strength and Conditioning at Nourish Balance Thrive and is now playing a vital role on our coaching team.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Zach shares his journey from a graduate degree in Economics to health coach, describing some of the obstacles he has overcome along the way. They discuss the type and amount of strength training needed for the average person to experience benefit and the common mistakes that hold people back from making progress. Tommy also gives an update on progress made using the training program Zach designed for him.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Zach Moore:

[00:02:32] Indianapolis Fitness and Sports Training.

[00:03:50] Precision Nutrition.

[00:04:28] Ketogains.

[00:05:03] Book: Bulletproof Knees, by Mike Robertson.

[00:06:43] Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.

[00:07:13] Osteochondritis.

[00:10:30] Online coaching.

[00:17:32] Minimum effective dose to support health goals.

[00:18:45] 2-3x/week for 2-3 sets each movement pattern.

[00:21:00] Movement patterns; Dan John.

[00:21:55] Zach's influences; Mike Robertson, Bill Hartman, Eric Cressey,

[00:22:48] Mike Tuscherer, rate of perceived exertion (RPE).

[00:23:02] Menno Henselmans; Bayesian Bodybuilding.

[00:23:27] Borge Fagerli.

[00:23:46] Greg Nuckols, Eric Helms, Mike Israetel, Brad Schoenfeld

[00:24:12] Stronger by Science

[00:24:23] Alan Thrall’s YouTube videos: How to Deadlift: Starting Strength 5 Step Deadlift and 3 Common Squat Errors feat. Austin Baraki.

[00:24:30] James Krieger; Weightology.

[00:24:55] Super slow; Doug McGuff, Body by Science; Blood flow restriction training.

[00:26:52] Overcoming adversity.

[00:30:38] Mistakes that hold people back.

[00:32:26] Failing to plan; making time.

[00:33:05] Adjusting the plan over time.

[00:34:55] Ketogains bootcamps.

[00:36:01] Macronutrients.

[00:37:40] Effect of ketogenic diet on athletic performance.

[00:39:26] Zach's training and nutrition.

[00:40:14] Carnivore diet.

[00:44:33] Tommy's strength gains with Zach's coaching.

[00:48:04]; ketogains;

How to Identify and Treat Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)

Sep 12, 2018


Dr. Nicky Keay, BA, MA (Cantab), MB BChir, MRCP is a physician and researcher with an extensive background in endocrinology and sports/exercise medicine. Her personal background as a ballet dancer and choreographer led to her long-standing interest in the effects of high-level training and inadequate nutrition on women’s health. Her current research focuses on Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), examining the impact of similar factors on male cyclists.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Dr. Keay discusses the detrimental and often permanent impact of low energy availability, especially in weight-sensitive sports in which participants tend to undereat. They discuss the factors involved with RED-S, including diagnosis, intervention and prognosis, as well as the psychological factors that tend to interfere with treatment.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Nicky Keay:

[00:00:11] British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine Conference (BASEM) in Doncaster. Video of presentation: Endocrine and Metabolic aspects of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

[00:02:01] Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

[00:03:14] Female Athlete Triad: disordered eating, amenorrhoea and low bone mineral density.

[00:03:25] Bone mineral density worse with harder training; Study: Drinkwater, Barbara L., et al. "Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes." New England Journal of Medicine 311.5 (1984): 277-281.

[00:04:11] International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on RED-S.

[00:08:50] Bone mineral density among retired dancers; Study: Keay, N., I. Fogelman, and G. Blake. "Bone mineral density in professional female dancers." British journal of sports medicine 31.2 (1997): 143-147.

[00:10:00] Effect of exercise on adolescents; Study: Keay NJ, Frost M, Blake G, New S & Fogelman I (2000) Study of the factors influencing the bone mineral density in girls. Osteoporosis International 11: S1– 31; (being revised for publication).

[00:11:46] Effects of sports on children.

[00:15:46] Rudolf Nureyev.

[00:17:26] Cyclists.

[00:18:05] Mad Keen Cyclists.

[00:19:16] Current research: amateur male cyclists.

[00:23:38] Erectile dysfunction.

[00:26:14] Team Sky.

[00:28:24] Cardiovascular effects of RED-S.

[00:30:45] Diagnosing and treating RED-S.

[00:32:30] RED-S categories: green, amber, red.

[00:33:38] Psychological factors: denial, resistance.

[00:35:14] Exercise addiction: BMJ Article: Hausenblas, Heather A., Katherine Schreiber, and James M. Smoliga. "Addiction to exercise." BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online) 357 (2017).

[00:38:05] Orthorexia.

[00:41:46] Multidisciplinary approach; getting the coach involved.

[00:43:06] Increasing bone density.

[00:44:52] Hopping increases bone density; Study: Allison, Sarah J., et al. "The Influence of High‐Impact Exercise on Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Content and 3D Distribution Across the Proximal Femur in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Unilateral Intervention." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30.9 (2015): 1709-1716.

[00:48:01] Timeline for recovery.

[00:48:31] T3 and other hormones recover first.  Bone health takes longer.

[00:49:50] Some evidence that full bone recovery is possible; Study: Hind, Karen. "Recovery of bone mineral density and fertility in a former amenorrheic athlete." Journal of sports science & medicine 7.3 (2008): 415.

[00:50:23] Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

[00:51:08] Oral contraceptive pill.

[00:54:44] Gut health.

[00:55:20] LEAF questionnaire.

[00:55:53] Leaky gut.

[00:56:35] Ghrelin.

[00:57:20] Microbiome disruption.

[00:58:05] Low FODMAP.

[01:00:36] Publications on British Journal of Sports Medicine (BJSM); British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine.


Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do

Sep 8, 2018


Performance psychologist Dr. Simon Marshall, PhD is with me on the podcast today to talk about one of my favourite topics: growth mindset. A year ago Simon introduced me to the book Mindset by Carol Dweck and reading it made me aware of some of my own limiting beliefs about human potential.  It’s the idea that abilities are developed through dedication and hard work, with fixed factors like genes or talent being just a starting point. These concepts have significantly altered the way I talk to and encourage my kids, and also how I approach new skills in my own life.

In this episode of the podcast, Simon and I talk about the impact of mindset on personal development in all areas, including athletics, education, and the workplace.  Simon shares his strategies for switching to a growth mindset and identifying your own blind spots and biases. If you enjoy this podcast, you’ll definitely want to read The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:00:10] Lesley Paterson; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:00:42] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:05:30] VO2 Max test.

[00:07:05] Studies from educational psychology: Yeager, David Scott, and Carol S. Dweck. "Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed." Educational psychologist 47.4 (2012): 302-314.  Also: 1, 2.

[00:09:15] Changing our relationship with failure.

[00:11:32] People don't fail; actions do.

[00:12:38] Book: Black box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn From Their Mistakes - But Some Do, by Matthew Syed. Not mentioned in the podcast, but Simon also recommends the book, Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.

[00:14:49] Experience alone doesn't necessarily make you better; Studies: Kahneman, Daniel, and Gary Klein. "Conditions for intuitive expertise: a failure to disagree." American psychologist 64.6 (2009): 515 and Tracey, Terence JG, et al. "Expertise in psychotherapy: An elusive goal?." American Psychologist 69.3 (2014): 218.  Others: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

[00:16:00] Attribution bias.

[00:17:54] Joby Aviation.

[00:18:52] Lack of situational awareness; United Airlines Flight 173.

[00:19:13] Sustained attention; Radar operators in WW2.

[00:20:52] Fixed mindset and diet.

[00:23:19] Blaming.

[00:24:35] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst, by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:26:02] Paradox of success.

[00:28:28] Playing the cards you're dealt.

[00:30:13] How to switch to a growth mindset.

[00:30:43] Expose yourself to failure.

[00:35:32] Self esteem comes from success, not the other way around.

[00:38:27] Dopamine drives the desire to continue.

[00:40:15] Cognitive dissonance; Leon Festinger.

[00:43:21] Tony Blair; Cognitive bias.

[00:44:37] Confirmation bias.

[00:48:27] Book: The Keto Reset Diet: Reboot Your Metabolism in 21 Days and Burn Fat Forever, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns.

[00:48:27] Robb Wolf’s Keto Masterclass; Podcast: The Keto Masterclass with Robb Wolf.

[00:49:38] Book: Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott; Podcast: Radical Candor™ with Dr Tommy Wood.

[00:53:15] Ruinous empathy.

[00:53:47] Earning the right to be direct.

[00:56:43] How to know where your blind spots are.

[00:59:36] New program on Patreon.

[01:00:30] 7-min analysis.

[01:02:05] Barriers to progress: time, motivation, energy, consistency.

[01:02:30] Elite Performance Members Club Forum.

[01:04:24] Finding accountability.

[01:05:12] Accountability as a motivator; Study: Lerner, Jennifer S., and Philip E. Tetlock. "Accounting for the effects of accountability." Psychological bulletin 125.2 (1999): 255.

[01:06:13] Loser avoidance bias.


[01:08:47] Coming soon: deeper investigations into diet, sleep, exercise, weight loss.

Why Your Diet Isn't Working: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm

Sep 3, 2018


For today’s podcast, I’ve rounded up several of the NBT coaches to look more deeply at the single factor that is capable of improving athletic performance, mood, testosterone levels, blood glucose, fatigue, productivity, stress tolerance and gut health. We’re talking about sleep - the under-rated and often slighted backbone of a healthy lifestyle. In today’s busy world it’s easy to put sleep last on the list, but there are many reasons not to let that happen.

Coaches Megan Roberts, Clay Higgins, and Zach Moore are with me today to discuss the specific benefits of getting good sleep, as well as evidence-based steps you can take if you’re struggling with persistent thoughts at night or waking too early. We share what has worked for our clients (and ourselves!) to create habits and environments conducive to sound sleep.

Here’s the outline of this conversation with Megan, Clay, and Zach:

[00:01:03] Megan's article: Why Your Ketogenic Diet Isn't Working Part 2: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm.

[00:01:45] Podcast: How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health, with Greg Potter.

[00:02:10] Circadian rhythm.

[00:04:55] Sleep deprivation increases hunger hormones; Study: Spiegel, Karine, et al. "Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite." Annals of internal medicine 141.11 (2004): 846-850.

[00:05:03] Glucose tolerance.

[00:06:45] Carb Back-Loading by John Kiefer.

[00:07:47] Effect of restricted sleep on perception of attractiveness; Study: Sundelin, Tina, et al. "Negative effects of restricted sleep on facial appearance and social appeal." Royal Society open science 4.5 (2017): 160918.

[00:08:21] How to know if you're getting enough sleep.

[00:10:14] How to quiet the monkey mind.

[00:11:02] Box breathing.

[00:12:04] Podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:12:57] Getting sleep with a baby in the house.

[00:14:29] Podcast: Perfect Health with Paul Jaminet.

[00:17:55] Ancestral Health Symposium; Kevin Boyd, DDS.

[00:18:21] Things that disrupt circadian rhythm.

[00:18:44] Bright light during the day prevents light-induced melatonin suppression at night; Study: Kozaki, Tomoaki, et al. "Effects of day-time exposure to different light intensities on light-induced melatonin suppression at night." Journal of physiological anthropology 34.1 (2015): 27.

[00:19:11] f.lux; getting more light during the day; blue blocking glasses; iris.

[00:20:35] Ben Greenfield.

[00:21:35] Caffeine.

[00:24:04] Swiss Water Decaf.

[00:25:14] Rooibos tea; Bryan Walsh’s Detox Protocol.

[00:25:20] Alcohol inhibits melatonin.

[00:27:12] Simon Marshall podcasts: 1, 2, 3.

[00:27:36] Book: The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business, by Charles Duhigg.

[00:28:26] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:28:50] Neurotransmitter imbalance caused by stress; Study: Mora, Francisco, et al. "Stress, neurotransmitters, corticosterone and body–brain integration." Brain research 1476 (2012): 71-85.

[00:29:28] Changing the environment.

[00:29:45] Low-blue light bulbs, amber bulbs; Chilipad.

[00:32:38] Obstructive sleep apnea; elevated hemoglobin.

[00:33:31] Pulse oximeter.

[00:34:08] Kevin Boyd’s Amazing Shrinking Face presentation.

[00:34:25] Breathe Right strips; mouth taping.

[00:35:37] Podcast: How to Achieve High Intensity Health with Mike Mutzel; High Intensity Health Podcast.

[00:36:19] Dripkit coffee.

[00:36:58] Nocturia.

[00:41:09] Early time restricted eating.

[00:43:17] Alarm clocks.

[00:44:30] Podcast: The Migraine Miracle, with Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:45:08] Chamomile tea; Study: Abdullahzadeh, Mehrdad, Pegah Matourypour, and Sayed Ali Naji. "Investigation effect of oral chamomilla on sleep quality in elderly people in Isfahan: A randomized control trial." Journal of education and health promotion 6 (2017).

[00:45:41] Great Lakes Collagen Hydrolysate.

[00:46:43] Doc Parsley’s Sleep Remedy.

[00:47:15] Paradoxical intentions.

[00:47:40] Electromagnetic radiation; Podcast: Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs): The Controversy, the Science, and How to Protect Yourself, with Dr. Joseph Mercola.

[00:48:12] Faraday cage.

[00:48:36] Tracking sleep; Oura Ring: Study: de Zambotti, Massimiliano, et al. "The sleep of the ring: comparison of the ŌURA sleep tracker against polysomnography." Behavioral sleep medicine (2017): 1-15.

[00:49:16] Orthosomnia; Study: Baron, Kelly Glazer, et al. "Orthosomnia: Are Some Patients Taking the Quantified Self Too Far?." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 13.02 (2017): 351-354.

[00:50:37] Dan Pardi; Podcasts: How to Track Effectively and The Ideal Weight Program.

[00:51:18] Bedtime for iPhone.

[00:51:42] Better athletic performance in the afternoon, study: Heishman, Aaron D., et al. "Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players." Journal of strength and conditioning research 31.6 (2017): 1557; Adjusting to consistent training times: Chtourou, Hamdi, and Nizar Souissi. "The effect of training at a specific time of day: a review." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 26.7 (2012): 1984-2005.

[00:52:39] Effect of changing seasons; Study: Wehr, Thomas A. "Melatonin and seasonal rhythms." Journal of biological rhythms 12.6 (1997): 518-527.

[00:53:38] Jet lag; melatonin supplementation.

[00:54:47] Camping to reset circadian clock; Study: Stothard, Ellen R., et al. "Circadian entrainment to the natural light-dark cycle across seasons and the weekend." Current Biology 27.4 (2017): 508-513.

[00:55:55] Sleeping pills.

[00:57:01] 5-HTP.

[00:58:11] Tommy's alternative sleep remedy (before sleep): 5HTP (2 caps = 200mg) + Magnesium Glycinate (100mg) + Melatonin (0.5mg) + Cougar Tranquilizer Tea (1 cup).

[00:59:11] Gratitude; Studies: Wood, Alex M., et al. "Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions." Journal of psychosomatic research 66.1 (2009): 43-48 and Jackowska, Marta, et al. "The impact of a brief gratitude intervention on subjective well-being, biology and sleep." Journal of health psychology 21.10 (2016): 2207-2217.

[00:59:58] Chronotype.

[01:00:45] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[01:05:50] Elite Performance Program.

[01:06:40]; book a 15-minute starter session.

Ancestral Health Symposium ‘18 Recap

Aug 29, 2018


Last month the NBT team had a rare live meet-up at the Ancestral Health Symposium in Bozeman, Montana. While there, we had a chance to see many of our previous podcasts guests in person presenting their latest work. For this podcast, we passed the microphone around and shared our impressions of some of the talks we’d seen.

Along the way, we covered all kind of topics, ranging from the performance benefits of caffeine to setting up an ice bath at home. Dr. Tommy Wood shared highlights from his AHS presentation, “The Athlete’s Gut,” explaining why 70% of endurance athletes have a gut problem. We also caught up with friends from Virta Health, who are on a mission to reverse Type 2 Diabetes in 100 Million People.  

Here’s the outline of this conversation with Tommy, Megan, Clay, Zach, Josh, and Doug:

[00:00:08] Ancestral Health Symposium 2018.

[00:00:24] Swiss Water Decaf.

[00:01:34] Association of coffee drinking with all-cause mortality; Studies: Loftfield, Erikka, et al. "Association of Coffee Drinking With Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism: Findings From the UK Biobank." JAMA internal medicine 178.8 (2018): 1086-1097.

[00:02:55] Caffeine for improved performance; Studies: Astorino, Todd A., and Daniel W. Roberson. "Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24.1 (2010): 257-265; and Ganio, Matthew S., et al. "Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23.1 (2009): 315-324.

[00:03:09] Effect of CYP1A2 gene + caffeine; Studies: Guest, Nanci, et al. "Caffeine, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Endurance Performance in Athletes." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 50.8 (2018): 1570-1578; and Rahimi, Rahman. "The effect of CYP1A2 genotype on the ergogenic properties of caffeine during resistance exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study." Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-) (2018): 1-9.

[00:03:39] Caffeine gene: CYP1A2; marker (SNP): rs762551; Click here to check your 23andMe results. AA: faster metabolizer of caffeine; AC: medium metabolizer; CC: slower metabolizer.

[00:03:56] Podcast: How to Drop Your Cholesterol, with Dave Feldman.

[00:04:23] Lean Mass Hyper-responders.

[00:05:35] Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead), with Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:08:06] Inversion pattern.

[00:10:56] Podcast: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease, with Ivor Cummins.

[00:11:14] Book:  Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Great Health, by Ivor Cummins.

[00:11:19] Podcast: The True Root Causes of Cardiovascular Disease, with Dr. Jeffry Gerber.

[00:11:42] Peter Attia.

[00:12:05] Dr. Tim Gerstmar Podcasts: How to Test and Predict Blood, Urine and Stool for Health, Longevity and Performance and Methylation and Environmental Pollutants.

[00:12:15] AHS 2014 Talk: Methylation: How 1 Carbon Affects Your Brain, Your DNA and Everything - Tim Gerstmar, N.D.

[00:13:06] Book: Antifragile; Nassim Taleb’s Lindy Effect.

[00:14:22] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) diet

[00:17:48] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More, with Dr. Ken Ford.

[00:17:55] Study: Fain, Elizabeth, and Cara Weatherford. "Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms." Journal of Hand Therapy 29.4 (2016): 483-488.

[00:19:01] Lucy Mailing.

[00:19:54] Lactobacillus reuteri.

[00:21:24] Age-related macular degeneration.

[00:23:06] Podcast: How to Avoid Kidney Stones with Dr Lynda Frassetto.

[00:15:30] Podcast: How to Have a Healthy Gut, with Dr. Michael Ruscio.

[00:24:47] Podcast: Getting Stronger, with Todd Becker; hormesis.

[00:25:36] Getting Stronger blog.

[00:25:51] XPT Life.

[00:27:18] Setting up a chest freezer cold bath.

[00:29:07] Laird Hamilton and Gabby Reece.

[00:31:12] Podcast: NBT People: Clay Higgins.

[00:31:23] Podcast: How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan.

[00:31:46] Dr. Josh Turknett, Ancestral Health Symposium 2014 talk: Migraine as the Hypothalamic Distress Signal.


[00:36:54] Strategy for avoiding migraines.

[00:40:37] Book: The Migraine Miracle;; Facebook group; The Miracle Moment Podcast, membership community.

[00:41:54] Keto Blast.

[00:42:49] Tommy's AHS 2018 talk: The Athlete's Gut.

[00:45:47] Hadza studies: 1. Raichlen, David A., et al. "Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter‐gatherers." American Journal of Human Biology 29.2 (2017): e22919; 2. Pontzer, Herman, et al. "Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter‐gatherers." American Journal of Human Biology 27.5 (2015): 628-637.

[00:48:31] Effect of intense exercise on the gut; Study: van Wijck, Kim, et al. "Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention." American journal of physiology-gastrointestinal and liver physiology 303.2 (2012): G155-G168.

[00:49:32] Paula Radcliffe.

[0:49:59] Fueling for endurance events.

[00:51:15] Protein intake after workouts; Study: Aragon, Alan Albert, and Brad Jon Schoenfeld. "Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?." Journal of the international society of sports nutrition 10.1 (2013): 5.

[00:54:13] Exercise for health and longevity.

[00:55:12] Polarized training; MAF pace, sprints.

[00:56:53] Undereating; ancestral athletes.

[00:59:30] Adding carbs back in.

[01:01:09] Gut dysbiosis and pathogens.

[01:02:02] Parasites on lettuce: Chierico, Del. "Detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in Italy." Food microbiology (2017).

[01:02:13] Sebastian Winter.

[01:05:36] Gut microbiota of cyclists; Study: Petersen, Lauren M., et al. "Community characteristics of the gut microbiomes of competitive cyclists." Microbiome 5.1 (2017): 98.

[01:05:48] Lauren Petersen Podcasts: The Athlete Microbiome Project: The Search for the Golden Microbiome and An Update on The Athlete Microbiome Project.

[01:05:52] Methane dominant SIBO; Methanobrevibacter smithii.

[01:07:02] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson (audible version here).

[01:07:56] Podcast: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor, with Doug Hilbert.

[01:08:01] Podcast: How to Reverse Insulin Resistant Type Two Diabetes in 100 Million People in Less Than 10 Years with Jim McCarter.

[01:10:11] Virta Health.

[1:20:04] Pain as motivation to change.

[01:24:00] Apply to Virta Health.

How to Use Time-Restricted Eating to Reverse Disease and Optimize Health

Aug 21, 2018


Dr. Satchin Panda, PhD. is a professor and researcher at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and a founding executive member of the Center for Circadian Biology at the University of California, San Diego. He is widely recognized as one of the world’s leading experts on circadian rhythms and has been publishing revolutionary research with a current focus on the benefits of time-restricted eating. He is also the author of The Circadian Code, a guide for optimizing health and reversing disease by living in alignment with the body’s internal clock.

Dr. Panda is with Dr. Tommy Wood on the podcast today, talking about the evidence that points to the dramatic impact of meal timing and light exposure on health. They discuss the high risk of chronic disease that comes with circadian mismatch and share the most important steps you can take to mitigate the damage associated with living in a world that never sleeps.

In the introduction, I mention a survey. You can answer the questions (and get a little more detail about the program with Simon Marshall) at this link:

Here’s the outline of this interview with Satchin Panda:

[00:00:37] Book: The Circadian Code, by Satchin Panda.

[00:03:25] Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

[00:06:56] Joe Bass, MD, PhD.

[00:07:05] Study: Kohsaka, Akira, et al. "High-fat diet disrupts behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in mice." Cell metabolism 6.5 (2007): 414-421.

[00:07:47] Study: Gill, Shubhroz, et al. "Time-restricted feeding attenuates age-related cardiac decline in Drosophila." Science 347.6227 (2015): 1265-1269.

[00:10:08] Christopher Vollmers, Assistant Professor at UC Santa Cruz.

[00:10:53] Different Time Restricted Feeding (TRF) windows; Study: Chaix, Amandine, et al. "Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges." Cell metabolism 20.6 (2014): 991-1005.

[00:13:29] myCircadianClock; Study: Gill, Shubhroz, and Satchidananda Panda. "A smartphone app reveals erratic diurnal eating patterns in humans that can be modulated for health benefits." Cell metabolism 22.5 (2015): 789-798.

[00:17:55] Endurance athletes.

[00:19:10] Improved athletic performance; Study: Chaix, Amandine, et al. "Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges." Cell metabolism 20.6 (2014): 991-1005.

[00:20:32] Ketone production.

[00:23:13] High fat diet leads to increased ketone production, improved endurance.

[00:24:24] Meal timing.

[00:26:52] Consistency is important.

[00:29:53] Supplements and coffee.

[00:32:05] Kenneth Wright, Jr.; Night owls and morning larks Study: Wright Jr, Kenneth P., et al. "Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle." Current Biology 23.16 (2013): 1554-1558.

[00:34:05] Michael Herf; f.lux.

[00:35:24] Biphasic sleep; arousal threshold.

[00:39:46] Exposure to light.

[00:40:33] Effect of light on skin; Study: Lindblom, Niki, et al. "Bright light exposure of a large skin area does not affect melatonin or bilirubin levels in humans." Biological psychiatry 48.11 (2000): 1098-1104.

[00:41:02] Improving sleep.

[00:41:22] Naps.

[00:42:52] Night workers and swing shifts.

[00:43:20] Studying firefighters.

[00:43:28] Food timing effective for resetting circadian clock; Study: Oike, Hideaki, et al. "Time-fixed feeding prevents obesity induced by chronic advances of light/dark cycles in mouse models of jet-lag/shift work." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 465.3 (2015): 556-561.

[00:45:09] Traveling through time zones.

[00:47:47] Timing of physical activity.

[00:49:00] Email apnea.

[00:50:00] Meal timing for prevention of cancer; Study: Kogevinas, Manolis, et al. "Effect of mistimed eating patterns on breast and prostate cancer risk (MCC‐Spain Study)." International journal of cancer (2018).  More from the MCC Research Team.

[00:50:34] Effect of nightly fasting on breast cancer; Study: Marinac, Catherine R., et al. "Prolonged nightly fasting and breast cancer prognosis." JAMA oncology 2.8 (2016): 1049-1055.

[00:50:52] Night shift work increases women’s risk of cancer: Yuan, Xia, et al. "Night shift work increases the risks of multiple primary cancers in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 articles." Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 27.1 (2018): 25-40.

[00:51:03] Optimal timing of drugs; studies: Lévi, Francis, et al. "Implications of circadian clocks for the rhythmic delivery of cancer therapeutics." Advanced drug delivery reviews 59.9-10 (2007): 1015-1035; and Lauriola, Mattia, et al. "Diurnal suppression of EGFR signalling by glucocorticoids and implications for tumour progression and treatment." Nature communications 5 (2014): 5073.

[00:52:14] Lifestyle: what, when and how much we eat, sleep, and move.

[00:53:40] Book: The Longevity Diet: Discover the New Science Behind Stem Cell Activation and Regeneration to Slow Aging, Fight Disease, and Optimize Weight, by Valter Longo, PhD.

[00:55:43] Architecture Study: Dance, Amber. "Science and Culture: The brain within buildings." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114.5 (2017): 785-787.

[00:56:44] Benefits of daylight in architecture; Study: Boubekri, Mohamed, et al. "Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study." Journal of clinical sleep medicine 10.06 (2014): 603-611; and Daylighting Facts & Figures.

[00:59:29] 30 minutes of bright light in the morning.

[01:00:51] Recommendations: 8 hours sleep, wait to eat breakfast, eat within 10 hours; 30 minutes of bright light, dim light/no food 3 hours before bed.

[01:01:46]; myLuxRecorder app.

A New Metric for Predicting Athletic Performance

Aug 14, 2018


Alessandro (Alex) Ferretti has been practicing nutritional therapy for over 15 years.  He formed Equilibria Health Ltd. in 2004, which is now recognized as one of the UK’s leading providers of nutrition education. He has lectured internationally on the subjects of nutrition and human performance, and his current focus is on research in the areas of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood glucose, nutrigenomics, and factors affecting metabolic flexibility.

In this podcast, Alex describes the metric he has developed which can provide a signal of an inflammatory response and preview athletic performance. He and Dr. Tommy Wood also discuss his online Mitokinetics tool, developed for the purpose of estimating caloric requirements in the context of different macronutrient ratios.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Alex Ferretti:

[00:00:33] Robb Wolf, Ben Lynch, Dan Plews, Paul Laursen.

[00:04:17] Metabolic flexibility; Podcast: How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use, with Mike T. Nelson.

[00:04:29] Weikko Jaross.

[00:06:30] Immune system cells requiring carbohydrate metabolism; Studies: MacIver, Nancie J., et al. "Glucose metabolism in lymphocytes is a regulated process with significant effects on immune cell function and survival." Journal of leukocyte biology 84.4 (2008): 949-957; Also: 1, 2, 3.

[00:12:40] Metabolic health correlates with quick adaptation to ketogenic diet.

[00:16:00] New Zealand cyclists study: Zinn, Caryn, et al. "Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14.1 (2017): 22.

[00:16:20] Genetic factors affecting metabolic flexibility.

[00:17:20] DNAFit test.

[00:18:31] Environmental factors affecting metabolic flexibility.

[00:18:39] DIETFITS study: Gardner, Christopher D., et al. "Effect of low-fat vs low-carbohydrate diet on 12-month weight loss in overweight adults and the association with genotype pattern or insulin secretion: the DIETFITS randomized clinical trial." Jama 319.7 (2018): 667-679.

[00:21:48] Eating: When, how, and how much.

[00:22:28] Training low/competing high, sleep.

[00:23:35] Disrupted sleep cycles affecting fasting blood glucose (FBG), heart rate variability (HRV).

[00:24:36] Assessment to determine the best dietary approach.

[00:25:23] 5 points: Life load (stress), chronobiology, sleep, physical activity, diet.

[00:27:30] Food preferences in relation to stress response and sleep deprivation; Studies: McHill, Andrew W., et al. "Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat." The American journal of clinical nutrition 106.5 (2017): 1213-1219; Also: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:29:59] HRV Apps: HRV4Training, Elite HRV.

[00:31:00] Validity of ultra-short HRV measurements; Study: Munoz, M. Loretto, et al. "Validity of (ultra-) short recordings for heart rate variability measurements." PLoS One 10.9 (2015): e0138921.

[00:31:09] Oura ring.

[00:32:10] Ferretti Index (HRV/BG Index).

[00:35:36] FBG in relation to mortality; Study: Bjørnholt, JØRGEN V., et al. "Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men." Diabetes care 22.1 (1999): 45-49.

[00:35:43] HRV in relation to mortality; Study: Camm, A. John, et al. "Mortality in patients after a recent myocardial infarction. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of azimilide using heart rate variability for risk stratification." Circulation (2004).

[00:36:41] Ferretti Index formula: RMSSD/(FBG mmol/L)²; In US: RMSSD/(FBG mg/dL/18)².

[00:38:00] Every other day HRV readings; Study: Li, S. J., Y. Y. Su, and M. Liu. "Study on early heart rate variability in patients with severe acute cerebral vascular disease." Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue= Chinese critical care medicine= Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue 15.9 (2003): 546-549.

[00:38:27] Study using hs-CRP: Aeschbacher, Stefanie, et al. "Heart rate, heart rate variability and inflammatory biomarkers among young and healthy adults." Annals of medicine 49.1 (2017): 32-41.

[00:41:56] Eating later in the day (8PM or later) correlated with higher FBG, sleep disruption, HRV.

[00:44:08] Frequent small meals led to higher blood glucose.

[00:45:33] Dawn Phenomenon.

[00:48:12] DUTCH test.

[00:49:52] Homocysteine test as part of a cardiovascular assessment.

[00:51:56] Macronutrient ratio may not be as important as other factors.

[00:53:41] Interleukin-6; insulin as anti-inflammatory hormone.

[00:54:36] Mitokinetics tool, developed by Alessandro Ferretti and Weikko Jaross, as discussed in this NBT blog post by Dr. Tommy Wood. Information about using the tool can be found on this help page or in this video.

[00:55:57] Dr. Kevin Hall.

[00:56:17] Keto and low-carb dieters - may require lower caloric intake.


[01:00:41] Videos.

How to Reconcile Performance with Longevity

Aug 6, 2018


Performance isn’t as much as a priority as longevity is now, but I still love to compete.  This dilemma, so well stated by one of our clients, got us thinking.  It’s well documented that exercise extends both lifespan and healthspan, and the people we work with typically have no trouble meeting the widely recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity.  But what happens when you’re a competitive athlete training significantly more than that?

For this podcast, I met up with Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD and Performance Psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD to talk about the benefits and risks of intense exercise with regard to longevity and healthspan.  The science points to a U-shaped curve with dangers at both ends of the spectrum - not enough activity and also too much - and we discuss the point at which an athlete’s long-term health might suffer. We also talk about the kinds of exercise that will keep you strong and resilient as you age.

Here’s the outline of this discussion with Drs Tommy Wood and Simon Marshall:

[00:00:37] Lesley Paterson 2018 ITU World Champion; Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums, with Lesley Paterson.

[00:03:08] Performance, longevity, healthspan.

[00:05:21] Atrial fibrillation.

[00:05:51] Braveheart Coaching.

[00:08:01] Up to 6-7 hours/week of exercise, moderate to vigorous intensity, correlates with increased lifespan.

[00:08:29] 100 steps per minute; Study: Marshall, Simon J., et al. "Translating physical activity recommendations into a pedometer-based step goal: 3000 steps in 30 minutes." American journal of preventive medicine 36.5 (2009): 410-415.

[00:09:08] Intense exercise associated with cardiac diseases; Study: Merghani, Ahmed, Aneil Malhotra, and Sanjay Sharma. "The U-shaped relationship between exercise and cardiac morbidity." Trends in cardiovascular medicine 26.3 (2016): 232-240.

[00:09:17] Above 25-30 miles/week, some increase in mortality; Study: Lee, Duck-chul, et al. "Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 64.5 (2014): 472-481.

[00:09:37] Diminishing returns vs. harm.

[00:10:32] 2/3 of people not getting enough exercise.

[00:10:47] Risks with high levels of exercise.

[00:11:37] Podcast: Arrhythmias in Endurance Athletes, with Peter Backx.

[00:11:49] Higher coronary artery calcium (CAC)  in marathon runners; Study: Kröger, Knut, et al. "Carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis in male marathon runners." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 43.7 (2011): 1142-1147.

[00:12:12] Elevated troponin in marathon completers; Study: Regwan, Steven, et al. "Marathon running as a cause of troponin elevation: a systematic review and meta‐analysis." Journal of interventional cardiology 23.5 (2010): 443-450.

[00:13:08] Extreme exercise unveiling congenital vulnerabilities.

[00:14:26] Required ECGs, cardiac stress test.

[00:16:15] Half of marathoners as former smokers; Study: Möhlenkamp, Stefan, et al. "Running: the risk of coronary events: prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners." European heart journal 29.15 (2008): 1903-1910.

[00:17:30] Gut permeability, endotoxemia.

[00:18:18] Hunter gatherer populations.  Studies: 1. Raichlen, David A., et al. "Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter‐gatherers." American Journal of Human Biology 29.2 (2017): e22919; 2. Pontzer, Herman, et al. "Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter‐gatherers." American Journal of Human Biology 27.5 (2015): 628-637.

[00:19:49] Periods of rest.

[00:21:48] Why do people "over"-exercise?

[00:21:50] Personal goals, exercise dependency, training goals.

[00:23:24] Liking the gear, competition.

[00:24:41] Self-referenced challenge, especially for long events.

[00:26:19] Managing performance anxiety.

[00:27:10] Competitor vs participant mindset; Podcast: Why We Self-Sabotage (And What to Do Instead), with Dr. Simon Marshall.

[00:32:01] Short term vs. prolonged exposure to extreme exercise.

[00:37:15] Building good exercise habits.

[00:40:24] Tommy's exercise regimen.

[00:40:41] Zach Moore: NBT Head of Strength and Conditioning.

[00:41:57] Standing, walking, playing with dogs.

[00:45:25] Strength and power in endurance sports.

[00:48:01] Wingate test.

[00:49:27] Simon's exercise regimen.

[00:52:17] Aim for aerobic fitness and strength in top 25% of peer group.


Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs): The Controversy, the Science, and How to Protect Yourself

Jul 29, 2018


Indiegogo campaign: Medical Study on Hashimoto's Disease and AIP

Dr. Joseph Mercola is a board-certified physician and best-selling author whose name has become synonymous with natural health. He’s long been a controversial figure in the public eye, thanks to his outspoken opposition to the norms of the medical establishment. He has maintained a popular website over the past 20 years, catering to the growing number of people seeking alternatives for the prevention and treatment of chronic illness.

On this podcast, Dr. Mercola talks with Dr. Tommy Wood about the health consequences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). They review the science that supports the need for greater caution in the age of cell phones and wireless technology. They also discuss the specific biological processes in the human body that are affected by EMFs and the steps you can take in your own home to mitigate the damage.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr. Mercola:

[00:03:30] Research funded by telecoms industry; Study: Huss, Anke, et al. "Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies." Epidemiology 17.6 (2006): S439.

[00:03:43] Olle Johansson; Talk: Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

[00:04:03] Types of EMFs - Electric, Magnetic, and Radio frequencies.

[00:05:09] 10^18 (quintillion) times increase in exposure to radio frequencies.

[00:06:54] Sam Milham, epidemiologist.

[00:08:38] Thomas Levy, cardiologist.

[00:09:22] Martin Pall, PhD; Studies evaluating the effect of calcium channel blockers on EMF toxicity: 1, 2, 3, 4.

[00:10:14] Voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCG).

[00:10:23] Paul Héroux.

[00:10:52] Video: Dr. Mercola Interviews Paul Heroux.

[00:11:23] Magnesium as a natural calcium channel blocker.

[00:12:52] Resveratrol study: Kjær, Thomas Nordstrøm, et al. "No beneficial effects of resveratrol on the metabolic syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 102.5 (2017): 1642-1651.

[00:14:31] Study: Pacher, Pál, Joseph S. Beckman, and Lucas Liaudet. "Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease." Physiological reviews 87.1 (2007): 315-424.

[00:15:30] NAD/Diabetes Study: Yoshino, Jun, et al. "Nicotinamide mononucleotide, a key NAD+ intermediate, treats the pathophysiology of diet-and age-induced diabetes in mice." Cell metabolism 14.4 (2011): 528-536.

[00:16:00] Richard Veech; NADPH as the true battery of the cell.

[00:16:43] Effect of exogenous ketones on NADPH. Study: Veech, Richard L., et al. "Ketone bodies mimic the life span extending properties of caloric restriction." IUBMB life 69.5 (2017): 305-314.

[00:17:14] Symptoms of EMF exposures: brain and heart.

[00:18:00] Cancer: Glioblastoma increase; Study: Philips, Alasdair, et al. "Brain tumours: rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995–2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor." Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2018 (2018). [00:18:02] Tumors on ipsilateral side of head that cell phone is used; Study: Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009." Pathophysiology 22.1 (2015): 1-13.

[00:18:29] Electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

[00:19:28] World Health Organization: EMF given 2B classification.

[00:20:18] Long-term effects.

[00:20:26] Infertility; Study: Sommer, Angela M., et al. "Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS) on reproduction and development of mice: a multi-generation study." Radiation research 171.1 (2009): 89-95.

[00:21:12] Autism, Alzheimer's, fertility; Study: Adams, Jessica A., et al. "Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Environment international 70 (2014): 106-112.

[00:23:00] Book: The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs: How to Fix Our Stupid Use of Technology, by Nicholas Pineault; Electrosmog Rx online course.

[00:23:38] How to mitigate EMF.

[00:23:48] Acousticom 2; Magda Havas.

[00:25:10] Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt.

[00:26:14] Reducing EMF in the home.

[00:27:53] Shielding; smart meters, Faraday cage.

[00:30:04] Materials that block EMF.

[00:32:40] 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Organic Acids Test, DUTCH Test.

[00:34:07] DNA damage; Studies: Lai, Henry. "Single-and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation." International journal of radiation biology 69.4 (1996): 513-521; Replicated by 2004 European REFLEX study. Final REFLEX report here.

[00:34:33] Ionizing vs non-ionizing radiation.

[00:35:16] REFLEX report: 24 hours of cell phone use equivalent to 1600 chest x-rays.

[00:36:02] Reducing ionizing radiation on aeroplanes.

[00:36:26] Zach Bush’s Nitric Oxide Dump.

[00:36:54] Exogenous ketones; Dr. Veech’s ketone ester.

[00:37:10] NRF2 upregulators (e.g., molecular hydrogen), Cannabidiol (CBD).

[00:38:10] Hormetea.

[00:39:15] Mitigating damage from cell phones.

[00:40:11] Magnetic fields; Trifield.

[00:40:42] Dirty electricity; Book: Dirty Electricity: Electrification and the Diseases of Civilization, by Samuel Milham.

[00:41:43] Grounding.

[00:42:27] Stetzerizer Filter; Dave Stetzer, Martin Graham; Greenwave.

[00:44:47] EMF Tents.

[00:46:10] Hierarchy of treatment interventions.

[00:47:33] Book: Overpowered: The Dangers of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMF) and What You Can Do about It, by Martin Blank; Dr. Mercola’s video interviews.

[00:48:55] Other interesting papers Tommy has read along the way: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[00:48:55] Bioinitiative 2012 Report.

How to Measure Immune Balance Using Blood Testing

Jul 24, 2018


We launched the Blood Chemistry Calculator six months ago and have come to rely on it for our Elite Performance Program clients as an initial screening tool and measure of ongoing progress. With the input of 39 basic blood chemistry markers, the calculator uses a machine-learning algorithm to predict health status in 6 specific areas: immune balance, toxicity, metabolic health, nutrition, oxidative balance, and a general 5-year wellness score.

On this podcast, Tommy and I are talking specifically about the Immune Balance Score, the domain that forecasts immune system health and inflammation from 13 out of the 39 input markers and one forecasted value (CRP). Tommy discusses these markers in detail, citing research that supports using them to predict health outcomes. He also shares ideas for next steps to improve functioning in the area of immune balance.

You can now try some features of the Blood Chemistry Calculator for free by visiting and clicking “Free Report”.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:00:30] Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC); Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.

[00:00:49] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:01:03] Peer Review.

[00:02:32] Immune Balance Score.

[00:04:00] Dashboard of Blood Chemistry Calculator scores (example).

[00:04:08] Predicted Age Score.

[00:05:12] Who is the calculator for?

[00:06:09] Building a health coach referral network.

[00:07:05] Podcast: How to Measure Hormones, with Mark Newman.

[00:08:31] Combining 2+ reports for longitudinal tracking.

[00:09:08] Markers that make up the Immune Balance Score.

[00:10:49] Sensitivity and specificity.

[00:13:40] All-cause mortality: dying from any cause.

[00:17:05] Evaluating scientific research: PubMed + Google.

[00:19:53] C-Reactive Protein (CRP) > 0.5 associated with 75% increase in all-cause mortality; Study: Li, Yunwei, et al. "Hs-CRP and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis." Atherosclerosis 259 (2017): 75-82.

[00:21:10] Jeremy Powers; Podcast: National Cyclocross Champion Jeremy Powers on Racing, Training and the Ketogenic Diet.

[00:22:30] Dr. Bryan Walsh - Timing of blood testing for athletes.

[00:24:49] Albumin: less than 4 g/dL = increased risk of all-cause mortality; Studies: 1. Fulks, Michael, Robert L. Stout, and Vera F. Dolan. "Albumin and all-cause mortality risk in insurance applicants." J Insur Med 42.1 (2010): 11-17; 2. Proctor, Michael J., et al. "Systemic inflammation predicts all-cause mortality: a glasgow inflammation outcome study." PloS one 10.3 (2015): e0116206; 3. Lee, Won-Suk, et al. "Population Specific Biomarkers of Human Aging: A Big Data Study Using South Korean, Canadian, and Eastern European Patient Populations." (2018).

[00:27:25] Gamma Gap (globulins): > 3 g/dL = increase in all-cause mortality; Studies: 1. Juraschek, Stephen P., et al. "The gamma gap and all-cause mortality." PloS one 10.12 (2015): e0143494; 2. Yang, Ming, et al. "The gamma gap predicts 4-year all-cause mortality among nonagenarians and centenarians." Scientific reports 8.1 (2018): 1046.

[00:29:58] Table that shows reference ranges, scores assigned.

[00:30:39] Ferritin - iron overload vs. indicator of inflammation; >200 ng/mL = 50% increase risk of all-cause mortality; Study: Kadoglou, Nikolaos PE, et al. "The association of ferritin with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in community-dwellers: The English longitudinal study of ageing." PloS one 12.6 (2017): e0178994.

[00:34:20] Iron overload podcast: Iron overload and the impact it can have on performance and health, with Dr. Tommy Wood; Blood donation.

[00:34:37] Podcast: Rethinking Positive Thinking, with Gabriele Oettingen.

[00:36:31] Hemoglobin - higher = more aerobic power; Lower = chronic inflammation or nutritional deficiency.  

[00:37:27] Hemoglobin has U-shaped curve - increased all-cause mortality if too low or too high. Optimal: from 14.5 g/dL (13 for women) + 1.5-2 g/dL; Study: Fulks, Michael, Vera F. Dolan, and Robert L. Stout. "Hemoglobin Screening Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality." (2015): 75-80.

[00:39:02] Christopher Kelly’s combined report.

[00:39:18] Fasting blood glucose: >100 mg/dL = higher all-cause mortality. Study: Bjørnholt, JØRGEN V., et al. "Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men." Diabetes care 22.1 (1999): 45-49.

[00:40:57] Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW): ideal is below 12%; Study: Al-Kindi, Sadeer G., et al. "Red Cell Distribution Width Is Associated with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Diabetes." BioMed research international 2017 (2017).

[00:41:17] White Blood Cells.

[00:41:28] Eosinophils >0.275 x10E3/uL= increased risk of 30-year all-cause mortality; Study: Hospers, Jeannette J., et al. "Eosinophilia is associated with increased all-cause mortality after a follow-up of 30 years in a general population sample." Epidemiology (2000): 261-268.

[00:42:21] Ratios between markers.

[00:43:20] Platelets - High is associated with increased risk of mortality after heart attack; Study: Tsai, Ming-Tsun, et al. "U-shaped mortality curve associated with platelet count among older people: a community-based cohort study." Blood 126.13 (2015): 1633-1635.

[00:43:39] Lymphocyte:Monocyte ratio; Study: Xiang, Fangfang, et al. "Monocyte/lymphocyte ratio as a better predictor of cardiovascular and all‐cause mortality in hemodialysis patients: A prospective cohort study." Hemodialysis International 22.1 (2018): 82-92.

[00:45:23] Where to go from here?  

[00:45:40] Acute vs. chronic inflammation.

[00:47:07] Antimicrobials: Monolaurin, Lauricidin, Selenomethionine; antibody testing.

[00:47:40] Malcolm Kendrick Podcast: Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead).

[00:48:51]; Quest lab locator.

[00:49:11] UK: Fibrhealth.

[00:49:15] Australia:; Podcast: How to Get Help and Feel Great in Australia Using Advanced Blood Interpretation, with Stephen Anderson.  


How to Assess an Athlete: The Best Principles, Methods, and Devices to Use

Jul 19, 2018


Educator, coach, and exercise physiologist Dr. Mike T. Nelson is back on the podcast today.  With a PhD in Exercise Physiology, Mike has made learning and teaching about the human body his life’s work. He has published research in physiology and engineering journals and speaks internationally on topics related to metabolic flexibility and movement.

Today Mike is here to speak with Tommy from a coaching perspective about assessing athletes, specifically in the areas of physical performance, nutrition, lifestyle, and technology. Drawing on two decades of education and experience, he discusses the specific tools and principles he uses to evaluate his clients, mixing trusted methods with new technology. He also describes the best way to pick a coach and shares his criteria for selecting devices among new technology.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mike T. Nelson:

[00:00:54] Previous podcasts: High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea… and The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athlete.

[00:01:36] Dr. Pat Davidson.

[00:02:00] International Symposium on Clinical Neuroscience 2018; Carrick Institute; Dr. Frederick Robert Carrick.

[00:02:47] Mass 2 - discussed with Dr. Ben House on this podcast: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes.

[00:03:02] Dr. Bryan Walsh (podcasts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

[00:03:59] Should practitioners look the part?

[00:04:48] Dr. Michael Ruscio; Podcast: How to Have a Healthy Gut.

[00:06:07] Brian Shaw.

[00:08:10] Tips for finding a coach.

[00:10:08] Athlete assessments (physical, nutrition, lifestyle, technology).

[00:11:29] Kendall Manual Muscle Testing.

[00:11:45] Reflexive Performance Reset (RPR).

[00:13:22] Cooper Test; 500m row.

[00:14:48] Rob Wilson; Brian MacKenzie; Art of Breath.

[00:20:29] Be Activated.

[00:21:50] Jill Miller, Coregeous ball.

[00:22:34] Zach Moore, MA, CSCS, Head of Strength and Conditioning at NBT.

[00:23:54] Gabriele Wulf; Study: Wulf, Gabriele. "Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years." International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 6.1 (2013): 77-104.

[00:28:02] Cal Dietz.

[00:28:20] Dr. Eric Cobb at Z Health.

[00:29:38] Cronometer, myfitnesspal.

[00:34:57] Metabolic flexibility.

[00:35:37] FASTER study: Volek, Jeff S., et al. "Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners." Metabolism 65.3 (2016): 100-110.

[00:37:17] Metabolic Flexibility study: Goodpaster, Bret H., and Lauren M. Sparks. "Metabolic flexibility in health and disease." Cell metabolism 25.5 (2017): 1027-1036.

[00:37:40] Glycomark.

[00:37:59] Pop tart test.

[00:39:16] Sleep; Podcasts with Dan Pardi and Kirk Parsley; Book: Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams, by Matthew Walker, PhD.

[00:40:04] Fun; liking what you do.

[00:42:08] Oura ring.

[00:42:46] Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

[00:45:04] Coaching: What to work on and document.

[00:50:47] Omegawave, Moxy.

[00:53:16] Dophin Neurostim.

[00:54:12] Push Band.

[00:54:35] Halo Sport Headset.

[00:55:06] Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Study: Vöröslakos, Mihály, et al. "Direct effects of transcranial electric stimulation on brain circuits in rats and humans." Nature communications 9.1 (2018): 483.

[00:55:57] Evaluating new technology.

[01:01:11] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[01:02:29] Sensitivity and Specificity.


NBT Olympians: Leif Nordgren

Jul 11, 2018


Minnesota-raised biathlete Leif Nordgren started skiing when he was just three and shot his first rifle at 14. He won a bronze at the Youth World Championships in 2008 and went on to join the US biathlon team, participating in his first world championship in 2011. Leif has competed in both the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympic Games on the 5-man US Olympic Biathlon Team and continues to compete annually in the international Biathlon World Cup.

It’s been a pleasure working with Leif over the past year as a member of our own Elite Performance Program.  He’s on the podcast with me today to talk about his journey becoming a professional biathlete, including his training approach and diet, and the resilience needed to shoot a firearm with precision right after an all-out sprint. Leif also shares about the health challenges he’s overcome along the way, including gut pathogens and food intolerances that required some detective work and experimentation to identify.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Leif Nordgren:

[00:00:14] NBT Elite Performance Program (EPP).

[00:05:54] Becoming a competitive skier.

[00:07:31] US biathlon team.

[00:07:39] Skate (freestyle) skiing.

[00:09:55] VO2 max.

[00:13:22] Shooting.

[00:17:59] Junior World Championships.

[00:21:08] Training approach.

[00:21:21] Vladimir Cervenka.

[00:26:24] Per Nilsson.

[00:26:57] Periodization.

[00:27:37] Knowing when you've overtrained.

[00:30:04] World Cup racing.

[00:32:44] Implementation Intention: planning for the unexpected.

[00:35:30] 2014 Olympics in Soche.

[00:43:35] Making a living.

[00:45:25] Lake Placid US Olympic Training Center; US Olympic Committee.

[00:46:56] Diet.

[00:50:05] Autoimmune Protocol (AIP).

[00:53:12] H.Pylori, Candida.

[00:54:47] Ironman study: Jeukendrup, A. E., et al. "Relationship between gastro-intestinal complaints and endotoxaemia, cytokine release and the acute-phase reaction during and after a long-distance triathlon in highly trained men." Clinical Science 98.1 (2000): 47-55.

[00:55:47] Book: The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in “Healthy” Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain, by Dr. Steven Gundry.

[01:01:46] Podcast: Robb Wolf Paleo Solution Episode 226 with Christopher Kelly.

[01:02:19] Sleep improvements, timing of training, DUTCH test.

[01:06:18] World cup races live streamed:;

[01:07:47] Instagram: @leifcnordgren; Twitter: @leifcnordgren; Facebook: Leif Nordgren.

How to Entrain Your Circadian Rhythm for Perfect Sleep and Metabolic Health

Jul 4, 2018


Greg Potter, PhD is the Content Director at, an online platform that uses a behaviour change model to help people lead more healthy lives. He creates online courses and other content to teach about the impact of lifestyle on health and recently spoke at the Biohacker Summit in Stockholm, Sweden on cutting-edge strategies for improving sleep.

Greg is talking today with Dr. Tommy Wood about his research in the areas of circadian biology and metabolic health. They discuss the vital role of adequate sleep and the societal influences that undermine the quality of our slumber and our health. Greg shares his best and most actionable steps for improving your sleep, including the timing of exercise and meals, using caffeine and alcohol wisely, and even what to wear to bed.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Greg Potter:


[00:00:46] Podcast: How to Track Effectively, with Dan Pardi.

[00:01:04] What's a real British biscuit?

[00:03:31] Myfood24.

[00:04:35] Eating later in the day associated with increased body fat; Study: McHill, Andrew W., et al. "Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat." The American journal of clinical nutrition 106.5 (2017): 1213-1219.

[00:05:00] Associations between self-reported sleep duration and health outcomes; Study: Potter, Gregory DM, Janet E. Cade, and Laura J. Hardie. "Longer sleep is associated with lower BMI and favorable metabolic profiles in UK adults: Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey." PloS one 12.7 (2017): e0182195.

[00:05:24] Melatonin.

[00:05:51] Circadin slow-release melatonin.

[00:06:48] MTNR genetic polymorphisms.

[00:13:09] Effects of altered circadian rhythm. Studies: 1. Potter, Gregory DM, et al. "Nutrition and the circadian system." British Journal of Nutrition 116.3 (2016): 434-442; 2. Potter, Gregory DM, et al. "Circadian rhythm and sleep disruption: causes, metabolic consequences, and countermeasures." Endocrine reviews 37.6 (2016): 584-608.

[00:13:35] Metabolic consequences of reduced sleep.

[00:16:40] Night shift work.

[00:17:27] Health effects of night shift work; Study: Kecklund, Göran, and John Axelsson. "Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep." BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online) 355 (2016).

[00:18:24] Social jet lag.

[00:20:24] Article: The Real Reason Why Spaniards Eat Late.

[00:21:24] Naps.

[00:23:55] Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep.

[00:24:44] HumanOS courses on circadian biology.

[00:25:21] Study: Phillips, Andrew JK, et al. "Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 3216.

[00:26:08] Zeitgeber (time cue).

[00:27:10] Light-dark cycle, blue light.

[00:29:54] Light pollution; Study: Kyba, Christopher CM, et al. "Artificially lit surface of Earth at night increasing in radiance and extent." Science advances 3.11 (2017): e1701528.

[00:30:17] Artificial light at night; Study: Wyse, C. A., et al. "Circadian desynchrony and metabolic dysfunction; did light pollution make us fat?." Medical hypotheses 77.6 (2011): 1139-1144.

[00:30:38] Chronotypes.

[00:32:46] Study: Toh, Kong L., et al. "An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome." Science 291.5506 (2001): 1040-1043.

[00:35:37] Celine Vetter; Study: Vetter, Céline, et al. "Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption." Current Biology 25.7 (2015): 907-911.

[00:37:54] RAND group paper: Later School Start Times in the US: An Economic Analysis.

[00:39:06] Satchin Panda.

[00:41:35] Studies: Rothschild, Jeffrey, and William Lagakos. "Implications of enteral and parenteral feeding times: considering a circadian picture." Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 39.3 (2015): 266-270; and Grau, Teodoro, et al. "Liver dysfunction associated with artificial nutrition in critically ill patients." Critical Care 11.1 (2007): R10.

[00:42:20] Carb backloading.

[00:46:50] Meal timing; Study: Wehrens, Sophie MT, et al. "Meal timing regulates the human circadian system." Current Biology 27.12 (2017): 1768-1775.

[00:47:41] Study: Kessler, Katharina, et al. "The effect of diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat on glycaemic control in humans: a randomized controlled trial." Scientific reports 7 (2017): 44170.

[00:48:06] John Kiefer.

[00:49:46] Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO).

[00:50:14] Timing of exercise before sleep.

[00:50:49] Greg’s tips for improving sleep.

[00:57:08] f.lux, Twilight for Android, Night Shift for iOS.

[00:58:10]; Video: Greg Potter: Hacking Your Way To Better Sleep and Life (Biohacker Summit 2018 Stockholm).

How to Have a Healthy Gut

Jun 28, 2018


Functional medicine practitioner, clinical researcher, and international lecturer Dr. Michael Ruscio is back on the podcast today, talking with Dr. Tommy Wood about the work he’s doing to advance understanding of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) and other disorders of the gut. In addition to seeing patients, maintaining a podcast and blog and conducting his own clinical research, he’s recently written Healthy Gut, Healthy You, a practical guide to intestinal health and overall well-being.

In this podcast, Dr. Ruscio discusses his evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating SIBO in his clinic, including breath testing, prokinetics to prevent relapse, and symptom management. He also talks about how he has built a successful online platform to bring his work to a wider audience. You can find Dr. Ruscio’s previous podcasts with us here and here.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Michael Ruscio:

[00:00:21] Book: Healthy Gut, Healthy You: The Personalized Plan to Transform Your Health from the Inside Out, by Dr. Michael Ruscio.

[00:04:02] When to reach out to a health practitioner.

[00:04:44] Setbacks during protocol.

[00:05:45] When to do testing.

[00:09:43] Tracking progress.

[00:10:37] Mark Pimentel, MD.

[00:10:40] North American Consensus guidelines: Rezaie, Ali, et al. "Hydrogen and methane-based breath testing in gastrointestinal disorders: the North American consensus." The American journal of gastroenterology 112.5 (2017): 775.

[00:10:50] Rome Foundation Guidelines: Gasbarrini, A. N. T. O. N. I. O., et al. "Methodology and indications of H2-breath testing in gastrointestinal diseases: the Rome Consensus Conference." Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 29 (2009): 1-49.

[00:11:09] Study: Khoshini, Reza, et al. "A systematic review of diagnostic tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth." Digestive diseases and sciences 53.6 (2008): 1443-1454.

[00:13:41] Study: Distrutti, Eleonora, et al. "Evidence that hydrogen sulfide exerts antinociceptive effects in the gastrointestinal tract by activating KATP channels." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 316.1 (2006): 325-335.

[00:14:00] Study: Lin, Eugenia, et al. "Measurement of hydrogen sulfide during breath testing correlates to patient symptoms." Gastroenterology 152.5 (2017): S205-S206.

[00:15:00] Controlling GI symptoms.

[00:16:38] Efficacy of peppermint, study: Enck, Paul, et al. "Therapy options in irritable bowel syndrome." European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 22.12 (2010): 1402-1411.

[00:18:30] Building an online platform.

[00:23:19] Balancing clinical mission with sponsorships.

[00:26:24] Identifying truth vs. bias.

[00:29:40] Evaluating scientific research.

[00:32:50] When to try something that's not evidence-based.

[00:36:12] In-progress clinical trials.

[00:38:44] Prokinetics for preventing SIBO relapse.

[00:39:37] Study - Pimentel, Mark, et al. "Low-dose nocturnal tegaserod or erythromycin delays symptom recurrence after treatment of irritable bowel syndrome based on presumed bacterial overgrowth." Gastroenterology & hepatology 5.6 (2009): 435.

[00:40:59] Healthy Gut Healthy You;;; Dr. Ruscio Radio Podcast, weekly videos.

[00:42:10] Article: Is SIBO a Real Condition? By Alan Christianson.

[00:42:11] Rebuttal article: Is SIBO a Real Condition? by Michael Ruscio.

[00:42:43] Future of Functional Medicine Review clinical newsletter.

From Neonatal Neurobiology to Elite Performance Coaching: Interview with Dr. Tommy Wood

Jun 20, 2018


Dr. Tommy Wood studied medicine at the University of Oxford, graduating in 2011.  After two years as a junior doctor in the UK, he returned to academia to earn his PhD in physiology and neuroscience at the University of Oslo, Norway.  He is the current PAH President, as well as the Chief Scientific Officer of Nourish Balance Thrive, a company that specializes in optimizing health and performance in athletes using advanced biochemical testing and an online health-coaching paradigm.

Tommy believes that diet and lifestyle interventions should form the basis of treatment for all systemic disease, and has lectured internationally on subjects related to this. In this podcast, Dr. Wood discusses his professional journey and the research that has gone into developing a machine learning algorithm to forecast health conditions from a basic blood chemistry.

Please leave a review for the Physicians for Ancestral Health podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Drs Josh Turknett and Tommy Wood:

[00:00:37] From biochemistry to coaching elite athletes.

[00:07:00] Crossfit, Robb Wolf.

[00:09:02] Paleo Diet, Autoimmune Protocol Diet (AIP).

[00:09:25] Terry Wahls.

[00:09:52] Multiple Sclerosis risk factors.

[00:12:19] Talk: Systems Analysis and Multiple Sclerosis - Physicians for Ancestral Health Symposium, 2015.

[00:14:28] Terry Wahls studies: Lee, Jennifer E., et al. "A Multimodal, Nonpharmacologic Intervention Improves Mood and Cognitive Function in People with Multiple Sclerosis." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 36.3 (2017): 150-168; and Wahls, Terry, et al. "Dietary approaches to treat MS-related fatigue: comparing the modified Paleolithic (Wahls Elimination) and low saturated fat (Swank) diets on perceived fatigue in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial." Trials 19.1 (2018): 309.

[00:14:34] MPI Cognition: Dale Bredesen's approach to Alzheimer’s disease.

[00:15:12] Difficulty of studying multimodal therapies.

[00:16:24] Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:17:21] Megan Roberts, MSc; Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:18:00] Clay Higgins - health coach.

[00:18:58] Blood Chemistry Calculator; Christopher Kelly; Bryan Walsh.

[00:19:19] Optimal reference ranges. Podcast: Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol, with Tommy Wood, MD., PhD.

[00:20:32] DUTCH test, Organic Acids Test (OAT), stool testing: 1, 2.

[00:21:25] Gut problems in ~90% of runners.

[00:24:47] Subjective quality of life as predictive of health (e.g., lack of sex drive, GI symptoms, sleep problems).

[00:28:03] Blood glucose as predictor of all-cause mortality.

[00:28:56] Hemoglobin and RDW as predictive measures.

[00:30:11] Study: Petursson, Halfdan, et al. "Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study." Journal of evaluation in clinical practice 18.1 (2012): 159-168.

[00:31:34] Study: Stavenow, Lars, and Thomas Kjellström. "Influence of serum triglyceride levels on the risk for myocardial infarction in 12 510 middle aged males: interaction with serum cholesterol." Atherosclerosis 147.2 (1999): 243-247.

[00:31:46] Study: Després, Jean-Pierre, et al. "Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease." New England Journal of Medicine 334.15 (1996): 952-958.

[00:34:42] Metabalomics.

[00:39:04] Meeting the Queen.

[00:42:37]; Blood Chemistry Calculator; 7-minute analysis; Highlights Newsletter;; email.

How to Become a Functional Medicine Doctor

Jun 13, 2018


Physician, podcaster, and poet, Rob Abbott, M.D. is a family medicine resident in Front Royal, Virginia and a graduate of the University of Virginia School of Medicine. He practices what he calls “spiritually focused and evolutionarily informed functional medicine.” Rob recently launched the Charlottesville Center for Functional Medicine, making ancestral health and wellness principles available to the members of his own community.

In this conversation with Dr. Tommy Wood, Rob describes the moment he knew that functional medicine was the right path for him, and talks about maintaining an ancestral health perspective during his otherwise conventional medical training. He and Tommy discuss some little-known alternatives to traditional medical insurance and health care, as well as educational resources Rob is developing for consumers and health practitioners.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Rob Abbott:

[00:00:56] Robb Wolf’s Paleo Solution Podcast.

[00:02:13] Paleo f(x).

[00:07:33] Chris Kresser’s Healthy Skeptic Podcast; Emily Deans, Chris Masterjohn, Stephan Guyenet.

[00:10:34] Life of a medical resident.

[00:13:10] Motivational interviewing.

[00:13:53] Mickey Trescott and Angie Alt, Autoimmune Wellness, Autoimmune Protocol.

[00:18:41] Robb Wolf’s Paleo Solution Podcast: Episode 373 - Dr. Brandon Alleman - Direct Primary Healthcare.

[00:20:03] Charlottesville Center for Functional Medicine.

[00:22:15] James Maskell of Evolution of Medicine.

[00:23:25] Healthshares (examples: Health Share of Oregon and Liberty Health Share).

[00:29:29] Self-awareness.

[00:30:19] Physicians Assistants, Nurse Practitioners.

[00:34:40] Preventative Medicine.

[00:37:35] Podcast: How to Make Disease Disappear, with Rangan Chatterjee.

[00:39:01] Kresser Institute’s ADAPT Health Coach Training Program, ADAPT Practitioner Training Program. Podcast: How to Become a Health Coach (And Why Health Coaching Will Transform Healthcare), with Chris Kresser.

[00:40:55] Intervention at the community level.

[00:43:31] Changing the food supply.

[00:47:23] Appearances on other podcasts: Mastering Nutrition Podcast: Nutrition in Medical School - Do Doctors Learn Enough?; Dr. Ruscio Radio: An Inside Look Into a Day in My Functional Medicine Practice with Medical Student Robert Abbott.

[00:47:58] Making connections in the health sphere.

[00:52:11] Create something people can't ignore.

[00:54:58] Podcast: Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification, with Bryan Walsh.

[00:59:04] Charlottesville Center for Functional Medicine; Kerri Cooper, Ryan Hall.

[00:59:57] Website: A Medicinal Mind; Ebook: The Ultimate Integrative and Functional Medicine Educational Resources of 2018.

[01:01:12] Melanie Dorion.

[01:01:42] Institute for Functional Medicine, American Academy of Anti Aging Medicine (A4M).

[01:01:50] Pentad Integrative Health, educational modules; Rob’s podcast: A Medicinal Mind.

[01:02:40] Ancestral Health Symposium.

How to Prevent and Heal Lyme and Its Co-Infections

Jun 6, 2018


Dr. Sunjya Schweig, M.D. is a board-certified physician who has been studying, teaching, and practicing integrative and Functional Medicine for over 20 years. In 2014 he joined forces with Chris Kresser to launch the California Center for Functional Medicine, offering patients an investigative approach to healthcare. He is also the founding Chair of the Integrative Medicine Committee for the International Lyme and Associated Disease Society (ILADS) and serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Bay Area Lyme Foundation.

On this podcast, Dr. Schweig shares the personal journey that resulted in years of focused study and his current expertise in Lyme Disease. He discusses the factors that interfere with getting the right treatment, including political pressure and inadequate testing protocols. He also offers his best resources for keeping yourself and your loved ones safe from tick-borne illness.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sunjya Schweig:

[00:00:05] Mission Heirloom.

[00:03:40] California Center for Functional Medicine, Chris Kresser; Podcast: How to Become a Health Coach (And Why Health Coaching Will Transform Healthcare).

[00:05:28] Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine; Mark Hyman, Patrick Hanaway, The Institute for Functional Medicine.

[00:06:00] Article: Topol, Eric J. "Individualized medicine from prewomb to tomb." Cell 157.1 (2014): 241-253.

[00:08:15] Kalish Institute of Functional Medicine; ADAPT Health Coach Training Program.

[00:08:53] Ray Stricker, Richard Horowitz.

[00:09:29] Clymb Health.

[00:09:53] Oura Ring.

[00:13:56] Hill Park Integrative Medical Center; Brian Bouch.

[00:18:16] Erythema migrans (bullseye rash), <50% of people.

[00:21:34] Optimum Health Institute.

[00:22:33] Chronic Lyme.

[00:22:51] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA).

[00:24:14] Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria.

[00:25:18] Rhesus monkey study: Embers, Monica E., et al. "Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in rhesus macaques following antibiotic treatment of disseminated infection." PloS one 7.1 (2012): e29914.

[00:25:44] Ying Zhang at Johns Hopkins, Kim Lewis at Northeastern University; Monica Embers at Tulane University. [00:26:24] Testing: a major problem; ELISA test; Western Blot.

[00:29:36] ELISPOT testing.

[00:30:18] Study: Johnson, Barbara JB, Mark A. Pilgard, and Theresa M. Russell. "Assessment of new culture method for detection of Borrelia species from serum of Lyme disease patients." Journal of clinical microbiology 52.3 (2014): 721-724. CDC response: Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi Not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

[00:30:27] Lyme wars.

[00:34:34] Book: Why Can't I Get Better? Solving the Mystery of Lyme and Chronic Disease, by Richard Horowitz.

[00:40:53] Preventing Lyme.

[00:42:35] California Department of Public Health website.

[00:43:54] Lemon eucalyptus oil, permethrin.

[00:44:16] Environmental Working Group on DEET.

[00:46:14] Tick identification, duration of attachment, location.

[00:47:38] TickEncounter for identification.

[00:48:29] for testing; Bay Area Lyme Foundation.

[00:49:58] Nate Nieto, Dan Salkeld Study: Salkeld, Daniel J., et al. "Disease risk & landscape attributes of tick-borne Borrelia pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California." PloS one 10.8 (2015): e0134812.

[00:51:12] Ixodes tick - always get it tested.

[00:53:23] Study: Citera, Maryalice, Phyllis R. Freeman, and Richard I. Horowitz. "Empirical validation of the Horowitz multiple systemic infectious disease syndrome questionnaire for suspected Lyme disease." International journal of general medicine 10 (2017): 249; Horowitz Medical Questionnaire.

[00:57:42] International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS);

[00:58:14]; drschweig,com; Twitter: @drschweig.

How to Become a Health Coach (And Why Health Coaching Will Transform Healthcare)

May 30, 2018


Chris Kresser, M.S., L.Ac., is an internationally recognized leader in the area of ancestral health and integrative medicine. He is the author of The Paleo Cure and the force behind, one of the top 25 health websites in the world. Chris has been studying, teaching, and practicing Functional Medicine for over 15 years with a mission to disseminate evidence-based natural health solutions to as many people as possible.

Today Chris is with us to discuss the growing need for health coaches in an age when about half of adults in the US have at least one chronic disease.  His aim is to curb the rise of preventable illness and to empower more people with the tools they need to recover their health. The ADAPT Health Coach Training Program will be launching in June with the enrollment deadline coming up soon, on June 3rd.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Chris Kresser:

[00:00:18] Healthy Skeptic Podcast; Danny Roddy, Steve Wright, Ben Greenfield, Robb Wolf.

[00:02:21] California Center for Functional Medicine.

[00:02:50] Sunjya Schweig.

[00:06:00] ADAPT Health Coach Training Program.

[00:06:17] Paleo f(x).

[00:10:01] Aetna wellness program pilot study: Steinberg, Gregory, et al. "Reducing metabolic syndrome risk using a personalized wellness program." Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 57.12 (2015): 1269-1274.

[00:12:54] Parsley Health.

[00:13:32] Rangan Chatterjee; Podcast: How to Make Disease Disappear.

[00:15:10] Obstacles to functional medicine.

[00:17:37] Mark Hyman.

[00:20:13] Qualities of a good health coach.

[00:20:21] Core coaching skills: Motivational Interviewing, stages of change, positive psychology, coaching to strengths.

[00:21:10] CDC Study: Liu, Yong, et al. "Peer Reviewed: Clustering of Five Health-Related Behaviors for Chronic Disease Prevention Among Adults, United States, 2013." Preventing chronic disease 13 (2016).

[00:22:21] Zoom video conferencing.

[00:23:34] Ancestral diet and lifestyle.

[00:24:45] Functional medicine principles.

[00:26:41] Building and managing a practice.

[00:32:22] International Consortium for Health & Wellness Coaching (ICHWC).

[00:35:04] Podcast: Rethinking Positive Thinking, with Gabriele Oettingen.

[00:38:22] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:38:31] John Kinyon, Forest Fein, Ken Kraybill.

[00:41:21] Coaching program structure.


How Oxidative Stress Impacts Performance and Healthspan

May 22, 2018


Our own Scientific Director and coach Megan Roberts is back on the podcast today to discuss an important but often misunderstood aspect of health and longevity: oxidative stress.  It’s a condition associated with numerous chronic health problems including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Today we cover everything you need to know about oxidative stress: what it is, what causes it, how to know if you’ve got it, and how to fix it.  If you want an objective assessment of your own oxidative stress burden, try using our Blood Chemistry Calculator.  The calculator, powered by a machine-learning algorithm, analyzes your own basic lab work to produce a single Oxidative Balance Score that you can use to track progress over time.

Note: During this podcast, you’ll hear us talk about the “Oxidative Stress Score” on the Blood Chemistry Calculator Report.  This has since been renamed the Oxidative Balance Score.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan N. Roberts:

[00:02:20] Blood Chemistry Calculator. Example report here.

[00:04:52] Free radicals.

[00:05:47] Oxidative stress: not always bad.  Study: Pizzino, Gabriele, et al. "Oxidative stress: Harms and benefits for human health." Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2017 (2017).

[00:06:13] Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).

[00:07:52] Hormesis.

[00:08:47] Podcast: The High-Performance Athlete with Drs Tommy Wood and Andy Galpin.

[00:09:04] Supporting adaptation vs. recovery.

[00:10:07] High dose vitamins, polyphenols.

[00:12:05] Diseases associated with increased oxidative stress.

[00:13.30] Lipid peroxidation.

[00:14:12] Metabolic Fitness Pro.

[00:15:46] Factors that increase oxidative stress.

[00:17:11] Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT).

[00:19:24] Bilirubin.

[00:20:05] Uric Acid; Study: Sautin, Yuri Y., and Richard J. Johnson. "Uric acid: the oxidant-antioxidant paradox." Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids 27.6-7 (2008): 608-619.

[00:23:52] Albumin.

[00:24:26] HDL.

[00:24:53] Podcast: Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol, with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:25:05] Lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

[00:26:53] Ferritin; Study: ORINO, Kouichi, et al. "Ferritin and the response to oxidative stress." Biochemical Journal 357.1 (2001): 241-247.

[00:27:08] Fenton Reaction.

[00:28:46] Nutritional immunity: PubMed.

[00:31:26] The poor misunderstood antioxidant.

[00:33:40] Dietary sources of antioxidants.

[00:35:12] Supplementation can be contraindicated.

[00:35:45] Measuring oxidative stress.

[00:37:50] Podcast: Risk Assessment in the Genomic Era: Are We Missing the Low-Hanging Fruit? with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:38:21] Oxidative Balance Score. Example here.

[00:40:00] What to do if oxidative stress is elevated.

[00:40:44] Study: Bhatnagar, Anubhav, Yogesh Tripathi, and Anoop Kumar. "Change in oxidative stress of normotensive elderly subjects following lifestyle modifications." Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR 10.9 (2016): CC09.

[00:41:30] Nutrition, digestion, absorption.

[00:42:15] Avoid Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

[00:44:20] Minimally processed diet.

[00:46:22] Wild Planet sardines.

[00:47:27] Hormetic stress; Hormetea.

[00:48:14] Podcast: Hormesis, Nootropics and Organic Acids Testing, with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:48:26] PHAT FIBRE is currently sold out.

[00:48:55] Four Sigmatic 10 Mushroom Blend.

[00:49:23] Sleep, blood donation.

[00:51:02] Study: Islam, Md, et al. "Dietary phytochemicals: natural swords combating inflammation and oxidation-mediated degenerative diseases." Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2016 (2016).


[00:56:43] Mobile phlebotomy.

How to Win More by Training Less

May 15, 2018


Brad Kearns has been a noted speaker, author and coach in the health and fitness world for over two decades. During his nine-year career as a triathlete, he was one of the world's top-ranked professionals, amassing 30 wins worldwide on the pro circuit. Brad currently works with Mark Sisson from Mark’s Daily Apple, and the two have co-authored several books including Primal Endurance (2016), and The Keto Reset Diet (2017).

Brad is with us today to talk about his evolution as an athlete and the factors that contributed to his success, including leaving the corporate world early on (because it just wasn’t as much fun as training) and the ironic breakthrough that caused him to start winning races. His current projects include producing Primal Blueprint Mastery Courses to support those transitioning to an ancestral diet and lifestyle.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brad Kearns:

[00:00:23] Podcast: How to Recognise Good Chocolate (and Why You Should Care), with Toréa Rodriguez.

[00:00:49] Chocolate: Fruition, Theo, Creo, Lillie Belle Farms.

[00:01:25] Podcast: Brain Training for the Primal Keto Endurance Athlete, with Lindsay Shaw Taylor; Mark Sisson,

[00:02:47] Mike Pigg.

[00:03:09] 7-Minute Analysis.

[00:03:41] Primal Endurance Podcast.

[00:06:26] Podcast: Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol, with Tommy Wood.

[00:08:23] Book: The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance, by Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney.

[00:14:21] Results happen naturally when your motivation is pure.

[00:17:17] Podcasts: National Cyclocross Champion Jeremy Powers on Racing, Training and the Ketogenic Diet and National Cyclocross Champion Katie Compton on Ketosis and MTHFR.

[00:20:42] Transition to triathlete.

[00:24:16] Andrew MacNaughton.

[00:31:27] Richard Branson.

[00:33:08] What do triathletes eat?

[00:33:49] Kenny Souza.

[00:34:22] The Brownlee Brothers.

[00:34:53] Lance Armstrong.

[00:36:16] Lone Mountain Wagyu.

[00:36:28] Cate Shanahan.

[00:37:48] Ted Talk: Run for your life! At a comfortable pace, and not too far: James O'Keefe at TEDxUMKC.

[00:38:15] Peter Attia.

[00:39:28] Mark Allen; Phil Maffetone.

[00:39:47] Slowing down.

[00:40:59] Heart rate monitoring.

[00:43:45] Johnny G.

[00:46:40] Transition to primal diet.

[00:47:18] Book: The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat, by Loren Cordain.

[00:47:18] Article: Paleolithic Nutrition: A Consideration of Its Nature and Consequences (Special Article, N Engl J Med 1985:312;283-289), by S. Boyd Eaton, M.D., and Melvin Konner, Ph.D.

[00:50:28] Book: Keto Reset Diet: Reboot Your Metabolism in 21 Days and Burn Fat Forever, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns.

[00:53:01] Book: Primal Endurance: Escape chronic cardio and carbohydrate dependency and become a fat burning beast!, by Mark Sisson and Brad Kearns; Audiobook here.

[00:54:43] Primal Blueprint Mastery Courses.

[00:57:33] Steve Phinney.

[00:58:59] Keto Reset Facebook Group.

[00:59:00] Book: The Keto Reset Instant Pot Cookbook: Reboot Your Metabolism with Simple, Delicious Ketogenic Diet Recipes for Your Electric Pressure Cooker, by Mark Sisson, Lindsay Taylor, and Layla McGowan.


How to Get Help and Feel Great in Australia Using Advanced Blood Interpretation

May 5, 2018


Stephen Anderson has been an Acupuncturist and Chinese Medicine practitioner for nearly 20 years.  He’s had over 2500 patients and upwards of 40,000 consultations (that would be over 3/4 million acupuncture needles, but who’s counting). In 2016, Steve went through the Kresser Institute’s Practitioner Training Program for Functional and Evolutionary Medicine, completing the ADAPT Level 1 Framework.  Since then, his focus has shifted to working more with clients who are ready to make a deeper commitment to their health.

Steve is on the podcast today talking about his transition into Functional Medicine and his practical application of our Blood Chemistry Calculator to guide treatment decisions and keep clients motivated.  Steve is currently running his busy clinic in Australia and is now introducing an easy way for Aussies to get lab work done locally and try the calculator for themselves.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Stephen Anderson:

[00:00:12] The Holistic Practitioner (THP) Podcast.

[00:00:25] THP Podcast: Dr. Tommy Wood - Reframing Insulin Resistance.

[00:02:07] Taichi.

[00:03:30] Chinese Kung Fu Academy; Grandmaster Henry Sue.

[00:03:58] Cheng Man-ch'ing.

[00:04:29] Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis.

[00:07:48] Accelerated learning.

[00:07:54] Book: How to Develop a Super Power Memory, by Harry Lorayne; Peg memory system.

[00:08:09] Podcast: Learning to Learn with Jonathan Levi.  Course: Become a SuperLearner.

[00:09:28] Acupuncture.

[00:10:52] Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

[00:12:30] Dr. Michael D. Fox at the Jacksonville Center for Reproductive Medicine.

[00:17:13] Functional Medicine.

[00:18:57] Simon Marshall, PhD. Podcasts: How to Create Behaviour Change and Why We Self-Sabotage (And What to Do Instead).

[00:20:25] Kresser Institute for Functional and Evolutionary Medicine; ADAPT Practitioner Training Program.

[00:23:16] Dr. Amy Nett.

[00:24:11] Hierarchy of treatment.

[00:25:52] THP Podcast: A Patient’s Perspective of Functional Medicine Treatment.

[00:29:26] Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:29:37] THP Podcast: Chris Kelly On Becoming An Effective Health Coach.

[00:29:41] Dr. Bryan Walsh; Podcasts:  1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

[00:29:42] Megan Roberts; Podcast: Why Your Diet Isn’t Working: Under Eating and Overtraining.  Blog post: What We Eat and How We Train Part 1: Coach and Ketogenic Diet Researcher, Megan Roberts.

[00:31:06] 7-Minute Analysis.

[00:36:39] 5-year wellness score; Intermountain Risk Score. Study: Horne BD, May HT, Muhlestein JB, Ronnow BS, Lappé DL, Renlund DG, et al. Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests. Am J Med. 2009;122: 550–558.

[00:39:14] Thomas Dayspring, Peter Attia; LDL-P.

[00:42:13] Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

[00:44:17] Mediterranean diet, B-vitamins, Thorne Choleast-900 (Monacolin K), Ubiquinol, Glutathione.

[00:46:35] Feedback via lab results as the incentive to change behaviour.

[00:49:58] Coronary artery calcium scan; Podcasts: How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease, with Ivor Cummins; The True Root Causes of Cardiovascular Disease, with Jeff Gerber.

[00:52:12] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.


How to Make Disease Disappear

Apr 27, 2018


Dr. Rangan Chatterjee may be best known as the medical doctor who helped ordinary people turn their health around on the BBC’s Doctor in the House. He’s now a speaker and author and has compiled his best medical advice into a new book, How to Make Disease Disappear. It’s a guide to restoring health using simple techniques that are accessible to everyone, at any stage of health or illness, without a lot of expensive tests or supplements.

In this podcast with Dr. Tommy Wood, Rangan breaks down his 4 Pillars of Health: Relax, Eat, Move, and Sleep.  He outlines the basic-but-powerful lifestyle interventions that have been most effective in his clinical practice for reversing chronic illness, and also shares the strategies that resolved his own 10-year battle with back pain.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Rangan Chatterjee:

[00:00:28] Book: How to Make Disease Disappear. In the UK: The 4 Pillar Plan: How to Relax, Eat, Move, and Sleep Your Way to a Longer, Healthier Life.

[00:00:35] Ted talk: How to make diseases disappear.

[00:01:44] Nephrology to GP.

[00:03:12] Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM).

[00:04:05] Show: Doctor in the House.

[00:06:20] 4 Pillars of Health.

[00:08:49] Relax.

[00:11:46] Crohn’s Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

[00:12:24] Medical Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ).

[00:16:18] Low testosterone, hormone cascade.

[00:21:20] Genova Adrenocortex Stress Profile.

[00:24:41] Reframing, gratitude.

[00:25:21] Charles Poliquin.

[00:27:54] Social isolation.

[00:33:39] Eat.

[00:34:09] Cost-effective strategies for improving food quality.

[00:42:00] Jamie Oliver.

[00:44:53] Supplements.

[00:44:58] Magnesium.

[00:45:25] Fibromyalgia, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) - Allergy Research Group NT Factor Advanced Physicians Formula.

[00:45:50] MitoQ (CoQ10).

[00:49:04] Move.

[00:49:40] Icelandic Health Symposium, 2017, Doug McGuff.

[00:50:54] Sarcopenia, strength training.

[00:51:35] Video: 5 Minute Kitchen Workout.

[00:56:57] Sleepy glutes and back pain.

[00:58:47] Gary Ward: Anatomy in Motion.

[01:01:20] Videos: Wake Up Your Sleepy Glutes: 1: Flex on a Step, 2: Hip Adduction, 3. Foot Clocks, 4. 3D Hip Extension.

[01:02:46] Sleep.

[01:03:47] Professor Russell Foster: 1-2 hours less sleep than 60 years ago.

[01:04:33] Insulin resistance.

[01:05:33] Embrace morning light.

[01:06:52] Caffeine, alcohol.

[01:09:30] No tech 90.

[01:12:30] Book: How to Make Disease Disappear.


[01:12:52] Facebook, Instagram, Twitter.

Why Cholesterol Levels Have No Effect on Cardiovascular Disease (And Things to Think about Instead)

Apr 17, 2018


Dr. Malcolm Kendrick is a medical doctor, author, speaker, and sceptic living in Cheshire, England.  His evidence-based arguments refute the lipid hypothesis and other ideas related to chronic illness that has resulted in a pervasive culture of fear and misinformation.  His popular blog features an ongoing series of posts on the real causes of heart disease, pointing to endothelial damage as a causal factor and nitric oxide as vital for preserving health.

Dr. Kendrick is with us to share not only what really causes cardiovascular disease, but the specific environmental and psychosocial factors that cause the most harm, and what we need to do to maintain good health. We also discuss unexpected side effects of common medications and supplements and the healing power of specific micronutrients.  If you enjoy this podcast, you can support Dr. Kendrick’s work by pre-ordering his latest book, A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-Health World, available 7/12/18.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Malcolm Kendrick:

[00:01:05] Book: The Great Cholesterol Con: The Truth About What Really Causes Heart Disease and How to Avoid it, by Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:01:07] Book: Doctoring Data: How to Sort Out Medical Advice from Medical Nonsense, by Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:01:14] The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics (THINCS).

[00:01:46] Trail Runner Nation Podcast: Metabolic Flexibility with Christopher Kelly.

[00:02:59] Highlights email series.

[00:03:01] Podcast: The True Root Causes of Cardiovascular Disease, with Jeffry Gerber.

[00:03:07] Blog series: What causes heart disease?

[00:05:28] Study: Hayashi, Keiko, et al. "Laughter lowered the increase in postprandial blood glucose." Diabetes care 26.5 (2003): 1651-1652.

[00:06:20] Stress hormones, sympathetic nervous system.

[00:07:32] Graph: Lithuanian death rate; Study: Kristenson, Margareta, et al. "Increased psychosocial strain in Lithuanian versus Swedish men: the LiVicordia study." Psychosomatic Medicine 60.3 (1998): 277-282.

[00:08:25] Paul Rosch, M.D, founder of the American Institute of Stress.

[00:10:20] Endothelium, glycocalyx.

[00:11:12] Nitric Oxide (NO).

[00:11:37] Alfred Nobel, nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, or GTN), Viagra.

[00:13:13] Study: Andersson, Daniel P., et al. "Association between treatment for erectile dysfunction and death or cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction." Heart (2017): heartjnl-2016.

[00:13:39] Sunlight as nitric oxide stimulant.

[00:14:45] Vasculitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Rheumatoid arthritis, Sickle-cell disease.

[00:17:05] Endothelial progenitor cells.

[00:17:55] Carl von Rokitansky, Rudolf Virchow.

[00:21:19] Endothelial damage required for arterial plaque.

[00:21:52] Study: Law, M. R., and S. G. Thompson. "Low serum cholesterol and the risk of cancer: an analysis of the published prospective studies." Cancer causes & control 2.4 (1991): 253-261.

[00:23:49] Study: Ravnskov, Uffe, et al. "Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review." BMJ open 6.6 (2016): e010401.

[00:25:03] Statins increasing NO, studies: 1, 2, 3.

[00:26:52] Study: Lanphear, Bruce P., et al. "Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study." The Lancet Public Health (2018).

[00:28:17] Corticosteroids.

[00:30:25] Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

[00:34:56] Study: Winnik, Stephan, et al. "Systemic VEGF inhibition accelerates experimental atherosclerosis and disrupts endothelial homeostasis–implications for cardiovascular safety." International journal of cardiology 168.3 (2013): 2453-2461.

[00:36:29] QRISK survey for heart disease.

[00:41:21] Inflammation as healing.

[00:42:40] Study: Willis, G. C. "The reversibility of atherosclerosis." Canadian Medical Association Journal 77.2 (1957): 106.

[00:44:36] Corticosteroids reduce inflammation, increase CVD risk, NSAIDs.

[00:45:05] Study: Guilhem, Gaël, et al. "Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage." The American journal of sports medicine 41.8 (2013): 1942-1951.

[00:49:06] Lipoprotein A.

[00:51:27] Vitamin C deficiency as possible cause of CVD.

[00:53:01] Study: Lee, A. J., et al. "Plasma fibrinogen and coronary risk factors: the Scottish Heart Health Study." Journal of clinical epidemiology 43.9 (1990): 913-919.

[00:55:27] Diabetes, triglycerides, sepsis, gingivitis as procoagulants.

[00:58:39] Major endothelial offenders.

[01:00:03] Study: Escolar, Esteban, et al. "The effect of an EDTA-based chelation regimen on patients with diabetes mellitus and prior myocardial infarction in the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)." Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes (2013): CIRCOUTCOMES-113.

[01:01:03] Study: Douaud, Gwenaëlle, et al. "Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.23 (2013): 9523-9528.

[01:01:44] Study: Marik, Paul E., et al. "Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective before-after study." Chest 151.6 (2017): 1229-1238.

[01:02:27] Allen Smith, dying of flu, recovered with Vitamin C.

[01:03:13] sunlight, viagra, stress management, alcohol.

[01:04:23] Blue zones, strong social relationships.

[01:05:07] Lifestyle and environmental factors associated with lower life expectancy.

[01:13:05] Statins.

[01:15:49] Absolute risk vs. relative risk; side effect vs. adverse effect, adverse events.

[01:21:07] Problems caused by statins.

[01:21:29] CoQ10, ATP.

[01:23:47] Placebo effect, nocebo effect.

[01:24:40] Study: Gupta, Ajay, et al. "Adverse events associated with unblinded, but not with blinded, statin therapy in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial and its non-randomised non-blind extension phase." The Lancet 389.10088 (2017): 2473-2481.

[01:25:45] Study: Cohen, Jerome D., et al. "Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE): an internet-based survey of 10,138 current and former statin users." Journal of clinical lipidology 6.3 (2012): 208-215.

[01:26:32] PCSK9 inhibitors.

[01:27:54] Study: Sabatine, Marc S., et al. "Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease." New England Journal of Medicine 376.18 (2017): 1713-1722.

[01:35:16] L-arginine, citrulline.

[01:39:34] Study: Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh. "Does dietary potassium lower blood pressure and protect against coronary heart disease and death? Findings from the Scottish Heart Health Study?." Seminars in nephrology. Vol. 19. No. 5. 1999.

[01:40:40] Study: Graudal, Niels. "A radical sodium reduction policy is not supported by randomized controlled trials or observational studies: grading the evidence." American journal of hypertension 29.5 (2016): 543-548.

[01:43:55] Groupthink, cognitive bias.

[01:44:21] Michael Alderman, M.D.

[01:44:48] Evolutionary Psychology.

[01:45:58] Peer Review.

[01:51:36] Study: Bronstein, Alvin C., et al. "2010 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 28th Annual Report." Clinical Toxicology 49.10 (2011): 910-941.

[01:52:57] Book: A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-Health World, by Malcolm Kendrick.  


Rethinking Positive Thinking

Apr 10, 2018


Psychologist, researcher and author Gabriele Oettingen, PhD. has been studying human behaviour for over 30 years, with a focus on goal setting and turning positive fantasies into reality. She has written over 150 scientific articles and book chapters relating to social and personality psychology, developmental and educational psychology, and health and clinical psychology on the topics of thinking about the future and the control of cognition, emotion, and behaviour.

During the course of her research, Dr. Oettingen has concluded that positive thinking in itself, while popular, is unlikely to result in desired outcomes.  Instead, she offers Mental Contrasting, an empirically validated process, helping people not just to identify their goals but to manifest them in all areas of life, including health, career, academics, and relationships.  In this interview, she shares her simple yet powerful 4-step WOOP strategy, along with tips for maximising its efficacy.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr. Gabriele Oettingen:

[00:00:09] Professor of Psychology, New York University.

[00:00:22] PhD: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology, Seewiesen, Germany.

[00:01:10] Book: Rethinking Positive Thinking: Inside the New Science of Motivation, by Gabriele Oettingen.


[00:05:19] Study: Oettingen, Gabriele, and Thomas A. Wadden. "Expectation, fantasy, and weight loss: Is the impact of positive thinking always positive?." Cognitive Therapy and Research 15.2 (1991): 167-175.

[00:06:15] Positive fantasies, worse outcomes.

[00:08:12] Study: Oettingen, Gabriele, and Doris Mayer. "The motivating function of thinking about the future: expectations versus fantasies." Journal of personality and social psychology 83.5 (2002): 1198.

[00:10:18] Podcasts: How to Create Behavior Change and Why We Self-Sabotage (And What To Do Instead), with Simon Marshall.

[00:10:42] Why is positive thinking so popular?

[00:12:49] Podcast: The Epidemic We Don’t Talk About, with Erik Kerr.

[00:13:37] Mental Contrasting.

[00:20:18] Emotional obstacles, habits, irrational beliefs.

[00:22:15] Wish, Outcome, Obstacle, Plan (WOOP).

[00:23:09] Changing health behaviours.

[00:23:37] Wish: dear to your heart, feasible, challenging.

[00:27:06] Study: Kappes, Heather Barry, Bettina Schwörer, and Gabriele Oettingen. "Needs instigate positive fantasies of idealized futures." European Journal of Social Psychology 42.3 (2012): 299-307.

[00:28:48] WOOP as a skill.

[00:32:24] Energization.

[00:34:25] How WOOP works; non-conscious consequences.

[00:39:08] Prerequisites: openness, 5 minutes.

[00:40:57] For those with low expectations.

[00:44:18] Other methods of behaviour change.

[00:44:38] Incentives, self-efficacy, social comparison.

[00:46:44] Changing content of goals. Implicit theories.  Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:47:26] E. Tory Higgins. Prevention-Promotion, Approach-Avoidance: Regulatory Focus Theory.

[00:48:34] Self-regulation.

[00:49:31] Using non-conscious processes to conquer other non-conscious processes.

[00:50:33] Example: WOOP in action.

[01:01:38], WOOP app.

[01:02:25] Book: Rethinking Positive Thinking: Inside the New Science of Motivation, by Gabriele Oettingen.

How to Use Wearable Technology to Track Training and Recovery

Mar 30, 2018


Don Moxley is an exercise physiologist and the Sports Scientist for the Ohio State University Wrestling Team.  With a passion for teaching and coaching, he specializes in fitness and athletic assessment, training, and performance optimization.  Under his guidance, the OSU team won their first-ever National Championship in 2015, and individuals on the team have gone on to win national titles and Olympic medals.  His strategy involves analyzing Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and other biomarkers in order to plan personalized training and recovery regimens for his athletes.

Don is here today with Dr. Tommy Wood to discuss using wearable technology to track readiness, improve resilience, and prevent overtraining and injuries. He shares the powerful impact of psychological stress, sleep, and recovery on athletic performance, and also reveals the key performance indicators for world-class wrestling, as well as the devices and assessment strategies he uses for his own athletes.   

Here’s the outline of this interview with Don Moxley:

[00:00:16] Ohio State Wrestling Team, Sports Scientist.
[00:00:25] Elite HRV podcast.
[00:00:49] Podcast: Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford.
[00:01:00] Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC).
[00:03:19] Bob Bartels, Edward Fox.
[00:03:53] Kevin Akins.
[00:04:03] Louie Simmons, Westside Barbell.
[00:04:28] Ted Lambrinides Hammer Strength.
[00:04:42] Steve Bliss, National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA).
[00:06:16] Human Performance Center at Columbus State Community College.
[00:06:38] HealthFirst, Polar.
[00:07:35] Applying technology to exercise science.
[00:09:13] Wrestling overview.
[00:09:56] Weight cutting.
[00:12:16] Long term athlete development model.
[00:13:51] Tom Ryan.
[00:14:14] Velotron, CompuTrainer.
[00:14:37] Pelatonia fundraiser.
[00:15:45] Zephyr bioharness.
[00:16:33] Overtraining syndrome.
[00:17:31] Readiness, Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (RMSSD).
[00:20:11] Functional Movement Screening
[00:21:15] Raouf “Ron” Gharbo.
[00:21:35] Firstbeat system.
[00:21:54] Resting nighttime RMSSD predicts success.
[00:22:46] Polar Team Pro Shirt.
[00:23:02] AccuroFit.
[00:23:18] Omegawave. Podcast: How to Measure Readiness to Train, with Val Nasedkin.
[00:24:19] Effect of emotional stress on physiology.
[00:27:30] Talent but no resilience.
[00:28:13] Study: Prochaska, James O., and Wayne F. Velicer. "The transtheoretical model of health behavior change." American journal of health promotion 12.1 (1997): 38-48.
[00:31:00] Study: Marshall, Simon J., and Stuart JH Biddle. "The transtheoretical model of behavior change: a meta-analysis of applications to physical activity and exercise." Annals of behavioral medicine 23.4 (2001): 229-246. Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change, with Simon Marshall, PhD.
[00:31:53] Elite HRV.
[00:32:09] HR transmitter sampling at >200hz; Polar monitors (H7, H10), Ouraring.
[00:33:40] Tracking and improving sleep.
[00:36:02] Book: The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail - but Some Don’t, by Nate Silver.
[00:36:14] Wearable data systems: Zebra, Catapult.
[00:37:26] Factors that correlate with athletic success.
[00:41:37] Parasympathetic, sympathetic.
[00:43:54] Parasympathetic co-stimulation.
[00:46:06] Subjective questions.
[00:49:22] Faster buy-in.
[00:50:24] Female athletes.
[00:51:07] Managing the athlete's stress response.
[00:52:22] Observing coaches.
[00:53:14] Best practice for athlete and coach.
[00:55:07] Find Don: donmoxley@gmail, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook,

The Dog as the Ultimate Health Upgrade (an Introduction for Pre-Contemplators)

Mar 24, 2018


Of all the things I’ve done to improve my own health, getting a dog has been one of the most important.   Today’s podcast is really an informal conversation with my good friend, FDN practitioner and health coach, Toréa Rodriguez.  Toréa has been on the podcast several times, and today we’re focusing on the many benefits of having a dog, which truly spans far beyond companionship.

We discuss making the leap from contemplating dog ownership to actually making the commitment, as well as dog training, dog-related stress, optimal diets, and the many health benefits – physical and emotional – of adopting a pup.  We share tips for building rapport and establishing a hierarchy with a canine companion, as well as considerations for endurance athletes with dogs-in-training. If you’d like to learn more about Toréa or consult with her on health matters she can be found at

Here’s the outline of this interview with Toréa Rodriguez:

[00:00:14] Previous podcast appearances (5/18/14, 6/25/15, 8/29/16), Paleo Baby Podcast: 12/21/15.

[00:02:29] Growing up on a ranch.

[00:03:37] Benefits of dog ownership.

[00:04:48] Transtheoretical model (“stages of change”); Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:05:09] Video: Dr. Tommy Wood Modelling and Quantifying Metabolism to Optimise Health and Performance, 2016 Biohacker Summit UK.

[00:07:07] Study: Giles-Corti, Billie, and Robert J. Donovan. "Relative influences of individual, social environmental, and physical environmental correlates of walking." American journal of public health 93.9 (2003): 1583-1589.

[00:07:36] Podcast: Bike fit done right with Nigel McHollan.

[00:08:43] Chris Kresser.

[00:10:51] Morning routine.

[00:11:51] Studies: Bonmati-Carrion, Maria Angeles, et al. "Protecting the melatonin rhythm through circadian healthy light exposure." International journal of molecular sciences 15.12 (2014): 23448-23500, and Kozaki, Tomoaki, et al. "Effects of day-time exposure to different light intensities on light-induced melatonin suppression at night." Journal of physiological anthropology 34.1 (2015): 27.

[00:13:37] Meeting the neighbors.

[00:14:12] Rick Hunter, Hunter Cycles.

[00:14:56] Study: Handlin, Linda, et al. "Short-term interaction between dogs and their owners: effects on oxytocin, cortisol, insulin and heart rate—an exploratory study." Anthrozoös 24.3 (2011): 301-315.

[00:16:05] Breeds.

[00:21:29] Our dog breeder: Havuherd Australian Cattle Dogs.

[00:22:40] Mindfulness.

[00:24:16] Instagram: Torea, Chris.

[00:25:09] Dog-related stress.

[00:26:58] Doggie Dan.

[00:28:44] Podcast: How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes, with Ben House, PhD.

[00:30:06] Dog training: George Menna.

[00:30:43] Doggie Dan's 5 Golden Rules.

[00:32:13] Power of the pack.

[00:33:35] Microbes and autoimmunity.

[00:34:04] Triclosan, MRSA.

[00:35:09] Health benefits of dog ownership.  Studies: 1. Allen, David T. "Effects of dogs on human health." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (USA) (1997). 2. Cutt, Hayley, et al. "Dog ownership, health and physical activity: A critical review of the literature." Health & place 13.1 (2007): 261-272. 3. Vinik, Aaron. "The conductor of the autonomic orchestra." Frontiers in endocrinology 3 (2012): 71. 4. Song, Se Jin, et al. "Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs." elife 2 (2013). 5. Almqvist, Catarina, et al. "Effects of early cat or dog ownership on sensitisation and asthma in a high‐risk cohort without disease‐related modification of exposure." Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology 24.2 (2010): 171-178.

[00:37:16] Orthorexia.

[00:40:03] Book: Rethinking Positive Thinking: Inside the New Science of Motivation, by Gabriele Oettingen.

[00:40:47] Mental contrasting.

[00:44:43] Ellen Langer.

[00:46:00] WOOP (Wish, Obstacle, Outcome, Plan), the WOOP app.

[00:46:50] Paleo for dogs.

[00:49:20] Book: The Barf Diet: Raw Feeding for Dogs and Cats Using Evolutionary Principles, by Ian Billinghurst.

[00:50:25] Darwin’s raw dog food.

[00:54:00] Orthopedic maturity.

[00:55:05] Torea’s website.

How to Drop Your Cholesterol

Mar 17, 2018


Dave Feldman is a software engineer who discovered for himself the benefits of a ketogenic diet in April 2015, experiencing what he describes as “seven blissful months” - until getting some labs back that included a 300+ total cholesterol.  He learned he was a “hyper-responder,” which inspired him to learn all he could about cholesterol and the lipid system. For the last 2.5 years he’s been using self-experimentation methods to meticulously adjust dietary macronutrient ratios in order to manipulate his blood chemistry.  He’s found out that the lipid system is actually quite easy to change, and does so in surprising ways related to diet.

Dave is here today with Dr. Tommy Wood to share his discoveries about all things cholesterol: LDL, HDL, VLDL, lean-mass hyper-responders, and what you need to know to evaluate your own labs.  Dave is an active speaker and blogger, and his N=1 experiments are detailed on his blog at

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dave Feldman:

[00:00:19] Video from Low Carb Breckenridge 2017: Dave Feldman: The Dynamic Influence of a High Fat Diet on Cholesterol Variability.

[00:00:47] Dave’s background.

[00:01:17] Cholesterol doubled, hyper-responder.

[00:01:54] Distributed object networks.

[00:02:46] Changing fat intake to manipulate cholesterol levels.

[00:03:01] Cholesterol Drop Protocol.

[00:05:27] Reverse engineering cellular energy.

[00:06:20] Lipoprotein.

[00:09:37] Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides.

[00:10:00] Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance.

[00:10:29] Intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL).

[00:14:35] Hydrolysis of fatty acids.

[00:17:11] 3-day average, LDL-C, LDL-P.

[00:19:05] Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Friedewald equation.

[00:21:00] Direct vs Calculated LDL-C.

[00:23:25] Non-low carbers.

[00:24:15] Carb swapping.

[00:27:16] Vegans.

[00:28:07] Sex hormones.

[00:29:35] Metabolic flexibility.

[00:29:59] Lean mass hyper-responders.

[00:34:59] Hypothyroidism, T3, testosterone, creatinine.

[00:37:08] Dave’s interview with Ken Sikaris on Low Carb Conversations podcast.

[00:37:34] All-cause mortality.

[00:38:15] Study: Fulks, Michael, Robert L. Stout, and Vera F. Dolan. "Association of cholesterol, LDL, HDL, cholesterol/HDL and triglyceride with all-cause mortality in life insurance applicants." J Insur Med 41.4 (2009): 244-53.

[00:40:00] APOC2, C-reactive protein.

[00:44:44] 99% of the LDL particle lifespan.

[00:45:59] Atherosclerosis.

[00:46:31] Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin).

[00:50:23] Cyrex Array 2 - Intestinal Antigenic Permeability Screen.

[00:52:15] Study: Varbo, Anette, Jacob J. Freiberg, and Børge G. Nordestgaard. "Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population." Clinical chemistry 61.3 (2015): 533-543.

[00:51:38] Peter Attia, Thomas Dayspring.

[00:53:23] Remnant cholesterol.


[01:00:38] Low Carb Breckenridge, Low Carb Cruise, Ketocon, Ketofest, @DaveKeto.

How Not to Die of Cardiovascular Disease

Mar 11, 2018


Ivor Cummins is a Biochemical Engineer who in 2012 was disturbed by a set of his own abnormal blood test results. Consultation with multiple doctors yielded little insight into the cause of his elevated cholesterol, ferritin and GGT so he turned to his analytical roots to study the problem. In the process, he evaluated hundreds of scientific papers, ultimately concluding that that flawed hypotheses and a breach of the scientific method have resulted in the current “diabesity” epidemic.

Ivor is here today with Dr. Tommy Wood talking on topics related to his well-referenced new book, Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Great Health. They also discuss the trouble with polyunsaturated oils, advice on fat loss for the insulin sensitive, and the best test for cardiovascular disease risk (hint: it’s not LDL). If you enjoy this podcast, Ivor is a regular presenter at low-carb/keto events and maintains an active blog and social media presence.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ivor Cummins:

[00:00:17] Keto Summit, Dave Feldman.

[00:00:48] Boundless Health Podcast with Dr. Bret Scher.

[00:01:57] Podcast: The True Root Causes of Cardiovascular Disease, with Dr. Jeffry Gerber.

[00:02:15] Book: Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Great Health, by Ivor Cummins and Jeffry Gerber, MD.

[00:02:29] Videos: here and here.

[00:03:20] Insulin, IGF-1, acellular carbs.

[00:03:56] Sunlight exposure, 25-OH-D video.

[00:04:37] Minerals, Study: DiNicolantonio, James J., James H. O’Keefe, and William Wilson. "Subclinical magnesium deficiency: a principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis." Open Heart 5.1 (2018): e000668.

[00:05:28] Gabor Erdosi, Lower Insulin Facebook Group.

[00:05:43] Video: Roads to Ruin? from Physicians for Ancestral Health 2017 conference.

[00:06:01] Guðmundur Jóhannsson, gut health; Podcast: Foodloose Iceland.

[00:07:40] Study: Schwalfenberg, Gerry K., and Stephen J. Genuis. "The importance of magnesium in clinical healthcare." Scientifica 2017 (2017).

[00:08:10] Industrial seed oils.

[00:09:05] Unilever sells its margarine business.

[00:10:17] Studies: Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg, et al. "Dietary Linoleic Acid Elevates the Endocannabinoids 2‐AG and Anandamide and Promotes Weight Gain in Mice Fed a Low Fat Diet." Lipids 49.1 (2014): 59-69. And: Alvheim, Anita R., et al. "Dietary Linoleic Acid Elevates Endogenous 2‐AG and Anandamide and Induces Obesity." Obesity 20.10 (2012): 1984-1994.

[00:10:48] Studies: Nanji, Amin A., and Samuel W. French. "Dietary factors and alcoholic cirrhosis." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 10.3 (1986): 271-273. And: Kirpich, Irina A., et al. "Alcoholic liver disease: update on the role of dietary fat." Biomolecules 6.1 (2016): 1.

[00:12:09] Book: Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food, by Cate Shanahan, M.D.

[00:12:45] Studies: 1. Ramsden, Christopher E., et al. "The Sydney Diet Heart Study: a randomised controlled trial of linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death." The FASEB Journal 27.1 Supplement (2013): 127-4. 2. Frantz, Ivan D., et al. "Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 9.1 (1989): 129-135. 3. Strandberg, Timo E., et al. "Mortality in participants and non-participants of a multifactorial prevention study of cardiovascular diseases: a 28 year follow up of the Helsinki Businessmen Study." Heart 74.4 (1995): 449-454. 4. Rose, G. A., W. B. Thomson, and R. T. Williams. "Corn oil in treatment of ischaemic heart disease." British medical journal 1.5449 (1965): 1531.

[00:13:47] Study: Hooper, Lee, et al. "Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease." The Cochrane Library (2015).

[00:15:28] Study: Ip, Clement, Christopher A. Carter, and Margot M. Ip. "Requirement of essential fatty acid for mammary tumorigenesis in the rat." Cancer Research 45.5 (1985): 1997-2001.

[00:16:28] Study: Pearce, Morton Lee, and Seymour Dayton. "Incidence of cancer in men on a diet high in polyunsaturated fat." The Lancet 297.7697 (1971): 464-467.

[00:16:56] Breast milk composition is now almost 50% PUFA.

[00:17:50] David Bobbett.

[00:19:59] Book structure.

[00:20:51] Fat-loss for the insulin sensitive.

[00:21:10] Videos: Jeff Gerber interviews Simon Saunders and Marty Kendall.

[00:23:03] Ghrelin.

[00:24:21] Protein and lean body mass.

[00:26:05] Glucagon, mTOR.

[00:26:22] Ron Rosedale.

[00:26:34] Valter Longo.

[00:27:02] IGF-1 U-shaped curve.

[00:28:06] Study: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population." Cell metabolism 19.3 (2014): 407-417.

[00:28:49] Book: Protein Power: The High-Protein/Low Carbohydrate Way to Lose Weight, Feel Fit, and Boost Your Health - in Just Weeks! By Michael Eades and Mary Dan Eades.

[00:30:39] Study: Levine, Morgan E., et al. "Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population." Cell metabolism 19.3 (2014): 407-417.

[00:31:06] NHANES.

[00:31:18] Study: Cohen, Evan, et al. "Statistical review of US macronutrient consumption data, 1965–2011: Americans have been following dietary guidelines, coincident with the rise in obesity." Nutrition 31.5 (2015): 727-732.

[00:32:20] Kitavans.

[00:34:05] Hyperlipid and Denise Minger.

[00:36:37] Icelandic diets for longevity

[00:39:07] Cardiovascular disease.

[00:39:35] Basic lipid panel.

[00:39:45] Study: Castelli, William P. "Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease." Atherosclerosis 124 (1996): S1-S9.

[00:40:24] Ratios.

[00:41:54] Study: Johnson, Kevin M., David A. Dowe, and James A. Brink. "Traditional clinical risk assessment tools do not accurately predict coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden: a CT angiography study." American Journal of Roentgenology 192.1 (2009): 235-243. Commentary: Ware, William R. "The mainstream hypothesis that LDL cholesterol drives atherosclerosis may have been falsified by non-invasive imaging of coronary artery plaque burden and progression." Medical hypotheses 73.4 (2009): 596-600.

[00:42:30] Familial Hypercholesterolemia and CVD.

[00:43:27], remnant cholesterol, Plasma Atherogenic Index.

[00:44:36] Podcast: Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol

[00:46:06] Coronary calcium scan.

[00:46:25] Study: Nasir, Khurram, et al. "Interplay of Coronary Artery Calcification and Traditional Risk Factors for the Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in Asymptomatic Individuals Clinical Perspective." Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging 5.4 (2012): 467-473.

[00:47:54] Longitudinal score.

[00:49:41] Plaque density.

[00:50:11] Interview with Matt Budoff.

[00:52:37] Video: Dr. Eades at Low Carb Breckenridge, Agatston score.

[00:54:38] The Fat Emperor.

[00:54:53] Low-carb Breckenridge 2018.

[00:55:10] Ketofest, Keto Con, Low-carb USA, Refind Health.

[00:55:45] Widowmaker movie.

How to Optimise Nutrition for Pregnancy

Mar 5, 2018


Lily Nichols, RDN, CDE, CLT is a Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist and author, and she’s back on the podcast today to talk about her latest book, Real Food for Pregnancy.  Her aim is to impact the health of the next generation by getting better nutrition information into the hands of expecting moms. She believes that all pregnant women stand to benefit from a nutritionally-complete diet based on whole, unprocessed foods, and notes that the standard U.S. prenatal dietary guidelines are nutritionally inadequate and even harmful.

Her book is meticulously well-referenced, citing over 930 studies that support a real-food approach to optimise maternal and fetal health. Today we discuss some of the specific nutrients, foods and supplements associated with healthier babies, biological reasons for food cravings and aversions, and why morning sickness is actually a good thing. You can read the first chapter of her new book at her website and also visit her blog for more on topics related to real food nutrition and prenatal nutrition.  

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lily Nichols:

[00:00:38] Book: Real Food for Gestational Diabetes: An Effective Alternative to the Conventional Nutrition Approach, by Lily Nichols.

[00:01:06] Changing policy in Czech Republic.

[00:02:38] Book: Black Box Thinking: Why Most People Never Learn from Their Mistakes - But Some Do, by Matthew Syed.

[00:03:44] Ketosis is a normal part pregnancy.

[00:04:03] Podcast: Real Food for Gestational Diabetes with Lily Nichols.

[00:04:24] The conventional guidelines: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

[00:06:58] Comparison of meal plans.

[00:09:24] Complications of a high-carb diet during pregnancy: Macrosomia.

[00:11:21] Study: Muneta, Tetsuo, et al. "Ketone body elevation in placenta, umbilical cord, newborn and mother in

normal delivery." Glycative Stress Research 3.3 (2016): 133-140.

[00:12:56] Our daughter Ivy was in ketosis.

[00:13:21] Placenta is high in ketones.

[00:14:07] The importance of choline.

[00:15:03] Supplementation trials.

[00:15:41] Study: Jiang, Xinyin, et al. "Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans." The FASEB Journal 26.8 (2012): 3563-3574.

[00:16:34] Preeclampsia.

[00:17:22] Low Carb Breckenridge 2017 talk: Dr. Nicolai Worm - Nutrition Therapy of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

[00:18:52] Lecithin supplement.

[00:20:31] Vegetarian diets for pregnancy.

[00:20:48] Study: Bae, Sajin, et al. "Vitamin B-12 Status Differs among Pregnant, Lactating, and Control Women with Equivalent Nutrient Intakes–4." The Journal of nutrition 145.7 (2015): 1507-1514.

[00:21:01] Study: Kim, Denise, et al. "Maternal intake of vitamin B6 and maternal and cord plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'phosphate in a cohort of Canadian pregnant women and newborn infants." The FASEB Journal 29.1 Supplement (2015): 919-4.

[00:21:20] Lily’s second book: Real Food for Pregnancy.

[00:22:46] Glycine.

[00:23:00] Dr. Chris Masterjohn Podcast: Why You Need Glycine: A Panel Discussion.

[00:24:14] Methylation.

[00:24:43] Bone broth and slow cooked cuts of tough meat.

[00:26:12] Morning sickness.

[00:29:05] Prenatal nutrition may be most important.

[00:30:20] Book: Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You, by Robb Wolf.

[00:31:56] Biological reasons for aversions and cravings.

[00:33:34] Podcast: Methylation and Environmental Pollutants with Dr. Tim Gerstmar.

[00:35:08] Book: Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food, by Cate Shanahan, M.D.

[00:35:32] Interpregnancy interval studies: Smits, Luc JM, and Gerard GM Essed. "Short interpregnancy intervals and unfavourable pregnancy outcome: role of folate depletion." The Lancet 358.9298 (2001): 2074-2077., and Conde-Agudelo, Agustín, Anyeli Rosas-Bermudez, and Maureen H. Norton. "Birth spacing and risk of autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities: a systematic review." Pediatrics (2016): e20153482.

[00:38:29] Book: Nutrition and Physical Degeneration by Weston A. Price.

[00:42:20] How long should I eat this way before getting pregnant?

[00:43:29] Book: Real Food for Pregnancy.

[00:45:51] Supplements and lab testing.


[00:48:16] Study: Forbes, Scott. "Embryo quality: the missing link between pregnancy sickness and pregnancy outcome." Evolution and Human Behavior 38.2 (2017): 265-278.


Optimal Diet and Movement for Healthspan, Amplified Intelligence and More with Ken Ford

Feb 24, 2018


Dr. Kenneth Ford is Founder and Chief Executive Officer of the Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC), a research institute that is home to world-class scientists and engineers focused on building technology that extends human cognition, perception, locomotion and resilience. He received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from Tulane University and is the author of hundreds of scientific papers and six books, with interests in an array of areas including artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and human performance under extreme conditions.

Ken is also co-host to the popular and respected STEM-Talk podcast which recently won first place in the 12th Annual People’s Choice Podcast Awards in the Science and Medicine category. Many leaders in the areas of health and exercise physiology appear on STEM-talk, with a focus on the scientific elements behind extending human longevity and performance. Ken is here with us today to talk about some current projects at IHMC, artificial intelligence, ketosis, and his favorite cutting-edge training methods.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ken Ford:

[00:04:16] Episode 49 of STEM-Talk, first place People's Choice Awards in the Science and Medicine category.

[00:06:43] Current projects.

[00:07:10] Dr. James Allen, World Modelers.

[00:08:54] Economic modeling, weather modeling for crop failure.

[00:09:45] Cognitive orthotics.

[00:10:36] Dr. Dawn Kernagis, brain glymphatic system. Podcast: Human Performance and Resilience in Extreme Environments.

[00:11:52] Artificial gravity.

[00:12:34] The double secret selection committee.

[00:13:56] Extending human capabilities.

[00:16:35] Locomotion for paraplegics.

[00:17:31] Humans in extreme environments.

[00:19:51] Space flight and aging.

[00:20:41] Few rules but strong culture and a flat organisational structure.

[00:22:07] Growth mindset.

[00:22:41] Choosing people rather than an agenda.

[00:28:09] Fostering a network of friends and experts.

[00:28:46] Barry Barish, STEM-talk Episode 10.

[00:31:37] Understanding the limits of knowledge.

[00:32:47] Do the big tech companies have too much power?

[00:35:51] EU 2.5$ penalty for Google.

[00:36:45] Google D.C. influence operation.

[00:38:36] Duckduckgo.

[00:39:10] The term artificial intelligence.

[00:42:41] The danger of a superhuman AI.

[00:44:21] HAL 9000.

[00:45:09] Dropped a physics.

[00:45:58] Driverless cars.

[00:51:52] Ketogenic diet.

[00:53:23] The benefits of ketones.

[00:53:55] Signalling functions of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate.

[00:54:26] Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[00:55:11] Study: Newman, John C., et al. "Ketogenic diet reduces midlife mortality and improves memory in aging mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 547-557.

[00:55:57] Study: Sleiman, Sama F., et al. "Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate." Elife 5 (2016).

[00:57:03] Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A ketogenic diet extends longevity and healthspan in adult mice." Cell metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:58:03] Podcast: Why Your Diet Isn’t Working: Undereating and Overtraining, with Megan Roberts.

[00:58:24] Podcast: The Keto Masterclass with Robb Wolf.

[00:59:38] Virta Health, results with 0.5 - 1 mmol/L of BHB.

[01:00:11] Study: Shimazu, Tadahiro, et al. "Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor." Science 339.6116 (2013): 211-214.

[01:01:01] Study: Cunnane, Stephen C., et al. "Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer's disease." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1367.1 (2016): 12-20.

[01:02:53] Exogenous ketones.

[01:05:26] Exercise.

[01:06:33] Hierarchical sets.

[01:07:11] Art DeVany.

[01:08:17] Episode 30 of STEM-Talk.

[01:10:15] Eccentric movements.

[01:10:41] Study: Schoenfeld, Brad J., et al. "Hypertrophic effects of concentric vs. eccentric muscle actions: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 31.9 (2017): 2599-2608.

[01:13:37] Blood flow restriction training.

[01:14:41] Episode 34 of STEM-Talk.

[01:16:31] Dr. Jim Stray-Gundersen, Dr. Adam Anz.

[01:18:13] Kaatsu and Go B Strong (discount code: IHMC).

[01:18:43] Vibration platform training.

[01:19:16] Power Plate.

[01:21:12] Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS).

[01:22:56] PowerDot.

[01:26:41] Kettlebells.

[01:27:04] Pavel Tsatsouline.

[01:28:21] Strong First, Coaches Mark Reifkind and Tracy Reifkind.

[01:29:15] Why not cardio?

[01:30:36] Zoo humans. Book: The Human Zoo: A Zoologist’s Classic Study of the Urban Animal, by Desmond Morris

[01:32:12] Study: Fain, Elizabeth, and Cara Weatherford. "Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms." Journal of Hand Therapy 29.4 (2016): 483-488.

[01:34:56] Don't be normal.

[01:38:07] Finding versus inventing a purpose.

[01:41:45] Cal Newport.

[01:43:19] newsletter.

How to Measure Readiness to Train

Feb 18, 2018


Val Nasedkin is the Co-Founder & Vice President of Business Development for Omegawave, a company that merges the fields of neurology, cardiology, and exercise physiology with mobile computer technology.  Using EKG, HRV, and DC potential measurements, Omegawave devices offer sports-specific outputs on readiness to train and guidance for achieving specific physiological adaptations. Their technology has been used by multiple Olympic Federations; premier soccer teams such as FC Barcelona; teams from the NFL, MLS and NHL; and various other leading sports organizations.

As a former elite athlete and coach with decades of experience testing elite athletes, Val learned that the type, volume, and intensity of the training load should not be the primary focus, but rather the timing of when the load is applied. Val is a here today talking with Dr. Tommy Wood about preparedness and readiness, windows of trainability, and maximizing performance with less time and effort.

Dr Tommy Wood will be presenting “A machine learning approach to predicting biochemical and metabolomic patterns in athletes” at the British Association of Sport & Exercise Medicine Spring Conference on Thu March 22, 2018 at the Keepmoat Stadium in Doncaster.

In the introduction, I also mentioned Tommy’s interview “Reframing Insulin Resistance” and my interview “Blood Chemistry Calculator – AI Meets Functional Medicine” on Steve Anderson’s The Holistic Practitioner podcast.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Val Nasedkin:

[00:00:20] Ken Ford at the Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC).

[00:03:50] University of Oregon.

[00:06:10] Big monkey small monkey.

[00:16:17] No genetic markers.

[00:17:21] Subjective questioning for the win.

[00:18:12] The need for technology.

[00:22:31] The recovery wishlist: non-stressful, non-invasive, portable, instantaneous, precise guidelines.

[00:24:15] Micro and macro level behaviour.

[00:26:00] Regulatory processes.

[00:28:56] DC Potential. Study: Ilyukhina, V. A. "Continuity and prospects of research in systemic integrative psychophysiology of functional states and cognitive activity." Human physiology 37.4 (2011): 484.

[00:30:13] Institute of Human Brain of Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.

[00:31:44] DC potential explains nervous system potential to adapt to training response.

[00:33:16] State of central nervous system.

[00:34:01] Not just for athletes, connection between DC potential and mistakes.

[00:34:49] Seaman adaptation.

[00:36:24] Long term adaptations.

[00:37:43] No single method can give all the answers.

[00:38:42] Nervous System (central, somatic, autonomic) and Hormonal (Endocrine) System

[00:39:00] Heart Rate Variability (HRV) (1996 standards).

[00:39:34] Professor Roman M. Baevsky.

[00:40:58] Limitations of HRV.

[00:43:15] Amplitude spectral analysis of ECG.

[00:45:58] Limitations of regular HR monitor strap.

[00:48:50] Readiness to train and individual variability.

[00:50:29] Preparedness is a long term adaptation.

[00:52:20] Readiness is the current psychophysiological status.

[00:53:05] Omegawave website publications.

[00:55:44] Sports specific tests, e.g. jump test.

[00:56:55] Over a million assessments in the database.

[00:58:02] Multiple windows of trainability.

[01:02:02] Study: Morris, Christopher Whaley. The effect of fluid periodization on athletic performance outcomes in American football players. University of Kentucky, 2015.

[01:03:49] Better results with less volume.

[01:09:10] Educational courses.

[01:09:29] White paper: Windows of Trainability: The Professional Coach’s Handbook.

Why We Self-Sabotage (And What to Do Instead)

Feb 9, 2018


Author, educator, and psychologist Simon Marshall, PhD, is back on the podcast today to discuss the profound impact of mindset on athletic performance.  He describes the driving forces behind self-sabotage and exercise addiction and actually sheds light on some of my own cognitive barriers to winning.  Simon’s brilliance truly lies in his ability to identify unseen barriers to performance and harness the power of the mind to maximize athletic potential.

I’m thrilled to announce that Simon will now be working with every athlete who joins the Elite Performance Program at Nourish Balance Thrive.  You can also find him at Braveheart Coaching where he and his world champion triathlete spouse Leslie Paterson specialize in training endurance athletes.  Also listen to Simon’s previous podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:03:01] Team S.H.I.T.

[00:04:36] Book: The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion, by Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson (audible version here).

[00:07:38] My problems racing cross - settling for 3rd.

[00:11:51] Competitor versus participant mindset.

[00:13:14] Chimp vs professor brain.

[00:14:29] Rationalising throwing in the towel.

[00:15:43] Effort and attitude.

[00:16:45] Recognising the cues that lead to the participant mindset.

[00:18:50] Central governor theory, proposed by Tim Noakes.  Podcast: Professor Tim Noakes: True Hydration and the Power of Low-Carb, High-Fat Diets.

[00:20:48] Metering effort.

[00:21:19] Segmenting.

[00:24:01] Self-sabotage.

[00:28:05] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:30:36] Biology defines behaviour.

[00:31:52] Depression.

[00:32:50] Daniel Amen, Kelly Brogan. Podcast: Depression with Kelly Brogan.

[00:34:19] Exercise addiction.

[00:35:10] Disordered eating.

[00:38:06] The multi-faceted approach to increasing performance and healthspan.

[00:38:55] Finding purpose.

[00:39:24] Positive psychology.

[00:40:32] Book: Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking is Undermining America, by Barbara Ehrenreich.

[00:41:31] Psychologists: Martin Seligman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.

[00:44:09] Book: Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity, by Kim Scott.


The Epidemic We Don’t Talk About

Feb 2, 2018


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported that for the second year in a row the life expectancy in the US has declined - a change that is largely influenced by an increase in drug overdose among young people.  Everyone in every community has been affected by addiction in one form or another - an alcoholic parent, a teen in rehab, or maybe a spouse addicted to pornography.

Erik Kerr, the Co-Founder of Clear Health Technologies is here to talk about the massive impact addiction has on the lives of 282 million people worldwide.  He and Summer Felix-Mulder have brought together 29 amazing speakers on healing all facets of addiction and facilitating lifelong recovery.  It’s a free online 7-day event called the Healing Addiction Summit, and it starts February 3rd.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Erik Kerr:

[00:00:40] The Draw Shop.

[00:02:25] The Keto Summit.

[00:03:02] $35 billion spent on addiction treatment and support.

[00:04:15] Almost 100% failure rate.

[00:06:21] HeroX Challenge: Addiction Relapse Technology Challenge.

[00:07:49] 282M affected.

[00:09:26] Addiction definition.

[00:10:12] Opiates, alcohol, sex.

[00:10:33] Hydrocodone, Oxycontin.

[00:12:11] Rating doctors by pain management.

[00:12:55] Rachel.

[00:14:42] Dr. Mary Caire.

[00:16:35] Social media and phone use.

[00:17:30] One year no beer.

[00:17:48] Are you leading by example?

[00:20:24] Dopamine resistance and porn.

[00:20:46] Dr. Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA).

[00:22:04] Prefrontal cortex is not fully developed until 25 years of age.

[00:23:30] Time spent watching porn (actually closer to 9 minutes, rather than 7  as we said in the audio).

[00:25:58] Podcast: The Hungry Brain with Stephan Guyenet, PhD.

[00:26:13] Dr. Mark Hyman.

[00:26:50] Study: Gesch, C. Bernard, et al. "Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners." The British Journal of Psychiatry 181.1 (2002): 22-28.

[00:31:15] Parenting.

[00:32:49] Allison Hudson.

[00:34:36] 1 in 10 babies born in West Virginia is a crack baby.

[00:35:45] Robert Sapolsky. Video: Human Nature and Ted Talk: The Biology of Our Best and Worst Selves.

[00:38:51] Podcast: How to Create Behavior Change, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:40:18] Dr. Nora Volkow.

[00:41:53] The Healing Addiction Summit.

Machine Learning for Blood Chemistry Interpretation

Jan 26, 2018


We’ve switched things up for this episode, with Dr. Bryan Walsh asking the questions and me on the other side of the microphone.  We’re talking about our new Blood Chemistry Calculator – the product of lab data from tens of thousands of people and a machine learning algorithm called XGBoost.  The calculator analyzes a simple, inexpensive set of blood markers for patterns and immediately forecasts the probability that you’ve got any of a long list of deficiencies, overloads, and even infections - without directly testing for any of them.

Bryan and I discuss all the details, including the science behind the calculator, how you can use this tool to track progress over time, and how the calculator is a game-changer for practitioners.  If you’re ready to dive in and see what it can do for you, check out the calculator now.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr Bryan Walsh:

[00:02:52] Chris's blood chemistry journey.

[00:04:11] Podcast with Dr. Bryan Walsh: Risk Assessment in the Genomic Era: Are We Missing the Low-Hanging Fruit?

[00:04:36] How Tommy looks at blood chemistry.

[00:06:18] Study: Hu, Frank B., Ambika Satija, and JoAnn E. Manson. “Curbing the diabetes pandemic: the need for global policy solutions.” Jama 313.23 (2015): 2319-2320.

[00:07:32] Decision tables, Functional Blood Chemistry seminar, Denver, March 2017.

[00:10:27] Machine Learning.

[00:11:10] Dogs vs Cats, Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

[00:15:05] Pima Indians dataset. Note there are just 768 instances in this dataset and not thousands (as I said in the audio). This is important because that’s still enough to build a reasonably accurate model using XGBoost.

[00:18:02] Elite Performance Program.

[00:18:55] GlycoMark.

[00:19:04] Podcast: Why You Should Skip Oxaloacetate Supplementation, Fueling for Your Activity and More!

[00:19:25] Ceruloplasmin, adiponectin.

[00:21:10] Required markers.

[00:21:56] Podcast: Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol, with Tommy Wood, M.D.

[00:22:05] RDW Study: Horne BD, May HT, Muhlestein JB, Ronnow BS, Lappé DL, Renlund DG, et al. Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests. Am J Med. 2009;122: 550–558. Additional references: 1, 2.

[00:22:44] Out of pocket costs.

[00:23:07] The Blood Chemistry Calculator.

[00:23:25] Calculator forecast specifications.

[00:26:48] Binary classification vs logistic regression.

[00:28:44] Clinical decision-making in difficult patients.

[00:30:18] The clinical crystal ball.

[00:30:42] Who's it for?

[00:31:58] Fitness professionals.

[00:32:21] Monthly membership.

[00:35:12] The licensed clinician.

[00:36:34] Quicksilver tri-test.

[00:39:51] 7-minute analysis.

[00:41:10] Evidence-based reference ranges.


[00:42:41] Podcast: National Cyclocross Champion Jeremy Powers on Racing, Training, and the Ketogenic Diet.

[00:43:45] It's a good time to be a software engineer.

[00:44:15] XGBoost Study: Chen, Tianqi, and Carlos Guestrin. “Xgboost: A scalable tree boosting system.” Proceedings of the 22nd acm sigkdd international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining. ACM, 2016.

[00:44:39] Fatty Liver Index. Study: Bedogni, Giorgio, et al. "The Fatty Liver Index: a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis in the general population." BMC gastroenterology 6.1 (2006): 33.

[00:45:23] Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP).

[00:45:42] Study: Horne BD, May HT, Muhlestein JB, Ronnow BS, Lappé DL, Renlund DG, et al. Exceptional mortality prediction by risk scores from common laboratory tests. Am J Med. 2009;122: 550–558.

[00:49:30] Sensitivity and specificity.

[00:50:31] Sparse data handling.

[00:52:52] Growth mindset.

[00:55:16] Specializing in Not Specializing TED Talk.

How to Manage Testosterone and Estrogen in Athletes

Jan 22, 2018


Dr. Ben House, PhD. is a Nutritionist (CN), Functional Diagnostic Nutrition (FDN) practitioner, and Certified Functional Medicine Practitioner (CFMP), as well as a strength coach and the owner of Functional Medicine Costa Rica.  He has a passion for researching, writing, and teaching, and hosts professional and wellness retreats in the Jungle of Uvita, Costa Rica.

Today Ben is talking with Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, about his pragmatic approach to health coaching and training. They discuss testosterone, estrogen, ketosis, and building strength, muscle mass and resilience.  They also share problem-solving strategies for helping clients who aren’t making the progress they want.

In the intro, I also mentioned our new Blood Chemistry Calculator that utilizes a machine learning algorithm and blood chemistry data from 36,000 people. This is a powerful tool that can help identify your specific health challenges without directly testing for them, pointing you more squarely in the direction of your health and performance goals.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr Ben House:

[00:00:42] Dr. Ruscio’s Podcast: Adrenal Testing, Mitochondrial Health, Testosterone, Stress, Calories, Body Comp, and Much More with Dr. Ben House.

[00:01:35] Background.

[00:02:18] Coeliac disease.

[00:04:17] Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change, with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:05:24] Retreats in Costa Rica.

[00:06:17] Study: Trexler, Eric T., et al. "Fat-Free Mass Index in NCAA Division I and II Collegiate American Football Players." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 31.10 (2017): 2719-2727.

[00:07:48] Strength in the endurance athlete.

[00:09:40] Testosterone.

[00:11:26] Exercised induced hypogonadal male.

[00:12:23] GNRH. Study: Bergendahl, Matti, and Johannes D. Veldhuis. "Altered pulsatile gonadotropin signaling in nutritional deficiency in the male." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 6.5 (1995): 145-159.

[00:12:48] Physicians for Ancestral Health.

[00:13:56] Undereating.

[00:14:08] Acromegaly.

[00:14:39] Optimal foraging theory.

[00:15:55] Getting in the calories on a minimally processed diet.

[00:18:31] Low WBC.

[00:20:45] 100% meat diet.

[00:21:41] Scurvy.

[00:21:50] Shawn Baker, MD,

[00:23:02] Consistency.

[00:24:05] Study: Travison, Thomas G., et al. "Temporal trends in testosterone levels and treatment in older men." Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 16.3 (2009): 211-217.

[00:24:39] How testosterone is made.

[00:26:19] Heartmath, float tank.

[00:26:50] Traumatic Brain Injury.

[00:27:13] Varicocele.

[00:29:17] Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT).

[00:30:05] Studies: Finkelstein, Joel S., et al. "Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men." New England Journal of Medicine 369.11 (2013): 1011-1022, and Chao, Jing, et al. "Short-Term Estrogen Withdrawal Increases Adiposity in Healthy Men." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 101.10 (2016): 3724-3731.

[00:31:29] Oestrogen.

[00:32:40] Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones (DUTCH); also see Podcast: How to Get Deep Insights on Hormones and Their Metabolism, with Mark Newman.

[00:33:55] Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG).

[00:34:17] Albumin.

[00:34:26] Megalin.

[00:36:58] Looking at sleep, training program.

[00:38:28] Bryan Walsh.

[00:39:29] Mass2 training protocol.

[00:40:01] Dopamine.

[00:43:23] Finding a training program.

[00:45:19] Gut infections: Cryptosporidium, Giardia.

[00:46:29] Practitioner training.

[00:47:58] Pseudoscience.

[00:48:51] Building credibility.

[00:50:16] Chris Kresser.

[00:51:24] Book: Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck.

[00:52:45] Ben on Facebook.

[00:52:58] Retreats.

[00:54:52] Ben’s website.

[00:55:13] Study: Brinkworth, Grant D., et al. "Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo." The American journal of clinical nutrition 90.1 (2009): 23-32.

[00:56:36] Jeff Volek.

[00:57:05] Keto for women.

[00:58:15] Fat and CHO PTSD.

[00:58:43] Podcast: The Most Reliable Way to Lose Weight, with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[01:00:20] Tracking basal body temp.

[01:00:35] Study: Pontzer, Herman, et al. "Constrained total energy expenditure and metabolic adaptation to physical activity in adult humans." Current Biology 26.3 (2016): 410-417.

[01:02:19] Podcast with Ryan Baxter: How to Fuel For Your Sport (with Obstacle Course Racing as an Example).

[01:03:16] How much can you eat?

Brain Training for the Primal Keto Endurance Athlete

Jan 13, 2018


Writer and researcher Lindsay Shaw Taylor, PhD, joined the Primal Blueprint team in 2015, collaborating with Mark Sisson of Mark’s Daily Apple to deliver content on the topics of health, science, and primal living.  Lindsay earned her doctorate in 2008 in Social and Personality Psychology with a focus on self-evaluation and goal pursuit.  Her education and personal experience with Primal living is applied daily as she moderates the new and thriving Keto Reset Facebook group, offering knowledge and support to folks following a ketogenic diet.

Lindsay talks with us today about the role of psychology in making significant changes to their diet and fitness.  She shares some keys for reframing thought patterns that keep people stuck, and discusses the lifestyle factors that have led to her own health and wellbeing.

In the intro, I mentioned The Physicians for Ancestral Health winter retreat, The Braveheart Highland Games and The Blood Chemistry Calculator.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lindsay Taylor:

[00:02:26] Highschool days.

[00:02:58] Social psychology.

[00:04:24] Serena Chen at UC Berkeley, the concept of self-evaluation.

[00:05:52] Feeling misunderstood.

[00:06:22] Self-verification. Studies: Shaw Taylor, Lindsay, et al. "“Out of my league”: A real-world test of the matching hypothesis." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37.7 (2011): 942-954. And: Fiore, Andrew T., et al. "Assessing attractiveness in online dating profiles." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, 2008.

[00:07:56] Behaviour change.

[00:08:16] Framing goals.

[00:09:18] Primal Endurance community on Facebook.

[00:09:38] Keto Reset Facebook group.

[00:10:50] Weightloss goals.

[00:13:21] Video: Tim Minchin 9-life lessons.

[00:15:34] Lesley Paterson, Simon Marshall. Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change.

[00:15:56] Book: The Brave Athlete.

[00:18:18] Becoming Primal.

[00:19:33] Art DeVany.

[00:20:53] Health vs appearance goals.

[00:22:08] Lack of confidence.

[00:23:14] Website: Mark’s Daily Apple.

[00:23:38] Self-relevance.

[00:24:18] Intrinsic motivation.

[00:26:02] About Mark Sisson.

[00:28:24] Paleo f(x).

[00:28:36] Chris Kresser.

[00:30:03] Mark on a stand-up paddleboard.

[00:31:30] Primal Kitchen Santa Cruz on Instagram.

[00:33:01] Social comparison.

[00:34:18] Constant horizon seeking.

[00:34:43] Podcast: National Cyclocross Champion Jeremy Powers on Racing, Training, and the Ketogenic Diet. Podcast: National Cyclocross Champion Katie Compton on Ketosis and MTHFR.

[00:36:35] Study: McSwiney, Fionn T., et al. “Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.” Metabolism 81 (2018): 25-34.

[00:38:03] Book: Unconventional Medicine by Chris Kresser.

[00:38:22] Ketogenic diet.

[00:42:24] Balance in exercise, diet, work.

[00:44:01] A day in the life in food.

[00:44:14] Rhonda Patrick. Video: Rhonda talking with Satchin Panda about Time Restricted Eating.

[00:44:54] Lindsay on Instagram.

[00:46:59] Counting calories to make sure you're eating enough.

[00:47:32] Podcast: How to Understand Glucose Regulation, with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:49:07] Allostatic load.

[00:50:23] Tamsin Lewis.

[00:53:06] Eating when not hungry.

[00:53:34] Macro calculators.

[00:56:33] Being OK with uncertainty.

[00:57:27] Book: The Pleasure of Finding Things Out, by Richard Feynman.

[00:58:29] Book: The Keto Reset Diet, by Mark Sisson.

[01:01:31] Transitioning to keto: ripping the band-aid off slowly.

[01:04:23] Keto Reset Facebook group.

Health Outcome-Based Optimal Reference Ranges for Cholesterol

Jan 6, 2018


To interpret lab results your typical doctor will use standard reference ranges that are based on averages from a random sample of people.  Your labs are compared to these ranges to evaluate your health status and to guide potential treatment.  If reference ranges have such an important role, wouldn’t it make sense to have them reflect optimal health rather than typical health?

We’re looking at some recent and large-scale studies today that suggest your cholesterol numbers don’t mean what mainstream medicine might have you believe.  Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD is with me to discuss optimal reference ranges for cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as other lab tests that are more reliable for predicting cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.

Need some help interpreting your blood tests? In this interview, we introduce the Blood Chemistry Calculator.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr. Tommy Wood:

[00:03:02] All-cause mortality: Dying from any cause.

[00:03:38] Study: Fulks, Michael, Robert L. Stout, and Vera F. Dolan. "Association of cholesterol, LDL, HDL, cholesterol/HDL and triglyceride with all-cause mortality in life insurance applicants." J Insur Med41.4 (2009): 244-253.

[00:05:54] Higher is not necessarily better for HDL.

[00:07:23] Lower limits for triglycerides.

[00:07:50] Study: Iannello, S., et al. "Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders." MedGenMed: Medscape general medicine 5.3 (2003): 20-20. Podcast: Risk Assessment in the Genomic Era: Are We Missing the Low-Hanging Fruit? With Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:11:09] Arbitrary cutoffs are created in order to compare groups statistically.

[00:12:25] Study: Zuliani, Giovanni, et al. "Combining LDL-C and HDL-C to predict survival in late life: The InChianti study." PloS one 12.9 (2017): e0185307.

[00:13:19] Study: Orozco-Beltran, Domingo, et al. "Lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean high-risk population: The ESCARVAL-RISK study." PloS one 12.10 (2017): e0186196.

[00:17:27] Total cholesterol.

[00:18:44] Optimal reference range for total cholesterol: 120 - 240 mg/dL (under age 60, all-cause mortality).

[00:19:55] Optimal range for women 200 - 300 mg/dL (over 60).

[00:20:11] Study: Petursson, Halfdan, et al. "Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study." Journal of evaluation in clinical practice 18.1 (2012): 159-168.

[00:21:46] Familial hypercholesterolemia.

[00:23:01] LDL is part of the immune system.

[00:23:32] Insulin resistance as a cause of high cholesterol.

[00:24:23] Thyroid problems as a cause of high LDL.

[00:26:19] Ivor Cummins (see first graph on page).

[00:27:23] Optimal reference range of LDL for men/women under age 60:  80 - 170 mg/dL.

[00:29:44] HDL graphs found within study: Fulks, Michael, Robert L. Stout, and Vera F. Dolan. "Association of cholesterol, LDL, HDL, cholesterol/HDL and triglyceride with all-cause mortality in life insurance applicants." J Insur Med41.4 (2009): 244-253.

[00:30:42] Alcohol as a potential cause of high HDL.

[00:33:01] Optimal reference range for triglycerides: 50 - 90 mg/dL.

[00:35:23] Triglyceride : HDL ratio 1 - 2 is optimal if measuring in mg/dL.

[00:37:16] Total cholesterol : HDL ratio of 3 - 4 is optimal.

[00:39:32] Keto hyper-responders.

[00:40:15] APOE4.

[00:40:40] Thomas Dayspring.

[00:41:01] True Health Diagnostics.

[00:41:20] LDL-P: the total number of particles carrying the LDL cholesterol.

[00:41:51] LDL particle size: small dense vs large fluffy.

[00:42:33] Peter Attia’s blog and his posts pertaining to cholesterol.

[00:43:08] Dave Feldman. His website:

[00:45:37] Endurance exercise: effect on cholesterol and triglycerides.

[00:46:23] Facebook groups: Lower Insulin and Optimising Nutrition.

[00:46:43] Gudmundur Johannsson, CEO of the Icelandic Health Symposium.

[00:46:55] Sepsis, endotoxins: worse outcomes with lower LDL.

[00:49:39] Statins: Ever a good idea?

[00:51:28] Tommy in a kiosk.

[00:53:25] Link to the blood calculator.

Risk Assessment in the Genomic Era: Are We Missing the Low-Hanging Fruit?

Dec 30, 2017


Doctor Bryan Walsh is back with us today, discussing the diagnostic benefits of a simple blood chemistry.  He says the results of common and inexpensive lab panels can be mined for meaningful health information, potentially saving patients a lot of time and money on testing – that is, if you know what these blood markers actually mean (and your average doctor probably doesn’t). Fortunately for us, Bryan knows and loves to teach.

In this podcast, he shares a bit about his own journey - what led him to study these basic blood markers, and what now inspires him to teach others.  If you like this episode, visit Bryan’s Metabolic Fitness Pro website, where he continues to develop new educational material for health practitioners and other avid learners.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bryan Walsh:

[00:00:58] Bryan's WellnessFX videos.

[00:02:07] Textbook: Fischbach's A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests 10th Edition.

[00:04:27] Albumin.

[00:05:58] Study: Allen, Larry A., and Christopher B. Granger. "Risk assessment in the genomic era: Are we missing the low-hanging fruit?." American heart journal 157.5 (2009): 799.

[00:06:36] Podcast: How to Understand Glucose Regulation with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

[00:06:49] Organic Acids Test. Podcast: How to Measure Your Metabolism with Organic Acids with Dr. William Shaw, PhD.

[00:07:33] Blood has to be the first place you go.

[00:08:13] Reference ranges.

[00:08:40] A lab determines a bell-shaped curve for the population of a given region; the reference range might then be +/- 2 standard deviations.

[00:10:21] Vitamin D.

[00:13:41] Functional reference ranges.

[00:14:30] Harry Eidenier, PhD, widely considered to be the Grandfather of Functional Blood Chemistry analysis.

[00:18:26] Total cholesterol.

[00:19:18] Bilirubin: A metabolic breakdown byproduct of red blood cell destruction.

[00:21:22] Study: Ong, Kwok-Leung, et al. "The relationship between total bilirubin levels and total mortality in older adults: the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004." PloS one 9.4 (2014): e94479.

[00:24:19] Insulin and c-peptide.

[00:25:07] GGT Studies: Long, Y., et al. "Gamma-glutamyltransferase predicts increased risk of mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies." Free radical research 48.6 (2014): 716-728. and Koenig, Gerald, and Stephanie Seneff. "Gamma-glutamyltransferase: a predictive biomarker of cellular antioxidant inadequacy and disease risk." Disease markers 2015 (2015).

[00:25:52] Podcast: How to Measure Hormones, with Mark Newman, 8-OHdG.

[00:27:57] GlycoMark, adiponectin.

[00:28:39] HDL cholesterol 2.65mmol/L (in US, 102 mg/dL).

[00:29:35] Study: Rosenson, Robert S., et al. "Dysfunctional HDL and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease." Nature reviews cardiology 13.1 (2016): 48-60.

[00:30:43] HDL - Above 75-80 could indicate dysfunction in the body (e.g., cancer, autoimmunity, liver dysfunction).

[00:32:14] Study: Iannello, S., et al. "Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders." MedGenMed: Medscape general medicine 5.3 (2003): 20-20.

[00:34:20] Undereating as a possible cause of low triglycerides.

[00:35:17] Complete Blood Count (CBC) and haemoglobin.

[00:36:19] Red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets.

[00:36:52] Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

[00:37:40] CBC indicates ability to carry oxygen around the body.

[00:38:18] B12, folate, iron, copper and zinc deficiencies.

[00:38:55] Red cell distribution and mortality studies:  Patel, Kushang V., et al. "Red cell distribution width and mortality in older adults: a meta-analysis." Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 65.3 (2009): 258-265. and Lippi, Giuseppe, et al. "Relation between red blood cell distribution width and inflammatory biomarkers in a large cohort of unselected outpatients." Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 133.4 (2009): 628-632.

[00:41:37] Causes of low RBC count: Production, destruction and loss.

[00:43:22] First, look at the MCV.

[00:45:19] Normal RDW: low RBC probably due to destruction or loss.

[00:45:38] Occult blood stool test to determine if there is a GI bleed (loss).

[00:45:49] Reticulocytes: an underrated blood marker.

[00:46:33] Erythropoietin (EPO).

[00:49:30] HbA1C.

[00:51:42] Estimation of RBC lifespan from the reticulocyte count: RBC survival (days) = 100/[Reticulocytes (percent) / RLS (days)], where RLS = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 days at hematocrits of 45, 35, 25, and 15 percent, respectively.

[00:53:17] Bryan and Tommy in a box.

[00:54:16] Fatty Liver Index. Study: Bedogni, Giorgio, et al. "The Fatty Liver Index: a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis in the general population." BMC gastroenterology6.1 (2006): 33.

[00:55:58] Website: Metabolic Fitness Pro.

[00:57:46] Relying on protocols without knowing the physiology.

[00:58:18] Website:

[00:58:32] Glucose course: Everything you ever wanted to know about glucose regulation. Detox course: Everything you wanted to know about detoxification.


Machine Learning for Arrhythmia Detection

Dec 20, 2017


Dr. Gari Clifford, DPhil has been studying artificial intelligence (AI) and its utility in healthcare for two decades. He holds several prestigious positions in academia and is an Associate Professor of Biomedical Informatics at Emory University and an Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. We met him at the San Francisco Data Institute Conference in October where he chaired sessions on Machine Learning and Health.

Gari recently held a competition challenging data scientists to develop predictive algorithms for the early detection of Atrial Fibrillation, using mobile ECG machines. He shares insight into the complexity of using AI to diagnose health conditions and offers a glimpse into the future of healthcare and medical information.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Gari Clifford:

[00:01:07] The road to machine learning and mobile health.

[00:01:27] Lionel Tarassenko: neural networks and artificial intelligence.

[00:03:36] San Francisco Data Institute Conference.

[00:03:54] Jeremy Howard at

[00:04:17] Director of Data Institute David Uminsky.

[00:05:05] Dr. Roger Mark, Computing in Cardiology PhysioNet Challenges.

[00:05:23] 2017 Challenge: Detecting atrial fibrillation in electrocardiograms.

[00:05:44] Atrial Fibrillation.

[00:06:08] KardiaMobile EKG monitor by AliveCor.

[00:06:33] Random forestssupport vector machinesheuristicsdeep learning.

[00:07:23] Experts don't always agree.

[00:08:33] Labeling ECGs: AF, normal sinus rhythm, another rhythm, or noisy.

[00:09:07] 20-30 experts are required to discern a stable diagnosis.

[00:09:40] Podcast: Arrhythmias in Endurance Athletes, with Peter Backx, PhD.

[00:11:17] Applying additional algorithm on top of all final algorithms: improved score from 83% to 87% accuracy.

[00:11:38] Kaggle for machine learning competitions.

[00:13:44] Overfitting an algorithm increases complexity, decreases utility.

[00:15:01] 10,000 ECGs are not enough.

[00:16:24] Podcast: How to Teach Machines That Can Learn with Dr. Pedro Domingos.

[00:16:50] XGBoost.

[00:19:18] Mechanical Turk.

[00:20:08] QRS onset and T-wave offset.

[00:21:31] Galaxy Zoo.

[00:24:00] Podcast: Jason Moore of Elite HRV.

[00:24:34] Andrew Ng. Paper: Rajpurkar, Pranav, et al. "Cardiologist-level arrhythmia detection with convolutional neural networks." arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.01836 (2017).

[00:28:44] Detecting arrhythmias using other biomarkers.

[00:30:41] Algorithms trained on specific patient populations not accurate for other populations.

[00:31:24] Propensity matching.

[00:31:55] Should we be sharing our medical data?

[00:32:15] Privacy concerns associated with sharing medical data.

[00:32:44] Mass scale research: possible with high-quality data across a large population.

[00:33:04] Selling social media data in exchange for useful or entertaining software.

[00:33:42] Who touched my medical data and why?

[00:36:31] Siloing data, perhaps to protect the current industries.

[00:37:03] Health Insurance Portability and Privacy Act (HIPPA).

[00:37:34] Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) protocol.

[00:37:48] Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health.

[00:38:46] Blockchain and 3blue1brown.

[00:39:28] Where to go to learn more about Gari Clifford.

[00:39:53] Presentation: Machine learning for FDA-approved consumer level point of care diagnostics – the wisdom of algorithm crowds: (the PhysioNet Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2017).

Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification

Dec 14, 2017


Doctor and educator Bryan Walsh is back with us to discuss his latest area of focus: detoxification. Our environment is awash in pollutants and toxic compounds resulting largely from modern industrial and agricultural practices and products. These are known to interrupt normal biological functioning, commonly acting as carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. Short of escaping the grid and hunkering down on a mountain somewhere, how should we best deal with this toxic onslaught?

Many practitioners recommend their version of a “detox” or fasting program to combat xenobiotics.  But, as Bryan discusses in detail, these protocols might actually cause more harm than good.  Not only that, but common supplements aimed at supporting detoxification may be doing just the opposite. In other words, you’ve probably been doing detox wrong.

If you like this podcast and you want to know more about this topic, check out Bryan’s latest course, Everything You Wanted to Know about Detoxification. You’ll learn a ton and also get access to Bryan’s own detoxification program based on his extensive research of the scientific literature.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Bryan Walsh:

[00:00:20] Podcast: Social Isolation: The Most Important Topic Nobody is Talking About with Dr. Bryan Walsh. Other previous podcast interviews with us: The Secret to Good Health Coaching and How to Understand Glucose Regulation.

[00:01:46] Why the focus on detoxification?

[00:03:44] Metabolic Fitness Pro website.

[00:05:51] Phase 0 and 3 detoxification.

[00:07:00] Phase 0. Study: Döring, Barbara, and Ernst Petzinger. "Phase 0 and phase III transport in various organs: Combined concept of phases in xenobiotic transport and metabolism." Drug metabolism reviews 46.3 (2014): 261-282.

[00:07:11] Biphasic response.

[00:09:25] Water solubility and excretion.

[00:10:33] Liver and kidney.

[00:10:58] Phase 0 is in flux.

[00:11:29] Phase 1 adds or exposes a hydroxyl group.

[00:12:47] Phase 2 is conjugation.

[00:13:19] Phase 3 efflux of the water soluble.

[00:14:12] Do all toxins fall under the same umbrella?

[00:15:16] Non-monotonic dose response of endocrine disruptors. Study: Vandenberg, Laura N., et al. "Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses." Endocrine reviews 33.3 (2012): 378-455.

[00:16:22] Source of exposures.

[00:18:24] Glyphosate: Unsafe On Any Plate. Food Testing Results and Scientific Reasons for Concern.

[00:20:17] Xenobiotics, cancer, cardiovascular disease.

[00:20:56] Multiple chemical sensitivity.

[00:21:32] Subjective questionnaires that might point to toxicity issues. Some such questionnaires: 1 (evaluated here), 23 (discussed here).

[00:22:21] Fasting.

[00:23:34] Are you healthy enough to fast?

[00:24:00] Yo-yo dieting in mice. Study: Jandacek, Ronald J., et al. "Effects of yo-yo diet, caloric restriction, and olestra on tissue distribution of hexachlorobenzene." American journal of physiology-Gastrointestinal and liver physiology288.2 (2005): G292-G299. Other studies suggesting the same: References 1, 2.

[00:25:27] Adipose is for sequestering toxins. Study: La Merrill, Michele, et al. "Toxicological function of adipose tissue: focus on persistent organic pollutants." Environmental health perspectives121.2 (2013): 162.

[00:26:10] Mice with increased uterine weights after fasting. Study: Bigsby, Robert M., Andrea Caperell-Grant, and Burra V. Madhukar. "Xenobiotics released from fat during fasting produce estrogenic effects in ovariectomized mice." Cancer research 57.5 (1997): 865-869.

[00:26:54] Valter Longo’s Fasting Mimicking Diet.

[00:27:59] Low-calorie diet, chlorines in blood, hypothyroid markers. Two studies: Pelletier, Cl, P. Imbeault, and A. Tremblay. "Energy balance and pollution by organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls." Obesity reviews 4.1 (2003): 17-24. And: Dirinck, Eveline, et al. "A preliminary link between hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls and free thyroxin in humans." International journal of environmental research and public health 13.4 (2016): 421.

[00:31:04] Sprouted mung beans.

[00:32:16] ~360 references in the course.

[00:32:44] Lab testing is inaccurate.

[00:33:49] Decreasing calories 25% increases Phase 3. Study: Renaud, Helen J., Curtis D. Klaassen, and Iván L. Csanaky. "Calorie restriction increases P-glycoprotein and decreases intestinal absorption of digoxin in mice." Drug Metabolism and Disposition44.3 (2016): 366-369.

[00:34:42] Curcumin and black pepper block phase 3.

[00:35:31] Sprouted mung beans. Study: Walaszek, Zbigniew, et al. "D-glucaric acid content of various fruits and vegetables and cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary D-glucarate in the rat." Nutrition Research 16.4 (1996): 673-681.

[00:36:20] 30 minutes of exercise followed by sauna.

[00:37:41] Honeybush and rooibos teas.

[00:38:45] Binders: Bile acid sequestrants and fibers.

[00:38:57] Enterohepatic recirculation.

[00:39:57] St John's Wort.

[00:41:04] Milk thistle inhibits phase 3.

[00:41:24] Sulforaphane: relative benefit depends on the context.

[00:43:10] How do they evaluate increased or decreased detoxification?

[00:43:29] Quercetin decreased mRNA levels. Study: Liu, Yani, et al. "Impact of quercetin‑induced changes in drug‑metabolizing enzyme and transporter expression on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rats." Molecular medicine reports14.4 (2016): 3073-3085.

[00:44:24] A given compound could have different effects on different organs

[00:45:22] Acute dose vs chronic dosing.

[00:46:52] Specific amounts of certain vegetables having specific effects. References 12345.

[00:48:19] and Dr. Walsh’s new course: Everything You Wanted to Know About Detoxification.

How to Gratitude Journal

Dec 9, 2017


UJ Ramdas is the Co-founder of Intelligent Change, Co-Creator of the Five Minute Journal - a simple and effective tool to help you get reliably happier. He cares deeply about the intersection of behaviour and business and loves reading, coffee and meditation.

Perform better, have a better day, and sleep better. UJ is with us today to discuss how you can experience these benefits and more using tools he created with his company, Intelligent Change. UJ has a background in behavioural science and hypnosis, and since 2013 has been producing the Five Minute Journal, which condenses hundreds of articles, books, and research into a simple daily practice. The benefits can be dramatic, including improved productivity, better connection with others, and increased satisfaction with life. He also shares the details of his latest project, the Five Minute Journal for Kids.

Here’s the outline of this interview with UJ Ramdas:

[00:00:38] UJ's first experience mountain biking.

[00:00:49] MastermindTalks.

[00:01:34] Mike Brcic of Sacred Rides.

[00:02:12] Santa Cruz factory.

[00:05:08] Jeff Spencer.

[00:06:50] Mailboxes.

[00:07:33] Book: The Chimp Paradox by Dr Steve Peters.

[00:08:31] Five Minute Journal.

[00:10:36] Book: The Brave Athlete by Dr Simon Marshall and Lesley Paterson.

[00:10:56] The Five Minute app.

[00:12:29] Tim Ferriss and Ben Greenfield.

[00:12:58] I'm grateful for...

[00:14:32] It's not about the thinking, it's about the feeling.

[00:15:58] Layous, Kristin, et al. "The proximal experience of gratitude." PloS one 12.7 (2017): e0179123.

[00:17:19] Amazing things that happened that day.

[00:20:55] Amazing things resistance.

[00:22:46] Tackle obstacles.

[00:24:39] The downside of optimism, see Bright-sided by Barbara Ehrenreich.

[00:27:33] Freehand journaling.

[00:29:11] Five Minute Journal for Kids.

[00:33:08] @ujramdas on Instagram and Twitter.


[00:35:10] Productivity Planner.

Kale vs Cow: The Case for Better Meat

Dec 6, 2017


Diana Rogers, RD, LDN, NTP, is a “real food” nutritionist, international speaker, and writer who lives on a working organic farm in Carlisle, Massachusetts. She is also a consultant to some of the most influential people in the ancestral health world and the host of the Sustainable Dish Podcast. We met her in September when she presented at the annual conference of the Icelandic Health Symposium hosted by Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD.

In this interview with Tommy, she discusses her current project, a film entitled Kale vs. Cow: The Case for Better Meat, in which she defends the nutritional and environmental benefits of eating meat from local and sustainable sources. In doing so, she challenges common assumptions about plant-based diets.

As promised at the beginning of the audio, here’s the link to the AIMed and BASEM conferences.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Diana Rogers:

[00:00:22] Nom Nom Paleo, Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD. Podcast: How to Get Perfect Sleep with Dr. Kirk Parsley, MD.

[00:00:44] Undiagnosed coeliac.

[00:01:42] Book: The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet by Robb Wolf.

[00:01:51] The Weston A. Price Foundation.

[00:03:11] Vegetarian undertones of the RD qualification.

[00:04:48] Background for the film.

[00:05:22] Chef's Table documentary series on Netflix.

[00:07:14] Nina Teicholz.

[00:07:57] Echo chambers.

[00:09:33] Presentation: Icelandic Health Symposium: Kale vs. Cow with Diana Rodgers.

[00:11:46] Problems with modern monocropping.

[00:13:18] Energy requirements for local food.

[00:15:00] Geothermal energy in Iceland.

[00:16:18] Avocados and tropical oils.

[00:17:38] Savory Institute.

[00:18:01] Book: The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat and Cheese Belong in a Healthy by Nina Teicholz.

[00:21:02] Cow farts and burps.

[00:21:40] TED Talk: Allan Savory: How to fight desertification and reverse climate change.

[00:23:21] Intensive mob grazing then allowing the ground to rest.

[00:25:29] Food security through diversification.

[00:26:25] Are there too many people on the planet?

[00:28:47] Book: Limits to Growth by Donella H. Meadows and Updated Book: Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows and Jorgen Randers. Also see this editorial by Tommy’s Dad: Mineral Resources and the Limits to Growth by Bernard J. Wood.

[00:30:32] Peak phosphorus.

[00:32:20] Full accounting on lab meat.

[00:35:00] To donate:

[00:35:47] Belcampo Meat Camps.

[00:35:58] Thrive Market.

[00:36:06] Campaign on Generosity:

[00:37:44] Robb Wolf, Mark Sisson, Chris Kresser, JP Sears.

[00:38:09] Sustainable Dish on Instagram.

NBT People: Sarah Wnenchak

Dec 3, 2017


Sarah Wnenchak has been working with us for the past 18 months and she recently kindly agreed to be interviewed for my podcast. We think that Sarah’s neurological and hormonal problems originated from several rounds of antibiotics for tonsillitis, and as the pictured Doctor’s Data Comprehensive Stool Analysis before and after shows, she responded very well to a herbal weeding and probiotic seeding protocol.

Perhaps the most crucial change Sarah made while working with us was the switch from oral birth control to The Fertility Awareness Method.

Sarah is now a Bulletproof certified health coach and consults with clients on diet and lifestyle alongside her vinyasa style yoga teaching at Truly Yoga Studio where she is the founder.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sarah Wnenchak:

[00:00:44] Bulletproof Training Institute.

[00:01:14] Tonsillitis.

[00:01:23] 5 rounds of antibiotics.

[00:02:51] Hormones and oral birth control.

[00:05:31] Neurological symptoms as side effects.

[00:06:43] Depression and anxiety.

[00:07:08] Higher order anxiety.

[00:08:38] Inability to feel pleasure.

[00:10:44] Newsletter: Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights series. Article referenced in Highlights #25: New Research: Birth Control Pill, Depression and Autoimmunity by Kelly Brogan MD.

[00:12:22] Podcast: The Truth About Fertility and the Fertility Awareness Method with Julie Kelly and Toréa Rodriguez.

[00:12:33] Book: Taking Charge of Your Fertility, 20th Anniversary Edition: The Definitive Guide to Natural Birth Control, Pregnancy Achievement, and Reproductive Health by Toni Weschler.

[00:12:42] About basal body temperature, Daysy basal thermometer and the Daysy app.

[00:16:35] Gluten sensitivity and sugar cravings.

[00:17:56] Including more fats as ghee, butter and MCT.

[00:18:26] Iron, magnesium and B vitamin deficiencies.

[00:20:53] Vinyasa yoga.

[00:22:14] You don't realise how bad you feel until you feel better.

[00:22:57] Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change with Simon Marshall.

[00:24:20] Mindfulness meditation. Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster with Dr. Ellen Langer, PhD.

[00:25:10] Ritual.

[00:25:35] Grounding and connecting with nature.

[00:25:50] Dry skin brushing.

[00:27:55] DUTCH and circadian rhythm.

[00:28:45] f.lux and amber light bulbs.

[00:30:04] Essential oils.

[00:30:53] Doctor's Data Comprehensive Stool Analysis with Parasitology (CSAP).

[00:31:36] Sarah’s before CSAP results and after CSAP results -- see above.

[00:31:49] Study: Taha Rashid and Alan Ebringer, “Autoimmunity in Rheumatic Diseases Is Induced by Microbial Infections via Crossreactivity or Molecular Mimicry,” Autoimmune Diseases, vol. 2012, Article ID 539282, 9 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/539282.

[00:32:07] Raintree C-F.

[00:33:00] Finding a purpose.

[00:35:02] Khan Academy, Metabolic Fitness Pro, Kalish Mentorship, Functional Diagnostic Nutrition (FDN).

[00:35:31] Bulletproof certification, Bulletproof Conference info, and Bulletproof Conference 2017 live stream.

[00:37:17] Dr Mark Atkinson.

[00:38:15] Satya Health and Wellness.

[00:38:37] Truly Yoga Studio.

How to Get Deep Insights on Hormones and Their Metabolism

Nov 29, 2017


After spending years directing urinary and salivary hormone testing, analytical chemist Mark Newman set out to combine the best of both worlds with the DUTCH (Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones).

For the past couple of years, we’ve been happily using the DUTCH as a tool for improving health and performance in athletes as part of our Elite Performance Program.

In this interview, Mark discusses the recent expansion and improvement of the DUTCH to include the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and several markers related to hormone and neurotransmitter metabolism.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Mark Newman:

[00:00:54] DUTCH (Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones).

[00:02:49] Cortisol clearance. Video: Tutorial on cortisol.

[00:03:32] 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG).

[00:05:02] Obesity.

[00:05:21] Cushing’s syndrome.

[00:05:44] Fat sequesters hormones.

[00:08:58] Thyroid and cortisol clearance.

[00:09:20] Studies: 1, 2, and 3.

[00:11:51] Circadian rhythm.

[00:12:39] Cortisol awakening response (CAR).

[00:14:31] Studies: References 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.                 

[00:16:34] Why you can't see the CAR with urine.

[00:18:08] Correlations between glucose, c-peptide, and cortisol.

[00:19:50] The CAR is a proxy.

[00:21:30] Clinical implications of the CAR.

[00:25:28] 8-OH-dG on PubMed.

[00:26:43] Joergensen, Anders, et al. “Association between urinary excretion of cortisol and markers of oxidatively damaged DNA and RNA in humans.” PLoS One 6.6 (2011): e20795.

[00:27:00] Melatonin is an antioxidant.

[00:27:14] 4-OH oestrogen metabolite. Video: Estrogen Tutorial.

[00:28:26] Will there be a full OAT?

[00:28:53] Neurotransmitters.

[00:29:57] Kynurenine pathway. Article: Electrons, Neurotoxins, NAD+, and Mitochondria by Tommy Wood MD, PhD.

[00:31:01] NAD and vitamin B6, xanthurenic acid.

[00:32:01] MMA, folate.

[00:32:52] Article: New Research: Birth Control Pill, Depression and Autoimmunity by Kelly Brogan MD.

[00:33:37] Hydroxymethylglutarate (HMG) is the precursor to Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) production.

[00:35:41] Evidence-based markers.

[00:37:09] Doing experiments, DIM.

[00:39:14] Adding markers, value vs noise.

[00:40:58] Great Plains OAT (Organic Acids Test).

[00:41:15] Podcast: The Cortisol Awakening Response with Mark Newman, MS.

[00:41:39] Machine Learning. Podcasts: How to Teach Machines That Can Learn with Dr. Pedro Domingos, PhD and How “Machine Learning” Can Predict Your Blood, Urine, Stool, Saliva & More! With Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:42:16] Mass spec, immunoassay test.

[00:45:17] Predicting the CAR.

[00:45:56] Linear correlations.

[00:50:06] Receptor activity, house analogy.

[00:51:10] Elite Performance Program and the 7-Minute Analysis.

[00:52:11] Getting the DUTCH done.

[00:53:50] The Institute for Functional Medicine (IFM).

[00:55:07] The process of elimination.

[00:55:43] Precision Analytical at

The Keto Masterclass with Robb Wolf

Nov 22, 2017


This episode is a roundtable discussion with Tommy Wood, MD, PhD and New York Times best-selling author Robb Wolf on Robb’s new Keto Masterclass, a 45-day program to kickstart your keto lifestyle.

The masterclass is an online training course that I completed ahead of recording this episode. Think of the class as a comprehensive instruction manual complete with troubleshooting guide for fat loss and improved metabolic health. If you’re brand new, the course is perfect for you. If you’ve been living the lifestyle for some time, it may still be helpful to read the manual to see if there’s anything you’ve missed.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Robb Wolf and Dr Tommy Wood:

[00:01:15] Ken Ford on STEM-Talk.

[00:01:33] Books: The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet, Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You.

[00:03:34] CrossFit.

[00:05:28] Ryan Levesque, Ask Method.

[00:07:30] Blog: Optimizing Cycling Stage Race Performance using Nutritional Ketosis by Sami Inkinen.

[00:10:05] The course is for the Weight Watchers crowd.

[00:12:50] Facebook Video: Paleo vs keto video with Robb and Nicki.

[00:14:42] The NBT 7-minute analysis.

[00:16:10] Facebook Group: Richard Nikoley's Ketotard Chronicles.

[00:17:00] Mike Rowe and Dirty Jobs.

[00:19:28] When are you fixed?

[00:20:10] Book: Diabetes Epidemic & You by Joseph R. Kraft to learn about the Kraft test (5 hour GTT), Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance Index (LP-IR): A Lipoprotein Particle–Derived Measure of Insulin Resistance.

[00:20:34] 7-day carb test.

[00:20:59] Eating while the sun is up.

[00:22:16] Full carnivore, guys.

[00:22:59] The Keto Summit.

[00:23:33] Ketogains.

[00:23:48] Electrolytes.

[00:24:47] Calories and food quality matter.

[00:25:55] Thyroid and adrenal issues.

[00:27:01] Undereating.

[00:28:09] Doc Parsley’s Sleep Remedy.

[00:28:27] Blog: Virta Health: Does Your Thyroid Need Dietary Carbohydrates? By Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[00:28:58] Managing symptoms.

[00:30:11] Warren Buffett.

[00:30:48] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[00:31:46] Loren Cordain, PhD on sodium.

[00:33:38] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD.

[00:33:53] Book: The Salt Fix: Why the Experts Got It All Wrong--and How Eating More Might Save Your Life by James DiNicolantonio.

[00:34:56] Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium (be careful).

[00:36:22] Studies: DeFronzo, R. A. "The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism." Diabetologia 21.3 (1981): 165-171 and Brands, Michael W., and M. Marlina Manhiani. "Sodium-retaining effect of insulin in diabetes." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 303.11 (2012): R1101-R1109.

[00:37:35] Presentation: Oxidative Stress & Carbohydrate Intolerance: An Ancestral Perspective by Chris Masterjohn, PhD.

[00:39:05] Ted Naiman ways to enter ketosis infographic.

[00:40:50] Pitocin, brand name medication for oxytocin.  

[00:42:33] Marty Kendall’s Nutrient Optimiser.

[00:44:41] Metabolic flexibility and undereating.

[00:46:21] Podcasts: High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea with Mike T. Nelson and The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athlete with Mike T. Nelson.

[00:46:42] Podcasts: National Cyclocross Champion Jeremy Powers on Racing, Training and the Ketogenic Diet and National Cyclocross Champion Katie Compton on Ketosis and MTHFR.

[00:47:07] Keto-mojo meter.

[00:48:17] What to measure.

[00:49:57] Myostatin inhibition.

[00:50:37] Study:  Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546 and Podcast: A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice with Megan Hall.

[00:53:24] Metformin works so well because of multiple mechanisms.

[00:54:03] Acetone.

[00:54:35] Cori cycle.

[00:55:49] Book: The New Evolution Diet: What Our Paleolithic Ancestors Can Teach Us about Weight Loss, Fitness, and Aging by Arthur De Vany.

[00:56:41] Tracking body mass.

[00:57:37] Performance benchmarks.

[00:59:03] Simon Marshall and Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change with Simon Marshall.

[00:59:31] Paul Itoi,

[01:00:25] Loss aversion.

[01:01:27] Podcast: Breaking Through Plateaus and Sustainable Fat-Loss with Jason Seib.

[01:02:04] Studies: Bistrian, Bruce R., et al. "Nitrogen metabolism and insulin requirements in obese diabetic adults on a protein-sparing modified fast." Diabetes 25.6 (1976): 494-504 and Furber, Matthew, et al. "A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males." Clinical Nutrition Experimental(2017).

[01:06:30] Very similar weight loss regardless of the diet.

[01:07:11] Presentation: Low Carb Breckenridge 2017: The way to a man's heart is through the stomach with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[01:09:44] Keto Masterclass details.

[01:10:19] Epigenetics.

[01:12:13] Podcast: Why You Should Skip Oxaloacetate Supplementation, Fueling for Your Activity and More! with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[01:13:21] Price $49!

[01:15:28] Get Keto Masterclass.

[01:16:30] Ivor Cummins.

The True Root Causes of Cardiovascular Disease

Nov 18, 2017


Dr Jeffry N. Gerber, MD, FAAFP is a board-certified family physician and owner of South Suburban Family Medicine in Littleton, Colorado, where he is known as “Denver’s Diet Doctor”. He has been providing personalized healthcare to the local community since 1993 and continues that tradition with an emphasis on longevity, wellness and prevention.

In this interview, Dr Gerber describes the major root causes of cardiovascular disease, the most important of which is insulin-resistant Type 2 Diabetes.

Worried about your heart disease risk? Get a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score.

Your CAC score (and the rate of progression of your CAC score) is probably the best easily-available predictor of cardiac events. A recent paper from the CARDIA study also showed that an elevated CAC score was highly predictive of long-term heart disease risk in younger adults (18-30 year-olds).

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr. Jeffry N. Gerber, MD:

[00:01:27] Clinical experience.

[00:02:27] Interest in low-carb diets.

[00:03:21] Presentation: Ivor Cummins: “Roads to Ruin?” The Pathways and Implications of Insulin Resistance.

[00:03:38] Book: Diabetes Epidemic & You by Joseph R. Kraft.

[00:04:23] Professor Grant Schofield and Catherine Crofts, PhD. Podcast: Hyperinsulinaemia and Cognitive Decline with Catherine Crofts, PhD.

[00:05:08] Hyperinsulinemia and CVD.

[00:06:39] The 2 hour insulin test < 30 UI/mL.

[00:07:20] Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa, et al. "One-hour postload hyperglycemia is a stronger predictor of type 2 diabetes than impaired fasting glucose." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 100.10 (2015): 3744-3751.

[00:07:51] < 5 UI/mL fasting insulin.

[00:10:40] What causes CVD?

[00:11:49] Carl von Rokitansky.

[00:12:02] Rudolf Virchow.

[00:12:19] Blog: Dr. Malcolm Kendrick.

[00:13:49] Russell Ross.

[00:15:40] List of things that cause CVD.

[00:16:44] Nitric Oxide.

[00:17:43] Jerry Reaven.

[00:19:19] Vega, Gloria Lena, et al. "Triglyceride–to–high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men." Journal of Investigative Medicine 62.2 (2014): 345-349.

[00:20:17] The Framingham study.

[00:21:53] LDL-P and advanced testing.

[00:22:32] CAC score.

[00:23:41] Intimal media thickness.

[00:26:11] Ordering a scan.

[00:26:41] 64-slice EBCT machine.

[00:27:08] Valenti, Valentina, et al. "A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9,715 individuals." JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging 8.8 (2015): 900-909.

[00:28:15] Soft plaque.

[00:28:57] CT angiogram.

[00:29:44] Don't let perfect be the enemy of very good.

[00:30:34] How to get a zero score.

[00:31:28] Industrial seed oils.

[00:32:02] D3/K2, magnesium, vitamin C.

[00:33:29] Statins.

[00:33:47] Absolute risk reduction data.

[00:34:13] Ridker, Paul M., et al. "Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein." New England Journal of Medicine 359.21 (2008): 2195.

[00:34:40] NICE guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease.

[00:36:45] Studies: Puri, Rishi, et al. "Impact of statins on serial coronary calcification during atheroma progression and regression." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 65.13 (2015): 1273-1282, Sattar, Naveed, et al. "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials." The Lancet 375.9716 (2010): 735-742, and Preiss, David, et al. "Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: a meta-analysis." Jama 305.24 (2011): 2556-2564.

[00:37:22] Interview: Calcification and CAC with the Expert: Professor Matthew J. Budoff, MD, FAAC, Part 1 and Professor Matthew J. Budoff Part 2: Primary Care Physicians and CAC.

[00:37:41] Book: Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Longevity by Ivor Cummins and Dr. Jeffry Gerber – February 6, 2018.

[00:38:50] Four body types: Skinny, insulin-resistant type, the overweight, typical T2 diabetic type, the overweight, insulin-sensitive type, and the metabolically healthy type.

[00:40:50] Conference: Low-Carb Breckenridge 2018.

[00:41:28] Dr Rod Tayler.

[00:42:25] Dr Andrew Mentee and the PURE study.

[00:42:46] List of speakers at Low-Carb Breckenridge 2018.

[00:43:06] IHMC STEM-Talk Episode 41: Dr David Diamond talks about the role of fat, cholesterol, and statin drugs in heart disease.        

[00:44:15] Dr Jeffry N. Gerber, MD, FAAFP.

[00:45:27] Rebuttal: 9NEWS – Explaining the science behind the keto diet with Dr Jeffrey Gerber.

How to Understand Glucose Regulation

Nov 10, 2017


Bryan Walsh, our favourite doctor, teacher and critical thinker is back on the podcast to talk about perhaps one of the most import of health topics: blood glucose regulation.

Why care about blood glucose? Didn’t I test that already?

Isn’t it time to move on and start thinking about something a bit sexier?

In this interview, Bryan argues no, and that the low hanging fruit remains whilst many practitioners move onto the harder to reach or less important interventions. I’m looking at you, MTHFR!

You could listen to this podcast to learn something about a class of hormone called incretins, the first-phase insulin response, and the primary action of insulin. If you like what you hear, I’d highly recommend you sign up for Bryan’s new training course, Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Glucose Regulation.

Full disclosure: I am a true fan of Bryan’s. I buy everything he produces sight unseen. I’m always surprised and delighted by what I receive, and when listeners and clients ask me where I got my biochemistry and physiology education, I send them to Bryan. I pay full price for all Bryan’s work and there’s no financial affiliation.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr Bryan Walsh, ND:

[00:00:15] Podcast: Social Isolation: The Most Important Topic Nobody is Talking About with Dr Bryan Walsh.

[00:01:02] Cabbage Tree.

[00:02:36] Bridging the gap between conventional and naturopathic medicine.

[00:03:33] Sustained Health Engineering.

[00:04:43] Pellagra, Lyme Disease.

[00:05:32] Vitamin D.

[00:05:52] Article on Gizmodo: “Blowing Smoke Up Your Ass" Used to Be Literal.

[00:08:46] Blood glucose. Podcast: Poor Misunderstood Insulin with Dr Tommy Wood.  

[00:10:09] Infertility and libido.

[00:10:26] Depression and anxiety.

[00:10:50] HbA1c.

[00:11:56] Pathway ADD.

[00:12:40] Mapping the human genome.

[00:12:59] Microbiome.

[00:13:59] Low hanging fruit on a CBC paper.

[00:15:33] Blood glucose variability and long-term health.

[00:17:06] First phase insulin response.

[00:18:50] Second phase is insulin on demand.

[00:20:37] Blunted postprandial response is the earliest predictor of T2D.

[00:22:04] GlycoMark measures glycemic variability.

[00:24:26] GlycoMark < 15 indicates loss of the first phase insulin response.

[00:26:30] Glycated proteins, e.g. fructosamine.

[00:29:28] References for optimal ranges for fasting blood glucose.

[00:31:53] 80-90 mg/dL. Reference 1, 2, 3, and 4.

[00:33:36] Fasting blood glucose, how low should it go? References 1, 2, 3, and 4.

[00:34:23] Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Podcast: Jason Moore of EliteHRV.

[00:34:40] PCOS and Podcast: Dr Frassetto of the PCOS Paleo Study.

[00:35:23] Incretins, GLP-1

[00:37:18] Gabor Erdosi at the Lower Insulin Facebook group.

[00:37:49] The primary action of insulin is to suppress glucagon.

[00:38:51] GABA.

[00:39:30] What is insulin resistance? Where does it happen?

[00:41:26] GLUT-4 transporters.

[00:42:11] Ceramides.

[00:42:33] Insulin resistance is protective.

[00:45:30] Insulin might be a bad idea. Study: Nolan, Christopher J., et al. "Insulin resistance as a physiological defense against metabolic stress: implications for the management of subsets of type 2 diabetes." Diabetes 64.3 (2015): 673-686.

[00:48:13] What to do example.

[00:48:53] C-peptide.

[00:50:06] Chewing food and GLP-1. Study: Li, Jie, et al. "Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men." The American journal of clinical nutrition 94.3 (2011): 709-716.

[00:50:39] Quercetin, supplements.

[00:51:54] Course: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Glucose Dysregulation.

[00:55:19] Reactive hypoglycemia.

[00:57:06] 1,000 True Fans.

[00:58:09] For more from Dr Walsh check out:,

[00:59:10] Podcast: WAYYYY Beyond Diet & Exercise with Dr. Bryan Walsh.

The D-BHB Ketone Monoester Is Here

Nov 6, 2017


This episode brought to you by Rock Lobster Cycles, beautiful bicycles handbuilt in Santa Cruz, California.

In our last interview, scientist and world champion rower Dr Brianna Stubbs had recently successfully defended her PhD in Biochemical Physiology and reached a juncture in her career. Ten months later, Brianna has retired from professional rowing but continues her passion for biochemistry with San Francisco based nootropics company HMVN where she is working to commercialise the D-BHB ketone monoester developed at Oxford University alongside Prof. Kieran Clarke.

The big news is the wait is over! After over a decade of research, the ester is finally here.

This interview is two rolled into one. In the first part, we talk about Brianna’s transition out of academia and professional sport and into the world of Silicon Valley startups. In the second part, Brianna talks about the benefits of the ketone ester and takes on some of Dr Tommy Wood’s challenging questions given to me by ahead of the interview but unseen by Brianna.

If you’re only interested in hearing about the ketone monoester, skip to the 24-minute mark.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Brianna Stubbs, PhD:

[00:01:23] Retirement from rowing.

[00:02:56] Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:03:19] App: Strava.

[00:04:17] The move to San Francisco.

[00:05:00] Professor Kieran Clarke, PhD, CEO of TdeltaS.

[00:05:24] HVMN.

[00:08:27] World Rowing Championships.

[00:09:40] Rodent and then human experiments.

[00:10:37] Finding purpose and resolving ambivalence.

[00:12:09] Journaling.

[00:12:55] Mentoring.

[00:14:42] Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change with Simon Marshall.

[00:15:08] YouTube: HVMN Enhancement Podcast: Ep. 46: Correcting Nutritional Deficiencies ft. Christopher Kelly.

[00:15:38] Tony Hsieh of

[00:16:38] Body composition.

[00:17:39] BHRT (Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy). Podcast: The Critical Role of Oestradiol for Women’s Cognition with Dr. Ann Hathaway, MD.

[00:17:57] DXA scan.

[00:18:09] Intermittent fasting.

[00:19:22] We Fast Facebook Community.

[00:20:42] Put on 20lb, mostly muscle.

[00:24:51] Podcast: World Champion Rower and Ketone Monoester Researcher Brianna Stubbs.

[00:25:19] Dr. Richard Veech, Hans Krebs.

[00:26:52] Ketone metabolism.

[00:28:04] Study: Cox, Pete J., et al. "Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes." Cell metabolism 24.2 (2016): 256-268.

[00:28:47] Case Report: Newport, Mary T., et al. "A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer's disease." Alzheimer's & Dementia 11.1 (2015): 99-103.

[00:29:20] FDA GRAS (generally recognized as safe).

[00:29:32] WADA.

[00:30:38] Who is the ester for?

[00:31:54] Article and Studies: Reference 1, 2 and 3.

[00:33:30] Glycogen sparing or impairing?

[00:35:57] WINGATE test.

[00:36:08] If you've got ketones, you don't break down as much protein? BCAA.

[00:36:32] Study: Vandoorne, Tijs, et al. "Intake of a Ketone Ester Drink during Recovery from Exercise Promotes mTORC1 Signaling but Not Glycogen Resynthesis in Human Muscle." Frontiers in physiology 8 (2017).

[00:37:27] Pro cycling.

[00:39:00] Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite [beta]-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263-269.

[00:40:05] Why is glucose required for an increase in exercise performance?

[00:41:12] Anaplaerosis. See Tommy’s letter published recently in the journal Strength and Conditioning.

[00:42:19] Should we stop using the salts?

[00:42:41] Appetite suppressing effects of ketones.

[00:43:02] D and L isomers.

[00:44:11] Dominic D'Agostino, PhD.

[00:45:14] Are diet and lifestyle still the most important factors?

[00:46:36] Caffeine, nitrates, beta-alanine.

[00:47:31] Ketone ester 30 min rowing performance.

[00:49:21] Podcast: SNR #195: Brendan Egan, PhD – Exogenous Ketone Supplementation.

[00:52:25] Study: Volek, Jeff S., et al. "Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners." Metabolism 65.3 (2016): 100-110.

[00:52:41] Intramuscular triglycerides.

[00:53:07] Ketones as signaling molecule.

[00:53:46] YouTube: HDAC inhibitors and Podcast: A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice with Megan Hall.

[00:54:27] Nicotinic acid receptor.

[00:55:11] Book: Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky.

[00:56:16] General anesthesia.

[00:57:11] Two papers, Kieran hyperglycemia and Veech (ask Tommy)

[00:59:02] Exogenous ketones lower blood glucose.

[00:59:46] Biden pancreatic islet study

[01:00:26] Insulin is anti-proteolytic.

[01:00:37] George Cahill paper

[01:03:03] Who's it for?

[01:03:12] Price.

[01:04:06] Intestinal Alk Phos. See Why You Should Skip Oxaloacetate Supplementation, Fueling for Your Activity and More with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[01:06:12] Product page at HVMN.

A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice

Oct 27, 2017


Our Scientific Director Megan Hall (née Roberts) recently had some of the work from her Master’s degree published in the journal Cell Metabolism, which is seriously impressive. The paper appeared on Science Daily, and generally caused a bit of a stir in the low carb community. As we have direct access to the horse’s mouth, I’ve asked Megan to join me in this episode of the podcast to summarise the findings and give some thoughts on how it might relate to human health.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Hall:

[00:00:55] Mastermind Talks.

[00:01:47] The lead up to the study.

[00:02:17] Time-restricted feeding.

[00:02:38] Are they eating longer because of a less crappy diet?

[00:04:21] Calorie restriction was the focus of Megan's lab.

[00:05:27] Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD and Jon Ramsey, PhD.

[00:06:13] Study design.

[00:07:36] High-fat diets in rodents.

[00:08:39] Two arms: longevity and healthspan.

[00:10:55] Grip strength in a rodent.

[00:11:40] Novel object test.

[00:12:55] fMRI for body composition using the EchoMRI.

[00:13:13] The results. Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:15:40] Valter Longo, PhD and USC Longevity Institute. Studies: Brandhorst, Sebastian, et al. "A periodic diet that mimics fasting promotes multi-system regeneration, enhanced cognitive performance, and healthspan." Cell metabolism 22.1 (2015): 86-99 and Wei, Min, et al. "Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease." Science translational medicine 9.377 (2017): eaai8700.

[00:16:27] Study: Sleiman, Sama F., et al. "Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate." Elife 5 (2016): e15092.

[00:17:34] Motor function and coordination.

[00:18:58] The importance of preserving type IIA muscle fibers. Podcast: The Most Reliable Way to Lose Weight with Dr Tommy Wood and The High-Performance Athlete with Drs Tommy Wood and Andy Galpin.

[00:19:18] Study: Zou, Xiaoting, et al. "Acetoacetate accelerates muscle regeneration and ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mice." Journal of Biological Chemistry291.5 (2016): 2181-2195.

[00:20:04] Exercise performance.

[00:21:13] Physiologic insulin resistance.

[00:22:06] Podcast: Real Food for Gestational Diabetes with Lily Nichols.

[00:24:21] Keto vs low-carb.

[00:27:05] Studies: β-Hydroxybutyrate: A Signaling Metabolite and Ketone bodies as signalling metabolites.

[00:27:49] YouTube: Histone deacetylation and inhibition.

[00:29:19] I mentioned the Khan Academy, but in the end Megan liked these videos on HDAC inhibitors and cancer and Histone deacetylation and inhibition (also mentions p53!).

[00:30:49] FOXO proteins.

[00:31:30] Lysine residues.

[00:31:48] Mn SOD.

[00:32:10] mTOR, Dr. Ron Rosedale.

[00:34:04] REDD1 protein.

[00:34:32] P53 protein, metformin.

[00:35:30] Less cancer in KD mice.

[00:36:00] Warburg Effect.

[00:36:21] Replicability.

[00:36:57] Study: Newman, John C., et al. "Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 547-557.

[00:38:28] Press coverage of the study, “Eat Fat, Live Longer” at

[00:41:01] Soybean oil in rodent diets.

[00:41:34] Sex-dependent differences.

[00:43:23] Takeaways.

[00:44:21] Dogma displacement inertia.

[00:45:19] Exogenous ketones. Study: Stubbs, Brianna Jane, et al. "On the metabolism of exogenous ketones in humans." Frontiers in Physiology 8 (2017): 848.

[00:46:34] What does this mean for humans?

[00:47:42] Weightloss.

[00:48:36] Micromanaging the details.

[00:50:33] Who are you and what are your goals -- Robb Wolf. Podcast: Wired to Eat with Robb Wolf.

[00:51:55] Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights Series sign up.

[00:53:11] Megan's purpose.

[00:53:39] Book: Find Your Why: A Practical Guide for Discovering Purpose for You and Your Team by Simon Sinek and David Mead.

Ketones, Insulin and the Physiology of Fat Cells

Oct 21, 2017


Dr. Ben Bikman is an Associate Professor of Physiology & Developmental Biology at Brigham Young University. He has a PhD in Bioenergetics and did his postdoctoral work in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases such as obesity.

In this interview with Dr. Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, Ben talks about his recent tenureship and research on the metabolic effects of insulin and ketones on fat cells.

Also discussed are two schools of thought in obesity research and how both groups may be right about various aspects of weight loss.

As you might be able to tell, I struggled a bit to find a picture of Tommy in the lab to match Ben's. Props to Tommy for allowing me to use the pic on the left (taken in jest), I thought it too funny to go to waste.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Ben Bikman:

[00:01:59] Dr Ben Bikman recently made tenure.

[00:02:46] The tenureship process.

[00:04:14] Presentation: Insulin vs. Ketones - The Battle for Brown Fat by Dr Ben Binkman.

[00:05:16] Podcast: Recap: Icelandic Health Symposium 2017 and Satchidananda Panda.

[00:06:20] The Pubmed warrior; Ivor Cumins aka the The Fat Emperor.

[00:07:16] Publishing a book.

[00:07:44] Dr Jeff Gerber and Dr Rod Tayler organizers of Low Carb Breckenridge.

[00:09:40] Removing the invisible barrier between the scientists and the public.

[00:12:36] American Heart Association.

[00:13:01] Study: Hall, Kevin D., et al. "Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men." The American journal of clinical nutrition 104.2 (2016): 324-333.

[00:14:33] Calorie type is more important.

[00:14:58] Study: Walsh, C. O., Ebbeling, C. B., Swain, J. F., Markowitz, R. L., Feldman, H. A., & Ludwig, D. S. (2013). Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance. PloS one, 8(3), e58172.

[00:15:58] The Biggest Loser.

[00:16:58] The importance of protein.

[00:18:22] Protein increases glucagon.

[00:20:16] Just eat real food.

[00:20:48] Ben's research on adipocytes, studies not completed yet.

[00:22:20] White vs brown fat.

[00:22:50] Uncoupling to create heat.

[00:24:18] Fat mass also changed.

[00:24:49] Study: Roberts, Megan N., et al. "A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice." Cell Metabolism 26.3 (2017): 539-546.

[00:25:35] Study: Lim, Gareth E., et al. "14-3-3 [zeta] coordinates adipogenesis of visceral fat." Nature communications 6 (2015).

[00:27:15] Wasting away in T1D.

[00:27:35] Elliot Joslin of the Joslin Diabetes Center and Francis Benedict.

[00:28:55] Ketones can be insulinogenic.

[00:29:33] Study: Biden, Trevor J., and Keith W. Taylor. "Effects of ketone bodies on insulin release and islet-cell metabolism in the rat." Biochemical Journal 212.2 (1983): 371-377.

[00:30:12] Exogenous ketones and weight loss.

[00:30:59] Study: Holdsworth, David A., et al. "A ketone ester drink increases postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis in humans." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 49.9 (2017): 1789.

[00:33:16] Human clinical studies.

[00:37:26] Ben is not an advocate of chronic ketosis.

[00:39:17] Breakfast and lunch are easy to change.

[00:40:49] Study: (PURE) Dehghan, Mahshid, et al. "Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study." The Lancet(2017).

[00:43:43] Dr Ben Bikman on social media: Instagram, Facebook, Twitter.

The High-Performance Athlete with Drs Tommy Wood and Andy Galpin

Oct 14, 2017


Andy is a tenured Professor in the Center for Sport Performance at California State University Fullerton, and Director of the Biochemistry and Molecular Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Having previously been a competitive football player, weightlifter, and martial artist, Andy now uses what he learns in his research to help amateur and elite or Olympic athletes in multiple sports, from UFC to the NFL.

Andy recently co-authored a book with Brian MacKenzie and Phil White called Unplugged. As the name suggests, a major theme in the book is avoiding the pitfalls of modern technology.

One theme of the book is the use of hormetic stressors - pushing your physiology with cold or fasting, for instance, to improve health and performance. In this interview, Andy talks about how he is using that in terms of recommendations for the general public, and in his elite athletes.

Our favourite Andy Galpin quote from this episode:

When you're optimising, you're not adapting

Here’s the outline of this interview with Andy Galpin:

[00:02:51] Molecular-level studies vs human clinic trials.

[00:04:26] Leg strength.

[00:05:42] Study: Bathgate, Katie & Bagley, James & Jo, Edward & NL, Segal & Brown, Lee & Coburn, Jared & CN, Gullick & Ruas, Cassio & Galpin, Andrew. (2016). Physiological Profile of Monozygous Twins with 35 Years of Differing Exercise Habits. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 30. S43-S44.

[00:07:38] Endurance 90% slow-twitch, untrained 50% fast-twitch.

[00:09:48] Podcast: The Joe Rogan Experience #996 with Dr. Andy Galpin.

[00:10:33] Intra-muscular triglycerides (IMTGs).

[00:11:41] Marbling.

[00:14:35] Specificity of training.

[00:18:32] Polarised training. Study: Hydren, Jay R., and Bruce S. Cohen. "Current scientific evidence for a polarized cardiovascular endurance training model." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 29.12 (2015): 3523-3530.

[00:19:30] Brian McKenzie, CrossFit Endurance -website coming soon.

[00:23:26] Body conditioning for long events.

[00:24:24] Book: Unplugged: Evolve from Technology to Upgrade Your Fitness, Performance, & Consciousness by Brian MacKenzie, Dr. Andy Galpin and Phil White.

[00:25:29] The misuse of technology in training.

[00:28:05] Technology makes no adjustment for context.

[00:31:07] Tim Ferriss.

[00:31:46] Collect the minimum amount of data possible.

[00:32:28] Use the least amount of technology possible.

[00:32:51] Tracking subjective measures.

[00:33:26] Study: Saw AE, Main LC, Gastin PB. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;50(5):281-291. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094758.

[00:33:43] Shawn M. Arent, PhD.

[00:39:05] Hormetic stress. Podcast: Getting Stronger with Todd Becker.

[00:40:49] Mike Bledsoe at Barbell Shrugged, coffee.

[00:43:41] When you're optimising, you're not adapting.

[00:44:28] Coach Cal Dietz, Minnesota Golden Gophers.

[00:44:45] Michael Phelps swim coach, Bob Bowman.

[00:45:24] Benjamin Levine, MD.

[00:47:29] Low-carb diets for performance.

[00:49:19] The whole point is to overreach.

[00:50:56] Podcast: Wired to Eat with Robb Wolf where he discusses the 7-day carb test.

[00:51:40] Book: Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You by Robb Wolf.

[00:54:05] Nothing is forever.

[00:54:36] Book: Unplugged: Evolve from Technology to Upgrade Your Fitness, Performance, & Consciousness by Brian MacKenzie, Dr. Andy Galpin and Phil White.

[00:54:50] Andy Galpin on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube.

[00:55:06] Podcast: The Body of Knowledge hosted by Andy Galpin, PhD and Kenny Kane.

[00:55:32] and Dr. Andy Galpin on Patreon.

How to Fuel for Your Sport (with Obstacle Course Racing as an Example)

Oct 6, 2017


In this special episode, NBT client Ryan Baxter takes over the mic to ask Dr Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, some excellent questions around fuelling for Obstacle Course Racing (OCR). Whilst Tommy’s answers are somewhat specific to OCR, all athlete may find some helpful tips here.

Below are the questions that Ryan asked, and a summary of Tommy’s response.

Q: Diet can be like politics or religion, how do you effectively communicate your ideas about how athletes should fuel?

Be honest about the fact that there is more than one way to skin the cat Start with real food - eliminations and diet subtypes are secondary It’s OK to supplement if needed

Q: What is the most common problem you see when it comes to nutrition and athletes?

Undereating and underfuelling Worrying too much about the minutiae Thinking they can eat whatever they like because they exercise Focusing too much on supplements without wanting to get the basics right You need to figure out if you’re somebody that should worry *more* or less about their nutrition Most of the people I work with often need to worry less Over-restriction Most “average” people need to worry more

Q: As far as day to day nutrition what do you think that should look like? Any specific macro recommendations?

This assumes no goal for changes in body composition Eat 120-160g of protein per day, in 3-4 meals For OCR athletes, I’d eat at least 1g/lb carbohydrate per day Depends on intensity and can be cycled by day The rest should come from fat, from whole food sources

Q: Chris Masterjohn just posted two videos [1, 2] on fueling athletic performance with carbs vs fats.  My overall interpretation of his analysis was that he feels that if you are doing intense exercise you need to be fueling with carbs.  What are your thoughts on the carbs vs fats debate.

Masterjohn has nicely presented the evidence to answer a question that should be obvious but sadly has generated a lot of debate. Simplistically, you need to right fuel for the given exercise or intensity, and if you want to be regularly performing at glycolytic activities, you should be eating carbohydrates. You can still do glycolytic work when restricting carbohydrates, and it may help to mitigate the downregulation of glycolytic pathways, but your absolute performance will probably drop. If you’re restricting carbohydrates, *why* are you doing it? Metabolic health? If so, focus on that rather than performance. “Fat adaptation”? Can be achieved whilst also eating carbohydrates! Fat oxidation rates increase with VO2Max.

Q: Our team is very diverse both in age range and fitness.  We have people who are in their teens and up and we have people who are beginners to those who race in the elite class.  Do you have recommendations about how to someone might go about finding the right nutrition for themselves?

An appropriate (and good) multivitamin is usually a good idea Start with the rough recommendations above Older people (40-50+) may need more protein If still hungry, eat more! If poor recovery, or weight loss despite not feeling hungry Eat more carbohydrates Increase calorie density of foods If regular GI symptoms (diarrhoea, bloating etc), consider a period of elimination of the main potential culprits: Grains, dairy, soy, eggs FODMAPs If this is beneficial for you - do more digging!

Q: We have some vegetarians on the team, would you suggest anything specific for them?

Don’t fall into the typical vegetarian traps Not eating vegetables Not eating fish (if not vegan) Eating “faux” meat Making bread and cheese dietary staples Don’t usually have as much of a problem eating enough carbohydrate Make sure you get enough protein (may need to increase intake to compensate for lower essential amino acid intake) Controversial May only be necessary if trying to maximise muscle mass

Q: Do you have any supplements that you would recommend every athlete take or is supplementation an individual recommendation?

Creatine Vitamin D (if levels are low) Citrulline and beta-alanine for repeated HIIT/Sprint/higher-rep weight training performance Caffeine and nitrates (beetroot shots?) restricted the rest of the time and then used as an ergogenic aid

Q: Everyone always focuses on macronutrients when it comes it nutrition, but what about micronutrients?  Should we focus on them as well?  Can you talk about how they might affect your athletic performance?

Micronutrients are essential for all the basic synthetic and enzymatic functions in the body. B6 for red blood cell production Multiple B vitamins for various parts of energy production Copper for proteins involved in iron absorption Copper, zinc, and selenium for enzymes involved in handling oxidative stress Zinc inhibits copper uptake Many athletes both zinc *and* copper deficient Selenium and iodine for thyroid function Chris Masterjohn series

Q: I think every athlete knows about the importance of staying hydrated, but do you have any recommendations when it comes to hydrating during training or racing?  Should we be drinking a specific amount on a set schedule or should we just be mindful of how thirsty we are?

All the best evidence says you should just drink to thirst. Tim Noakes “waterlogged” - documents the adverse effects of hyponatraemia in marathon runners and US Army when trying to stay “hyper hydrated”. Where it has been studied, the people that perform the fastest at longer distances (IRONMAN triathlon or ultramarathons) tend to lose the most amount of bodyweight (i.e. are the most dehydrated). Maybe genetic or involve other factors, but suggests dehydration is not the limiting component.

Q: OCR is a unique sport that combines lots of different aspects of physical fitness, so you think there are special fueling requirements for OCR athletes?

OCR typifies the need for metabolic flexibility - the ability to utilise all substrates at the right time, and switch between them. Overtly restricting one macronutrient is unlikely to be beneficial Cycle training intensities/modalities and fuel appropriately to get the best of all pathways.

Q: We have a coach who likes to push us pretty hard over the course of a 2hr class.  As an example, his warmup was a burpee ladder which essentially amounted us doing 15 minutes of burpees. And that is the warmup, how should we fuel for training sessions like this like this? Should we fuel beforehand/after/both?

I don’t think most people need intra-workout nutrition for this kind of session. Unless struggling to maintain weight or want to gain muscle mass Consider small amount of carbs and amino acids (as during a race) Get a real food meal in as soon as feasible and comfortable Can use a shake if you need more calories or protein or will be a long time before you can eat. Not essential Liquid calories not recommended unless failing to get enough from food.

Q: OCR races can vary greatly in distance, there are some that are 5k in distance all the way up to ultra-endurance races that last 24 hours. Of course, we are doing a lot more than just run during these races. When should we start concerning ourselves with intra-race nutrition? What would you suggest?

Probably don’t need intra-race nutrition unless going over 2-3 hours Greater dependence on fat-burning/aerobic pathways at that distance Combination of slow-digesting carbohydrate and some amino acids UCAN, PHAT FIBRE, oats, sweet potato powder MAP, BCAAs, protein powders Fats for longer efforts if tolerated Can be real-food based Nuts (macadamias are popular) and seeds (i.e. chia) Pemmican NAC or glutathione for much longer efforts (i.e. 24h races)

Q: After a tough training session or race, we all want to recover as fast as possible to get back to training or racing.  Rest is important as is mobility etc, but is there anything from a nutrition perspective we can do to recover faster?

Depends on how soon you want to/need to recover Antioxidants Cold baths Don’t eat crap food and minimise the post-race beers Eat enough protein If you tend to be nauseated or get GI symptoms after races, consider not eating for 2-4 hours afterwards to give the gut a break.     If “fat adapted”, your body should be better able to handle this

Q Are there signs or symptoms that we might not be fueling properly? What do you see in practice when athletes are not fueling correctly?

Poor sleep Fatigue Slow recovery and soreness Low libido Here’s the outline of this interview with Ryan Baxter:

[00:01:51] Get this kid some carbs!

[00:02:13] The Loft private Facebook group.

[00:06:10] FDN: Functional Diagnostic Nutrition training.

[00:07:49] Behaviour change. Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:10:19] Testing currently utilized by Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:11:37] Insulin. Podcast: Poor Misunderstood Insulin with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:13:03] Mindfullness. Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster with Dr. Ellen Langer, PhD.

[00:14:29] Nutrition recommendations for OCR.

[00:15:58] 120 - 160 g PRO, 1g CHO per lb of bodyweight? FAT?

[00:19:28] Net vs total CHO, fibre.

[00:20:30] YouTube: Carbs and Sports Performance: The Principles and Carbs and Sports Performance: The Evidence with Chris Masterjohn, PhD.

[00:25:31] Podcast: Metabolic Flexibility with Chris Kelly.

[00:33:47] Pre/during/post training nutrition.

[00:35:25] Dr Tommy Wood's Nutrient-Delivery Smoothie.

[00:35:42] Wild Planet sardines.

[00:37:56] Nutrition for Spartan Beast and Ultra Beast events (~6 hours).

[00:39:47] UCAN and Phat Fibre.

[00:39:57] Catabolic Blocker.

[00:41:04] Pemmican.

[00:41:18] 100-200 kCal per hour.

[00:41:38] NAC.

[00:42:49] Podcast: Professor Tim Noakes: True Hydration and the Power of Low-Carb, High-Fat Diets.

[00:44:01] Justin's nut butters.

[00:44:28] Pro Bar Mixed Berry.

[00:45:00] Primal Kitchen’s bars and Ben Greenfield’s Nature Bite bars.

[00:45:48] Supplements.

[00:46:13] Creatine.

[00:46:29] Vitamin D (test 25-OH-D).

[00:46:59] Citrulline and Beta-Alanine: Why and How You Should Supplement with Creatine and Beta-Alanine.

[00:47:12] Caffeine.

[00:47:26] Nitrates, e.g. beet shots.

[00:49:10] Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights email series.

Recap: Icelandic Health Symposium 2017

Sep 30, 2017


This interview with Dr Tommy Wood, MD, PhD was recorded in person, September 2017 the day after the Icelandic Health Symposium conference on longevity. The conference speakers were Rangan Chatterjee, Lilja Kjalarsdóttir, Satchidananda Panda, Ben Greenfield, Bryan Walsh, Doug McGuff, and Diana Rogers.

You could listen to this podcast for a recap and commentary on the conference and the practitioner workshop that took place the day after the presentations.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Tommy Wood:

[00:00:44] Gudmundur Johannsson at IHS.

[00:01:03] Icelandic Health Symposium 2016. Podcast.

[00:01:33] Ben Greenfield Fitness.

[00:01:43] Podcasts: How to Run Efficiently with Drs Cucuzzella & Wood, How to Fix Autoimmunity in the over 50s with Dr Deborah Gordon and Social Isolation: The Most Important Topic Nobody is Talking About with Dr Bryan Walsh.

[00:04:04] Dr Doug McGuff.

[00:04:21] YouTube Channel: Jeff Kendall-Weed.

[00:04:47] Dr Rangan Chatterjee.

[00:05:21] The Bredesen Protocol. Podcast: Why You Should Skip Oxaloacetate Supplementation, Fueling for Your Activity and More!

[00:06:33] Book: The Four Pillar Plan: How to Relax, Eat, Move and Sleep Your Way to a Longer, Healthier Life by Rangan Chatterjee.

[00:10:30] BBC One Series: Doctor in the House.

[00:10:57] Podcast: How to Create Behaviour Change with Simon Marshall, PhD.

[00:11:25] Lilja Kjalarsdóttir.

[00:13:37] Podcast: Metabolic Flexibility with Christopher Kelly.

[00:16:11] Carnitine.

[00:18:30] Keto-mojo meter.

[00:19:12] Protein acetylation.

[00:20:04] Inhibiting HDACs (Histone Deacetylase).

[00:21:16] Bone health.

[00:22:02] The importance of strength training.

[00:24:04] Study: Schnell S, Friedman SM, Mendelson DA, Bingham KW, Kates SL. The 1-Year Mortality of Patients Treated in a Hip Fracture Program for Elders. Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation. 2010;1(1):6-14. doi:10.1177/2151458510378105.

[00:25:31] Doug's belt exercises.

[00:29:08] Satchinananda Panda.

[00:31:54] Satchinananda Panda’s list of publications.

[00:35:06] Podcast: National Cyclocross Champion Katie Compton on Ketosis and MTHFR.

[00:35:19] App: myCircadianClock by Satchidananda Panda.

[00:35:54] App: myLuxRecorder by Satchidananda Panda.

[00:36:58] Seasonal Affective Disorder.

[00:37:36] Caloric restriction or TRE?

[00:38:53] Changing building codes.

[00:40:04] (looks like their blue blockers are discontinued).

[00:40:49] Ben Greenfield is agnostic on diet.

[00:45:32] Podcast: Social Isolation: The Most Important Topic Nobody is Talking About with Dr Bryan Walsh.

[00:46:34] The science of thought-driven physiology.

[00:46:47] Study: Park, Chanmo, et al. "Blood sugar level follows perceived time rather than actual time in people with type 2 diabetes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016): 201603444.

[00:47:04] Study: Crum, Alia J., and Ellen J. Langer. 2007. Mind-set matters: Exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science 18, no. 2: 165-171.

[00:47:26] Study: Berga, Sarah L., et al. "Recovery of ovarian activity in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea who were treated with cognitive behavior therapy." Fertility and sterility 80.4 (2003): 976-981.

[00:48:18] Study: Levy, B., & Langer, E. (1994). Aging free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory in China among the American deaf. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(6), 989-997.

[00:49:07] Ken Ford at IHMC.

[00:50:57] What is health?

[00:52:36] Hedonism vs Eudaimonia.

[00:55:28] Tommy's purpose: to make as many people as healthy as possible.

[00:56:42] My purpose: solving problems.

[00:58:01] Hormetea.

[00:59:42] Newsletter: Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights email series.

[01:02:30] Blood chemistry.

[01:05:11] Blood glucose course by Dr Bryan Walsh.

[01:05:38] Podcast: Is the Paleo Diet Sustainable with Diana Rodgers.

[01:07:08] Lab-grown meat.

[01:10:36] Philip Lymbery, CEO Compassion in World Farming.

[01:11:15] Guy the Gorilla.

[01:12:10] Podcast: Episode 47: Dr. Tommy Wood Talks About Neonatal Brain Injuries and Optimizing Human Performance. Studies regarding calorie restriction in monkeys: 1, 2.

[01:15:04] Event organisation:

How to Create Behaviour Change

Sep 22, 2017


Simon Marshall, PhD, trains the brains of endurance athletes and fitness enthusiasts to become happier and more mentally tough. He is former Professor of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego and Professor of Exercise Science at San Diego State University where he was Director of the Graduate Program in Sport & Exercise Psychology. He has published over 100 scientific articles on the psychology of exercise and has been cited in the scientific literature over 10,000 times. He has served as an invited expert on exercise science for the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Cancer Society. He is currently the Performance Psychologist for the BMC Racing team, an elite WorldTour professional cycling team. As the sherpa-husband of professional triathlete Lesley Paterson, he is the founding member of Team S.H.I.T. (Supportive Husbands in Training) and competes in triathlon or cycling events as the husband of Lesley Paterson.

Find Simon over at

Here’s the outline of this interview with Simon Marshall:

[00:00:24] Podcast: Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums.

[00:01:55] Event: Mastermind Talks.

[00:02:17] Podcast: Radical Candor™ with Dr Tommy Wood.

[00:04:27] Sports psychology background.

[00:06:45] Getting lost in the process.

[00:09:20] Constant horizon seeking.

[00:09:54] Journal Article: Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917-927.

[00:11:00] Book: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life by Mark Manson.

[00:12:55] The use of swearing.

[00:14:44] Offense is taken at the ear, not at the mouth.

[00:16:34] Behaviour change.

[00:18:48] Nike Slogan: Just do it.

[00:19:19] Knowledge is not usually enough.

[00:20:29] Motivation is important.

[00:21:03] YouTube: Dr. Jonathan Fader Demonstrates Motivational Interviewing Skills and also see MINT: Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers.

[00:21:56] Stages of change model (diagram).

[00:22:29] Buying a house example.

[00:24:35] Resolving ambivalence.

[00:25:08] Cognitive dissonance.

[00:26:19] Procrastination, denial.

[00:27:36] Anxiety.

[00:29:08] Peer to peer support.

[00:30:33] We bond on vulnerabilities.

[00:31:01] Podcast: NBT People: Toréa Rodriguez.

[00:31:08] YouTube: Bob Newhart-Stop It.

[00:33:05] PaCE: Patient and Clinician Engagement (PaCE) Program 2.0.

[00:35:17] Self-awareness.

[00:36:34] Frequency of monitoring is most important, not accuracy.

[00:37:30] Just in time interventions.

[00:39:10] Breadcrumbs app. Lots of apps with this name!

[00:40:07] Apple watch has haptic technology.

[00:40:36] Podcast: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, and Faster with Dr Ellen Langer, PhD.

[00:45:37] Book: Scrum: The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time by Jeff Sutherland.

[00:46:55] Tool: Trello and the kanban board.

[00:48:07] Implementation intentions.

[00:49:30] Project: Human Behaviour-Change Project with Professor Susan Michie, UCL.

[00:50:39] 200 studies a day!

[00:52:20] Software engineers are lazy.

[00:54:48] Do you ever have feelings you don't want?

[00:56:37] App: Headspace.

[00:57:24] Andy Puddicombe.

[01:00:06] Behaviour change in athletes (it's all about performance).

[01:01:13] Braveheart Coaching.

[01:05:22] Gratitude for athletes (3 things every day for 3 weeks).

[01:08:11] The audiobook version of The Brave Athlete arriving Nov/Dec 2017 or get the print version now.

[01:08:39] Athlete SMOG test at Braveheart Coaching.  

How to Reverse Insulin Resistant Type Two Diabetes in 100 Million People in Less Than 10 Years

Sep 16, 2017


For decades we’ve heard that diabetes prevention is simple—lose weight, eat less, and exercise more. But something is wrong with the conventional wisdom. Nearly 115 million people live with either diabetes or prediabetes in the United States, and that number is growing. It is time to reverse this trend.

Virta was founded in 2014 with the goal of reversing diabetes in 100 million people by 2025. They have made this possible through advancements in the science of nutritional biochemistry and technology that is changing the diabetes care model.

James McCarter, MD, PhD, is Head of Research at Virta, and in this interview, Dr McCarter explains how Virta is using a combination of a very low carb, ketogenic diet together with 1-on-1 health coaches and some sophisticated machine learning techniques to predict sentiment in natural language and spot anomalies in blood biomarkers.

After the recording was made, Dr McCarter realised that he was off by about a decade on Joslin. Rather than 1920s, Dr. Elliott Joslin actually began keeping a diabetes registry early in the 20th century and published The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in 1917.  “Joslin carried out extensive metabolic balance studies examining fasting and feeding in patients with varying severities of diabetes. His findings would help to validate the observations of Frederick Madison Allen regarding the benefit of carbohydrate- and calorie-restricted diets.”

Here’s the outline of this interview with James McCarter, MD, PhD:

[00:01:00] Divergence, Inc.

[00:01:43] Presentation: The Effects of a Year in Ketosis with James McCarter, MD, PhD at the Quantified Self Conference and Exposition.

[00:02:44] Books by Gary Taubes.

[00:03:13] Omega 3:6 ratios.

[00:05:54] Rapeseed and Canola.

[00:06:44] Wild Planet sardines.

[00:07:11] The Virta story.

[00:07:18] Sami Inkinen.

[00:07:38] Study: SD. Phinney, BR. Bistrian, WJ. Evans, E. Gervino, GL. Blackburn, The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation., Metabolism, volume 32, issue 8, pages 769-76, Aug 1983, PMID 6865776.

[00:08:48] Jeff Volek, PhD, RD on PubMed.

[00:09:51] Fear of fat.

[00:10:13] USDA dietary guidelines.

[00:12:59] The goal is to reverse T2D in 100M people.

[00:14:09] Study: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants. Lancet (London, England). 2016;387(10027):1513-1530. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00618-8.

[00:14:29] Joslin Diabetes Center.

[00:16:37] The causes of T2D.

[00:17:35] Calories are now more accessible.

[00:18:22] Sugar and refined carbohydrate intake.

[00:20:26] Prerequisites for the Virta program.

[00:22:19] Telemedicine, health coaches, online nutrition and behaviour education, biometric feedback, peer community.

[00:23:53] Getting off meds.

[00:24:50] HbA1C > 6 or glucose > 120 mg/dL

[00:25:32] Purdue University.

[00:26:28] Podcast: Econtalk: Mark Warshawsky on Compensation, Health Care Costs, and Inequality.

[00:29:02] Study: American Diabetes Association. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(4):1033-1046. doi:10.2337/dc12-2625.

[00:29:27] Study: McKenzie AL, Hallberg SJ, Creighton BC, Volk BM, Link TM, Abner MK, Glon RM, McCarter JP, Volek JS, Phinney SD. A Novel Intervention Including Individualized Nutritional Recommendations Reduces Hemoglobin A1c Level, Medication Use, and Weight in Type 2 Diabetes. JMIR Diabetes. 2017;2(1):e5.

[00:30:45] Discontinuing 2/3 of the meds.

[00:32:54] Health coaching.

[00:34:18] Behaviour change.

[00:35:30] Biometrics, blood BHB.

[00:38:10] Reducing blood pressure and CRP.

[00:38:30] Study: Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. "The ketone metabolite [beta]-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease." Nature medicine 21.3 (2015): 263-269.

[00:39:49] Blood levels of BHB and weight loss.

[00:41:36] STEM-Talk #43: Jeff Volek Explains the Power of Ketogenic Diets to Reverse Type 2 Diabetes.

[00:43:33] Machine learning.

[00:45:57] The Team at Virta including Nasir Bhanpuri, Catalin Voss and Jackie Lee. See article Will robots inherit the world of healthcare? For links to their talks.

[00:46:49] Random Forest.

[00:47:06] Nourish Balance Thrive 7-Minute Analysis.

[00:48:05] Natural Language Processing.

[00:48:57] Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights email series.

[00:50:26] Finding purpose in your work.

[00:51:59] Using machine learning to change behaviour.

[00:53:25] Book: Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal.

[00:54:11] Podcast: How to Avoid the Cognitive Middle Gear with James Hewitt.

[00:55:37] $400 per month for one year.

[00:57:58] Blog Post: Does Your Thyroid Need Dietary Carbohydrates? By Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD.

[01:00:21] Article: Understanding Local Control of Thyroid Hormones:(Deiodinases Function and Activity) and Podcast: The Most Reliable Way to Lose Weight with Dr. Tommy Wood.

[01:02:12] Podcast: How Busy Realtors Can Avoid Anxiety and Depression Without Prescriptions or the Help of a Doctor with Douglas Hilbert.

National Cyclocross Champion Katie Compton on Ketosis and MTHFR

Sep 7, 2017


When a 13-time National Champion reaches out to say that she’s been enjoying your podcast, there’s only one thing you can do: invite her onto the show. I love to spend time talking to elite athletes to find out what makes them tick, and one trait I’ve seen consistently in cyclists is they spend a lot more time maintaining the engine than they do worrying about equipment.

Frequently, and like me, the athlete is forced to be their own health detective. Never was this truer than for Katie, and in this interview, she talks about her experience tracking down the causes of her chronic leg pains that often prevented her from racing and training. Katie also talks about her experience eating a very high-fat, ketogenic diet, and it's one that we’ve seen consistently with the clients we work with at NBT.

Photo: CX Magazine.

Here’s the outline of this interview Katie Compton:

[00:00:50] Why cyclocross?

[00:02:51] Single-speed MTB.

[00:03:58] Level of commitment.

[00:05:36] Book: The Chimp Paradox: The Mind Management Program to Help You Achieve Success, Confidence, and Happiness by Steve Peters.

[00:06:43] The start of a World Cup Cyclocross race.

[00:08:51] Training track at the USOC Training Center in Colorado Springs, CO.

[00:09:32] Health issues.

[00:10:14] App: Overcast podcast player.

[00:11:03] Leg pains.

[00:11:39] Allergies, thyroid, asthma, staph, giardia.

[00:12:08] MTHFR.

[00:14:29] MRSA infection, abscess.

[00:14:37] Podcast: All Things Thyroid with Dr. Michael Ruscio on Livin’ La Vida Low Carb.

[00:15:33] Homozygous MTHFR A1298C.

[00:16:08] 23andMe genetic testing.

[00:17:52] Folic acid.

[00:18:22] Methylfolate supplement.

[00:19:48] Reducing processed food intake.

[00:21:09] Enriching grains.

[00:21:39] 100g CHO per day.

[00:22:15] Racing in ketosis.

[00:24:44] Increased aerobic capacity.

[00:25:52] Avoiding sports nutrition products.

[00:27:33] Study: Zinn C, Wood M, Williden M, Chatterton S, Maunder E. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2017;14:22. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0180-0 and Podcast: Caryn Zinn PhD on ketogenic diet for athletes.

[00:30:55] Missing 5th gear.

[00:32:05] Decreased recovery after high intensity work.

[00:32:52] Quantifying things, power, calories.

[00:34:34] App: myCircadianClock by Satchin Panda Lab.

[00:36:42] Coping with jet lag.

[00:39:10] Disordered eating.

[00:40:30] Don't stress over the pesky details.

[00:41:06] Book: The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life by Mark Manson.

[00:42:11] Sweet potato, squash, fruit, brown rice, buckwheat flour.

[00:44:27] Buffalo and Elk.

[00:44:54] Eating in Belgium.

[00:47:33] Trek Factory Racing and a video of the Trek Service Course in Belgium presented by Shimano.

[00:48:19] Katie Compton on Twitter and Instagram.

The Most Reliable Way to Lose Weight with Dr Tommy Wood

Sep 1, 2017


Solving a problem requires understanding what caused it, and rarely is it good enough to move straight to remediation. The same applies to weight (fat) loss, and in this podcast, Dr Tommy Wood, MD, PhD and me discuss the underlying causes of over fatness and draw on three specific examples that represent common patterns we’ve seen in the 1,000 athletes we’ve worked with over the past three or four years.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Dr Tommy Wood:

[00:00:13] Podcast: Mind Pump Simulcast.

[00:01:44] Problem solving.

[00:03:22] Sustainability.

[00:03:38] First Example: Elite female runner.

[00:04:23] Relative energy deficit.

[00:08:42] Description of NEAT or Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis.

[00:09:03] Study: Pontzer, Herman, et al. "Constrained total energy expenditure and metabolic adaptation to physical activity in adult humans." Current Biology 26.3 (2016): 410-417.

[00:11:33] Greasing the groove.

[00:12:44] Counting and cycling calories.

[00:14:27] 10% deficit.

[00:15:42] Pharmacological interventions.

[00:16:34] Second Example: Christopher Kelly.

[00:16:48] Gravel grinder events.

[00:17:07] Belgian Waffle Ride.

[00:18:05] Reintroducing carbs.

[00:19:45] Thyroid on keto.

[00:20:26] Kiteboarding.

[00:20:55] eBook: What We Eat (scroll to bottom of page).

[00:22:24] Self regulating.

[00:23:42] Visceral and subcutaneous fat.

[00:25:25] Visceral fat has a higher fat turnover.

[00:26:34] Killing fat cells with cold thermogenesis.

[00:26:59] Lipodystrophy.

[00:27:34] Gut health.

[00:27:57] Blastocystis, Cyclospora.

[00:30:47] Gut health and inflammation.

[00:30:59] Podcast: Arrhythmias in Endurance Athletes with Peter Backx, PhD.

[00:31:50] HsCRP.

[00:32:14] Podcast: The Hungry Brain with Stephan Guyenet, PhD.

[00:33:56] Study: Jönsson, Tommy, et al. "Digested wheat gluten inhibits binding between leptin and its receptor." BMC biochemistry 16.1 (2015): 3.

[00:34:47] Paleo On The Go.

[00:35:43] Visceral fat firewalls off the gut.

[00:36:10] LPS (endotoxin) translocation across the gut wall.

[00:40:22] Getting a dog.

[00:41:28] MitoCalc developed by Alessandro Ferretti and Weikko Jaross as discussed in this NBT blog post by Dr. Tommy Wood.

[00:43:21] Time restricted eating.

[00:44:24] Walking.

[00:45:13] Podcast: The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes with Mike T. Nelson.

[00:46:27] Third example: 35 lb to lose.

[00:47:44] The under eating thyroid pattern.

[00:48:16] Understanding Local Control of Thyroid Hormones:(Deiodinases Function and Activity).

[00:50:35] Resistance training.

[00:51:13] Muscle is more metabolically active.

[00:52:07] Podcast: Breaking Through Plateaus and Sustainable Fat-Loss with Jason Seib.

[00:53:02] DXA or DEXA Scan.

[00:53:14] Waist-hip ratio.

[00:54:08] I'll happy when...

[00:54:41] Icelandic Health Symposium 2017 featuring Dr. Satchidananda Panda, Dr. Tommy Wood and others.

[00:55:58] Study: Longo, Valter D., and Satchidananda Panda. "Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time-restricted feeding in healthy lifespan." Cell metabolism 23.6 (2016): 1048-1059.

[00:56:16] There are over 600 genes regulated by circadian rhythm, reference 1, 2, 3 and 4.

[00:56:56] Continuous feeding.

[00:57:58] Eat when it's light outside.

[00:58:47] Yearly cycles.

[00:59:55] Frontloading calories.

[01:00:40] The Nourish Balance Thrive 7-Minute Analysis.

How to Avoid the Cognitive Middle Gear

Aug 24, 2017


James Hewitt is Head of Science & Innovation at Hintsa Performance. His work includes consulting with Formula 1 drivers and teams, work in elite sport and with global corporations, a wide-range of written articles, presentations, keynotes and workshops in Europe, the United States and Asia.

In this interview with Dr Tommy Wood, James discusses a polarised approach to cognitive performance, arguing that time spent in the middle gear is time wasted. James also explains why smartphones are so compelling yet interfering with our ability to concentrate.

Here’s the outline of this interview with James Hewitt:

[00:01:15] Book: Exponential by James Hewitt and Aki Hintsa.

[00:03:31] Website: Hintsa Performance.

[00:04:20] Newsletter: Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights.

[00:04:50] Article: A day in the life of Scott, hopelessly distracted office worker by James Hewitt.

[00:05:38] Polarised training.

[00:06:18] Cognitive task load model.

[00:08:01] World Economic Forum Report: The Future of Jobs and Skills in the Middle East and North Africa: Preparing the Region for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

[00:09:18] Podcast: Pedro Domingos on Machine Learning and the Master Algorithm, TED Talk: The Wonderful and Terrifying Implications of Computers that Can Learn with Jeremy Howard.

[00:11:00] Study: Frey, Carl Benedikt, and Michael A. Osborne. "The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation?." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 114 (2017): 254-280.

[00:11:10] Report: A Future That Works: Automation, Employment, and Productivity by McKinsey Global Institute.

[00:12:29] Default mode network.

[00:13:31] Smartphones.

[00:14:59] Novelty seeking.

[00:16:26] Study: Kushlev, Kostadin & Dunn, Elizabeth. (2015). Checking Email Less Frequently Reduces Stress.

[00:17:11] Lecture: Dopamine Jackpot! Sapolsky on the Science of Pleasure by Robert Sapolsky.

[00:19:25] Productivity without purpose.

[00:19:45] Study: Levitas, Danielle. "Always connected: How smartphones and social keep us engaged." International Data Corporation (IDC). Retrieved from (2013).

[00:21:05] Three questions: priority, opportunity, elimination.

[00:22:30] Attention restoration.

[00:24:40] Mornings.

[00:25:21] Book: The Power of When: Discover Your Chronotype--and the Best Time to Eat Lunch, Ask for a Raise, Have Sex, Write a Novel, Take Your Meds, and More by Michael Breus.

[00:25:43] Study: Akacem LD, Wright KP, LeBourgeois MK. Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study. Neurobiology of sleep and circadian rhythms. 2016.

[00:28:59] Study: Williamson AM, Feyer A Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2000;57:649-655.

[00:30:06] Study: Van Dongen, Hans Pa, et al. "The Cumulative Cost of Additional Wakefulness: Dose-response Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and Sleep Physiology From Chronic Sleep Restriction and Total Sleep Deprivation." Sleep 26.2 (2003): 117-126.

[00:32:21] Galvanic skin response.

[00:34:43] Sex differences in rapid switching.

[00:37:46] Changing behaviour.

[00:38:01] Derek Sivers.

[00:39:25] Implementation intention.

[00:42:15] Positive vision.

[00:45:45] Apps: Depak Chopra Meditation Apps.

[00:50:16] Device: The PIP stress tracker.

[00:52:44] Device: Muse headband.

[00:53:49] Ways to connect:,, James Hewitt on Twitter.

How to Move Well and Feel Good with Aaron Alexander

Aug 18, 2017


Aaron Alexander has been professionally working with clients of all ages seeking a variety of goals from pain relief to improved athletic performance for over 10 years. He is currently seeing clients at his office, Align Therapy, inside of Crossfit LA, Santa Monica. Aaron began the journey as a nationally certified personal trainer specializing in corrective exercise and nutrition consultation. During that time Aaron studied psychology at the University of Hawaii. Soon after, he evolved into becoming a licensed manual therapist studying myofascial release, neuromuscular therapy and trigger point therapy at Maui School of Therapeutic Massage. A fascination with connective tissue lead him to study structural integration at the Rolf Institute in Boulder, CO. Being an LMT and CPT on top of a Rolf Structural Integration Practitioner, Aaron has a strong understanding of the intricacies of the body and mind.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Aaron Alexander:

[00:02:17] The link between posture and the way we feel.

[00:04:35] Sustaining posture.

[00:06:37] Front squat, deadlift, kettlebells, martial arts.

[00:07:20] 150 interviews on the Align Therapy podcast.

[00:07:54] Interview: Self-Care and Integrated Movement for the Modern World with Aaron Alexander.

[00:08:05] Chin up bar.

[00:09:54] Body language.

[00:12:16] Changing our environment.

[00:13:44] YouTube: Functional Chair with Hip Hinging with Aaron Alexander..

[00:14:36] YouTube: Reverse Bad Posture on a Cell Phone with Aaron Alexander.

[00:15:31] The rubber band on Aaron's website.

[00:18:30] Creating the stack.

[00:19:37] Interview: The Importance of Strength and Mobility for Mountain Bikers with James Wilson.

[00:20:46] Travel tips.

[00:23:19] NEAT: Non-Exercise Associated Thermogenesis.

[00:25:23] Stand up paddling.

[00:26:32] Youtube: How to Swing an Axe/Maul When Splitting Firewood.

[00:29:30] Kiteboarding.

[00:31:38] Interview: The Importance of Strength Training for Endurance Athletes with Mike T. Nelson.

[00:32:18] Overhead squat, break the stick.

[00:33:17] Uneven beach muscles.

[00:35:32] Vision.

[00:35:47] Abraham Maslow and Maslow’s Hammer.

[00:36:43] The road trip.

[00:38:19] Finding your tribe.

[00:40:01] Robb Wolf.

[00:40:14] Book: Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work by Steven Kotler.

[00:40:36] Robert Sapolsky.

[00:41:49] Study social group.

[00:43:36] Podcast: Aaron Alexander on Mind Pump.

[00:44:54] AcroYoga.

[00:48:27] The EPP pre-requisites.

[00:49:05] Mastermind Talks.

[00:50:07] Standing on the shoulder of giants.

[00:51:34] YouTube Channel: Nourish Balance Thrive.

[00:52:38] The Glottal T.

[00:53:57] Group coaching.

[00:56:26] Align Therapy Courses.

[01:00:23] Gym bodies.

[01:01:08] UJ Ramdas Productivity Planner on

[01:02:17] Santa Cruz Nomad.

[01:03:32] Productivity Planner.

[01:07:33] Movement makeover.

[01:09:21] Interview: The Migraine Miracle with Josh Turknett.

[01:11:46] Lack of intention.

[01:12:54] Go see Aaron at Crossfit LA in Santa Monica.

[01:13:15] Barbell Shrugged.

[01:15:55] Align Podcast.

[01:16:27] Band with door anchor.

Why Do and How to High Intensity Interval Training

Aug 10, 2017


Paul Laursen, PhD, is an adjunct professor, performance physiologist and coach. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed papers in exercise and sports science journals, and this work has been cited more than 3000 times.

Paul is coach and support to numerous elite and professional athletes across multiple endurance-based sports and is himself lightning-fast triathlete with performances across Olympic to Ironman distance events. Paul is an early adopter and technology-savvy geeks at the pointy end of discovery.

In this interview, I’m joined by Tommy Wood, MD, PhD, to discuss high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Earlier this year, I went straight into some 3-8 hour races having done no long (20 min work period) intervals at all, a first for me as a competitive mountain biker. Almost all of my training consisted of MAF paced work and so I wondered why I ever did HIIT and that lead to this show.

You can find Paul at his new home over at

Here’s the outline of this interview with Paul Laursen:

[00:00:24] High Performance Sport New Zealand.

[00:00:34] Professor Paul Laursen on PubMed.

[00:03:19] Endurance athlete definition.

[00:05:00] Intensity definition.

[00:05:44] Critical Power.

[00:07:38] Aerobic threshold: 1 mmol increase in blood lactate above baseline (MAF).

[00:08:52] Critical Power: maximal lactate steady state (30-60 min).

[00:09:40] VO2 Max (2.5 min up to 8 min).

[00:10:38] Anaerobic Speed Reserve Project by Gareth Sandford.

[00:10:50] Maximal Power.

[00:12:53] 2K rowing test.

[00:17:43] More than one way to skin a cat.

[00:19:51] Continuous blood glucose monitoring.

[00:20:20] Polarised training model.

[00:21:49] Does grey zone training provide some benefit you can't get from polarised?

[00:23:13] Stress fractures.

[00:25:09] Mindfulness.

[00:26:35] Dr Daniel Plews.

[00:28:17] Training for IRONMAN.

[00:28:51] 80/20 aerobic/intensity.

[00:31:47] TrainingPeaks TSS.

[00:32:17] BANISTER, E. W. (1991). Modelling elite athletic performance. In: MacDougall, J.D.; Wenger, H.A. & Green, H.J. eds. Physiological testing of the high performance athlete. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics Publishers Ltd., pp 403–424.

[00:32:57] TrainingPeaks Performance Management chart.

[00:34:28] Blog: Marco Altini on Heart Rate Variability (HRV).

[00:35:05] Paper: Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Recording With Smart Phone Photoplethysmographic, Polar H7 Chest Strap and Electrocardiogram Methods” by Plews DJ et al.

[00:36:41] Website:

[00:37:50] Interview: The Migraine Miracle with Dr Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:39:09] Overall rise in HRV in a weekly block of training.

[00:40:32] Marco Altini tweet chart.

[00:41:15] Website: HRV for Training.

[00:41:51] Dr Daniel Plews.

[00:41:59] Mark Buchet?

[00:43:20] The format of the book.

[00:44:37] Artificial Intelligence (AI).

[00:46:17] Dr Ken Ford and his publications.

[00:46:45] Podcast: STEM-Talk.

[00:46:56] Website: Plews and Prof, Plews and Prof on Twitter.

Radical Candor™ with Dr Tommy Wood

Aug 4, 2017


Radical Candor™ is the ability to Challenge Directly and show you Care Personally at the same time. Radical Candor will help you and all the people you work with do the best work of your lives and build the best relationships of your career.

Two nearly universal experiences make Radical Candor unnatural. One, most people have been told since they learned to talk some version of “if you don’t have anything nice to say, don’t say it at all.” When they become a boss, the very thing they have been taught not to do since they were 18 months old is suddenly their job.

Furthermore, most people, since they got their first job, have been told to be “professional.” Too often, that’s code for leaving your humanity at home. But to build strong relationships, you have to Care Personally. You have to bring your whole self to work.

Buy Radical Candor: Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity.

Here’s the outline of this podcast with Dr Tommy Wood:

[00:00:29] Mastermind Talks.

[00:01:04] MMT Guests: Ben Greenfield & Dave Asprey.

[00:01:53] Carmel Valley Ranch.

[00:02:55] Jayson Gaignard

[00:05:51] Belgian Waffle Ride.

[00:06:11] Lesley Paterson & Simon Marshall at Braveheart Coaching.

[00:07:23] Book: Radical Candour by Kim Scott.

[00:07:44] Chart.

[00:08:51] Obnoxious aggression.

[00:10:55] Shit sandwich.

[00:11:21] Book: The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers by Ben Horowitz.

[00:12:24] Kim Scott.

[00:16:06] Viome CEO, Naveen Jain.

[00:17:10] Catchbox.

[00:17:39] Transcriptome.

[00:18:08] Interview: Type 2 Diabetes, Fasting, Your Questions Answered with Dr Jason Fung.

[00:18:46] Interview: Why We Get Fat and What You Should Really Do About It with Chris Masterjohn, PhD and Tommy Wood, MD, PhD.

[00:19:41] Absentee hatchet job.

[00:20:28] Interview: The Migraine Miracle with Dr Joshua Turknett.

[00:21:34] Video: The Most Reliable Way to Lose Weight with Chris Masterjohn, PhD.

[00:23:23] Article: Should Calorie Counting Be the Main Focus for Somebody Trying to Lose Weight (Body Fat)? by Tommy Wood, MD, PhD.

[00:24:20] Tommy's Dad on PubMed.

[00:25:09] Flat tire.

[00:26:11] STEM-Talk podcast: Gary Taubes discusses low carb diets and sheds light on the hazards of sugar.

[00:27:27] Manipulative insincerity.

[00:31:33] IFM talk on insulin Buck Institute.

[00:33:21] Book: Surely You're Joking Mr Feynman by Richard P Feynman.

[00:34:04] Paper: Dominique Chretien, Paule Benit, Hyung-Ho Ha, Susanne Keipert, Riyad El-Khoury, Young-Tae Chang, Martin Jastroch, Howard Jacobs, Pierre Rustin, Malgorzata Rak. “Mitochondria Are Physiologically Maintained At Close To 50 C”.

[00:36:25] Paper: Cronise, Raymond J., David A. Sinclair, and Andrew A. Bremer. "Oxidative Priority, Meal Frequency, and the Energy Economy of Food and Activity: Implications for Longevity, Obesity, and Cardiometabolic Disease." Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders (2016). Be sure to read Tommy’s response: Wood, Thomas. "If the Metabolic Winter Is Coming, When Will It Be Summer?" Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders (2017).

[00:41:48] Slack, Torea Rodriguez.

[00:44:51] Discourse forum software.

Mind Pump Simulcast

Jul 30, 2017


Last weekend Tommy flew from Seattle to San Jose to record with me in person for the Mind Pump podcast, and since it went so well, I thought I’d air the discussion on my show too. If you’re new to Mind Pump, I’d highly recommend you give it a listen. Sal, Justin and Adam record in a purpose-built studio and educate on all things health and fitness with an emphasis on strength, conditioning and critical thinking.

In this episode, Sal asks Tommy some great questions on food quality versus quantity. I ask Adam about the Mind Pump avatar, and the transformation people can expect from their MAPS programs. Finally, we talk about our Elite Performance Program and the types of problems we solve for our athletes. We introduce our new 7-minute Elite Performance Analysis tool.

How to Knock 3.5 Hours off Your IRONMAN Time

Jul 21, 2017


Kristian Manietta is a husband, dad, coach, coeliac, life athlete, entrepreneur and host of the Fat Black podcast. Over the past 11 years, Kristian has helped hundreds of triathletes achieve and even greatly surpass their goals using methods both traditional and unconventional… with the balance more skewed to unconventional.

I wanted to get Kristian on to talk about his incredible journey from pro snowboarder to average triathlete to sub 9-hour IRONMAN finisher. Like me and many other of my guests, Kristian has suffered from a multitude of gut problems that he now successfully manages with diet and lifestyle.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Kristian Manietta:

[00:00:06] Sign up for the Nourish Balance Thrive Highlights email series.

[00:00:30] Action item to add to your routine: Be the first person to say hello.

[00:02:41] Pro snowboarding.

[00:03:54] Buying more snowboards at a shop that was offering trip to Whistler.

[00:06:45] Squamish, British Columbia.

[00:07:54] 11:27 → 8:57 IRONMAN time.

[00:10:48] Friend who was a therapist who was integral in getting through ITB injury.

[00:13:08] Grey zone training.

[00:13:30] Coach: Chris McGovern.

[00:13:45] Interview: Dr Phil Maffetone: Doctor, Coach, Author, Teacher.

[00:14:06] Site: Triathlon World Summit.

[00:18:25] Nose breathing.

[00:19:34] Too many gadgets?

[00:21:15] Scheduling volume.

[00:23:15] Swimming is the weakness.

[00:24:05] IRONMAN mass start.

[00:25:12] Interview: High Ketones and Carbs at the Same Time? Great Performance Tip or Horrible Idea with Mike T. Nelson.

[00:30:04] Site: TrainingPeaks.

[00:32:23] Nutrition strategies.

[00:34:45] Coeliac diagnosis.

[00:38:07] Villous Atrophy.

[00:38:53] HLA genotype.

[00:39:57] Italy.

[00:40:36] The artist formerly known as Adrenal Fatigue.

[00:40:46] MTHFR.

[00:41:59] DOMS.

[00:42:06] NBT People: Will Caterson interview.

[00:43:55] Vegan.

[00:45:02] 100k per week.

[00:48:06] Liver, sardines & bone broth.

[00:51:45] Using carbs in racing.

[00:52:17] Phat Fibre MCT oil powder.

[00:55:09] Finding the sweet spot.

[00:56:42] Podcast: Fat Black.

[00:58:40] Site: Trispecific.

[00:58:54] Facebook community: Trispecific Cafe.

Off Road Triathlon World Champion Lesley Paterson on FMT and Solving Mental Conundrums

Jul 13, 2017


Three times XTERRA World Champion Lesley Paterson is the “little Scottish lassie who packs a mean punch.” In this interview, Lesley talks briefly about her early triathlon days and later success in the offroad world.

I wanted to get Lesley on for two reasons, first, because I knew she’d been working with Chris Kresser and the Taymount Clinic to resolve longstanding gut and Lyme issues. Secondly, I wanted Lesley to talk about her new book, The Brave Athlete: Calm the F*ck Down and Rise to the Occasion. Lesley co-authored the book with her sports psychologist husband Simon Marshall, PhD and I’d highly recommend to anyone looking to get the most out of their brain to maximise endurance.

Sorry about the swearing! My goal was not to offend. Honest.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Lesley Paterson:

[00:00:00] PHAT FIBRE, Article: How to Use MCT Oil to Fuel an IRONMAN Triathlon, and, How Endurance Training Affects Carbohydrate Tolerance by Megan Roberts, MSc, and Tommy Wood MD, PhD.

[00:00:24] Interview: Lauren Peterson, PhD.

[00:00:35] YouTube: The Lesley Paterson Story by the Taymount Clinic.

[00:01:12] Site: International Triathlon Unit, or ITU racing.

[00:02:06] Site: XTERRA: Global Off-Road Triathlon and Trail Running Series.

[00:03:57] Being out in nature.

[00:04:14] Quote: “If it were easy, they'd call it IRONMAN” — Bob Babbitt.

[00:07:27] Gut issues.

[00:08:04] Antibiotics and Accutane.

[00:09:29] Weight gain.

[00:10:05] Lyme disease.

[00:10:35] 6% bodyfat.

[00:11:25] Site: Taymount Clinic.

[00:11:48] Podcast: Chris Kresser interview with Glenn Taylor of the Taymount Clinic and an Update show.

[00:13:00] Sign up for our Highlights series.

[00:14:35] Ozone and IV therapy.

[00:15:07] Interview: Dr David Minkoff.

[00:16:06] The artist formerly known as Adrenal Fatigue.

[00:16:26] Carbs.

[00:17:01] SIBO.

[00:18:10] The Taymount experience.

[00:21:05] The gut brain connection.

[00:23:25] Types of athlete at Braveheart Coaching.

[00:25:01] Site: BMC bike racing team.

[00:25:35] Professor Steve Peters.

[00:26:33] TED Talk: Optimising the Performance of the Human Mind: Steve Peters at TEDxYouth@Manchester 2012.

[00:28:06] Do you want to be having these feelings right now? If no, the chimp is in charge.

[00:29:31] Alter ego.

[00:32:46] Athlete identity issues.

[00:40:30] Race: Sea Otter Classic.

[00:42:48] Finding gratitude.

[00:44:12] Being mindful during the race.

[00:45:10] Negative thoughts.

[00:46:26] Music.

[00:48:25] Site: Braveheart Coaching.

Abel James on the Use and Abuse of Marketing in Health and Fitness

Jul 7, 2017


After completing high school and college in just six years, Abel James graduated as a Senior Fellow with Honors at Dartmouth College with a concentration in Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Despite some early successes in his life, in his early 20’s, Abel James found himself facing failure. Financially stressed, over-trained, over-worked, 30 lbs overweight and suffering a devastating loss due to an apartment fire, his health came crashing down and he found himself at rock bottom. As a self-proclaimed “nerd”, Abel hit the books hard and learned how to biohack himself back to health.

Now, Abel is dedicated to helping others, who’ve faced the same challenges that he did, recover their health and fitness through his New York Times bestselling book, The Wild Diet, and his award-winning web series, Fat-Burning Man. He is also a multi-instrumentalist and serial entrepreneur. Abel lives with his wife Alyson and his yellow lab, Bailey, in the mountains of Wilder, TN.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Abel James:

[00:01:14] Why do you do this work?

[00:02:59] 30 lbs overweight and the stress of an apartment fire.

[00:04:32] Honest Abe's tips.

[00:05:37] Quote: “Keeping a hundred pounds off for five years, that's special.”

[00:07:04] The importance of being a performer.

[00:08:13] Abel’s YouTube channel, including his first videos.

[00:09:00] Video version of this interview.

[00:10:00] Book: The Wild Diet: Go Beyond Paleo to Burn Fat, Beat Cravings, and Drop 20 Pounds in 40 days by Abel James.

[00:11:32] Weston A. Price Foundation.

[00:14:16] Dr Jack Kruse & Jimmy Moore.

[00:14:49] Hippy Parents, Preventing and Reversing Chronic Disease by Dr Tommy Wood at Icelandic Health Symposium 2017.

[00:15:23] Dr Deborah Gordon.

[00:16:26] A day of eating on The Wild Diet.

[00:16:58] Mark Sisson.

[00:17:36] Robb Wolf.

[00:19:36] The use and abuse of marketing in health and fitness.

[00:20:40] How do you do the diet on food stamps?

[00:21:01] Instacart in Austin.

[00:21:14] Abel’s brother James lives on a farm in Upstate NY.

[00:22:02] Working for food on local farms.

[00:22:27] 50% of Americans live from paycheck to paycheck.

[00:24:22] Social isolation.

[00:26:53] The use of humour and authenticity.

[00:28:56] Quote: “Make great content that you know is the best you can do at that moment.”

[00:29:23] Site: Wayback Machine.

[00:31:00] First book: The Musical Brain by Abel James.

[00:32:33] Hustling as a musician.

[00:34:43] What do you think the world needs more of?

[00:35:28] Book: Incorporating Herbal Medicine Into Clinical Practice by Angella Bascom, ARNP.

[00:39:03] If you had to start again, what would you do?

[00:40:02] Site: Quora.

[00:42:27] The transition into TV.

[00:44:22] ABC’s “My Diet is Better Than Yours” show featuring The Wild Diet and Abel James.

[00:46:00] Abel James doing sprints in a bacon suit on ABC’s “My Diet is Better Than Yours” show.

[00:47:33] The Annual Oxford vs Cambridge boat race. (Viking edition).

[00:49:20] Membership Site: Fat Burning Tribe.

[00:50:54] Paleo f(x).

[00:51:31] Start a community.

[00:52:59] Quote: “The hardest part is always right before the best part…”

[00:54:43] Quote: “Take on the challenges that are really appealing to you.”

[00:55:07] Album: Swamp Thing by Abel James.

[00:55:39] Site: Abel James: Author/Musician/Talk Show Host/Adventurer.

Creating Change in Public Health

Jun 29, 2017


Sam Feltham has been in the health and fitness industry for over a decade. He started out as a party coordinator at a sports centre and worked his way up to study at the European Institute of Fitness and qualified as a Master Personal Trainer. After 5 years of running a fitness boot camp business and a successful podcast called Smash The Fat, Sam decided to move away from that business in order to fully focus on improving public health by setting up and directing the Public Health Collaboration.

In the UK, 25% of adults are obese and type 2 diabetes has risen by 65% in 10 years, both cost the NHS £16 billion a year. The Public Health Collaboration is a charity dedicated to informing and implementing healthy decisions for better public health. The PHC seeks to avert the crisis by informing healthcare professionals and the public with evidence-based reports and implementing initiatives.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Sam Feltham:

[00:00:00] Article: The Tea That Mimics the Effects of Exercise. TL;DR

[00:00:14] Presentation: Low Carb Breckenridge 2017: Creating Change in Public Health by Sam Feltham.

[00:02:57] The European Institute of Fitness.

[00:04:14] Book: Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It by Gary Taubes.

[00:04:29] Blogs: Mark Sisson and Robb Wolf.

[00:05:01] Smash The Fat Podcast and YouTube channel.

[00:05:59] Public Health Collaboration Crowdfunding.

[00:06:28] Report: Healthy Eating Guidelines & Weight Loss Advice For The United Kingdom.

[00:06:38] Public Health England’s response to Public Health Collaboration’s report: Eat Fat, Cut the Carbs and Avoid Snacking To Reverse Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

[00:07:26] Obesity in the UK is at 25% and has been steadily increasing.

[00:07:51] In the UK, 6% of the population has type 2 diabetes and 35% have pre-diabetes costing the UK $10 billion annually.

[00:09:17] Sam's overfeeding experiment.

[00:11:09] Harris-Benedict Equation.

[00:14:33] Sleep apnoea and asthma.

[00:15:58] Bloodwork and BOD POD.

[00:17:18] Different types of fat deposition: subcutaneous vs visceral.

[00:19:16] Vegan arm of the experiment.

[00:22:09] Type 1 Diabetes.

[00:26:02] The 57 randomised controlled trials on the Public Health Collaboration website.

[00:27:44] Interview: Professor Richard Feinman.

[00:32:36] NHS spends $3 billion looking after smokers while the tax is $7 billion.

[00:34:42] Healthy Eating Guidelines mp3 and PDF.

[00:37:07] Real Food Lifestyle.

[00:38:38] Real Food Lifestyle for Weight Loss.

[00:40:24] Report: Eat Fat, Cut the Carbs and Avoid Snacking to Reverse Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

[00:41:22] Website: Public Health Collaboration.

[00:42:32] PHC’s Advisory Board members include Dr Aseem Malhotra, Dr Tamsin Lewis, Dr Rangan Chatterjee, Dr David Unwin and others.  

[00:43:21] Presentation: Low Carb Breckenridge 2017: The Glycaemic Index: Helping Patients in Primary Care with T2D by Dr David Unwin.

[00:44:43] Public Health Collaboration Annual Conference 2017.

[00:45:08] Real Food Lifestyle General Practitioner map.

Why Your Diet Isn’t Working: Under Eating and Overtraining

Jun 22, 2017


As Scientific Director at Nourish Balance Thrive, Megan is a research scientist who helps keep the program state of the art. She received her BS in Exercise Biology and MSc in Nutritional Biology at UC Davis where her research focused on the effects of low carbohydrate and ketogenic diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. In her free time Megan enjoys reading, long walks in the sunshine, weight lifting, martial arts, and hiking in the Colorado mountains.

You could listen to this interview to learn:

How Megan recovered her gut health. The best diet to gain lean mass (for the underweight). About allostatic load. Here’s the outline of this interview with Megan Roberts:

[00:01:14] IHH-UCSF Symposium on Functional Medicine and the Paleo Approach.

[00:01:30] Presentations: Robb Wolf, Dr Stephan Guyenet, Dr Justin Sonnenburg.

[00:02:55] The road to medical school.

[00:03:14] Blog post: Why Your Ketogenic Diet Isn’t Working Part One: Underfueling and Overtraining.

[00:04:34] Integrating all the information.

[00:04:59] Dr Ron Rosedale, Dr Dominic D'Agostino.

[00:06:43] Allostatic load aka, "the stress bucket".

[00:07:40] Gluten and dairy sensitivities.

[00:08:01] Presentation: Dr Tommy Wood at Icelandic Health Symposium.

[00:08:39] White blood cell counts and getting sick.

[00:10:03] Book: Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers by Dr Robert Sapolsky.

[00:12:33] Favouring micronutrients over macronutrients.

[00:14:05] Learning to be mindful.

[00:14:51] Interview: How to Think Yourself Younger, Healthier, Faster with Dr Ellen Langer.

[00:15:52] Presentation: The Way to the Man's Heart Is Through the Stomach, Dr Tommy Wood.

[00:16:16] Blog post: How to Prevent Weight Loss (or Gain Muscle) on a Therapeutic Ketogenic Diet.

[00:16:52] Sumo wrestlers.

[00:17:12] Interview: Keto Summit with Dr Chris Masterjohn.

[00:18:22] Interview: How to Achieve High Intensity Health with Mike Mutzel.

[00:19:07] Interview: Social Isolation: The Most Important Topic Nobody is Talking About with Dr Bryan Walsh.

[00:20:46] Headspace.

[00:23:59] Critical thinking and seeing shades of grey.

[00:25:05] Timing carb intake.

[00:26:34] Adapting to altitude in Colorado.

[00:28:01] Will the ketogenic diet extend longevity?

[00:28:25] The limitations of rodent studies.

[00:29:30] Gender differences for the ketogenic diet.

[00:29:59] Blog Post: The IRONMAN Guide to Ketosis.

[00:32:50] Ben Greenfield's experience on a ketogenic diet.

[00:33:06] Dr Mark Cucuzzella, Zach Bitter.

[00:34:56] Interview: How to Use Biomedical Testing for IRONMAN Performance with Bob McRae.

[00:35:10] Blog post: How to Use MCT Oil to Fuel an IRONMAN Triathlon, and, How Endurance Training Affects Carbohydrate Tolerance.

[00:36:12] PHAT FIBRE v2.

[00:37:39] Blog post: Why Your Ketogenic Diet Isn’t Working Part One: Underfueling and Overtraining.

The Migraine Miracle

Jun 15, 2017


Find your path to a migraine-free life in the “Ultimate Guide” by headache expert, best-selling author, and longtime migraine sufferer, Dr Joshua Turknett, MD.

After receiving his Bachelor’s Degree in Neuroscience from Wesleyan University and his Medical Degree from Emory University, he went on to neurology residency training for four years at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. Josh has been practicing neurology in the Atlanta, Georgia area since 2005.

As a migraine sufferer, Josh takes great satisfaction in helping fellow migraineurs take control of their headaches. Josh has a special interest in the role of nutrition and lifestyle in neurological illness. He blogs on these subjects and more and has also authored a best-selling book called The Migraine Miracle.

Outside of his professional life, Josh enjoys playing a wide range of sports and string instruments with a special fondness for both tennis and the 5-string banjo. His love for the 5-string banjo has developed into several notable endeavours including an album of banjo music for children, and an online learning company called Brainjo, where he teaches people how to play the banjo and create a musical brain by hacking the science of neuroplasticity.

Some of my favourite Josh quotes:

“Seduced by our powers of reductionism”

“Just play the game!”

Here’s the outline of this interview with Josh Turknett, MD:

[00:00:15] Ancestral Health Symposium 2014 talk - Migraine as the Hypothalamic Distress Signal.

[00:00:54] Josh's migraine story.

[00:03:00] Book: The Migraine Miracle.

[00:03:29] Migraine symptoms.

[00:06:15] Warning signs: prodrome.

[00:06:55] Aura phenomenon.

[00:07:53] 1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men suffer from migraines.

[00:09:00] Standard of care - drugs.

[00:10:37] Triptans.

[00:12:12] Causes of migraines.

[00:13:06] Distress signal of an overwhelmed hypothalamus.

[00:14:52] Sleep and circadian rhythms.

[00:15:03] Metabolic flexibility.

[00:17:00] Reactive hypoglycaemia.

[00:17:48] The migraine threshold chart.

[00:18:30] Inflammation.

[00:20:54] Obesity and migraines.

[00:23:15] Physicians for Ancestral Health 2017 talk - “How to Win at Angry Birds: Moving Towards a More Efficient Practice Model” Josh Turknett, MD.

[00:25:03] “Seduced by our powers of reductionism” -- Josh Turknett, MD

[00:30:15] The best diet for migraineurs.

[00:31:50] Ketogenic diets.

[00:32:24] Oliveira, Marcela de Almeida Rabello, et al. "Effects of short-term and long-term treatment with medium-and long-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet on cortical spreading depression in young rats." Neuroscience letters 434.1 (2008): 66-70.

[00:34:02] The Three Pillars: Eliminate Rebound, Eliminate Mismatch, Establish Metabolic Flexibility.

[00:36:08] Gut symptoms: blog post.

[00:36:53] eBook: The Ultimate Guide.

[00:37:52] Support group: Facebook group and meal plans Primal Provisions.

[00:38:32] Support group: Migrai-Neverland.

[00:39:08] The wall of inspiration.

[00:40:23] Teaching the banjo: Brainjo.

[00:41:45] Gourd banjo. Also see, Why the Banjo is Best.

Learning to Learn with Jonathan Levi

Jun 8, 2017


Jonathan Levi is an experienced entrepreneur and angel investor from Silicon Valley.

After successfully selling his Inc 5,000 rated startup in April of 2011, Jonathan enlisted the help of speed-reading expert and university professor Anna Goldentouch, who tutored him in speed-reading, advanced memorization, and more. He saw incredible results while earning his MBA from INSEAD, and later went on to teach a best-selling online course on the subject. With this unique skill, Jonathan has become a proficient life hacker, optimising and “hacking” such processes as travel, sleep, language learning, and fitness.

I recently had the privilege of featuring as a guest on Jonathan’s Becoming Superhuman podcast where we talk about an engineering approaching to creating health versus the medical approach for episodic illness.

You could listen to this podcast to find out why and how to become a better learner. After all, “learning is the only skill that matters.”--Jonathan Levi.

Here’s the outline of this interview with Jonathan Levi:

[00:00:35] Becoming Superhuman podcast.

[00:00:44] Podcast with Robb Wolf.

[00:01:24] Problems learning in an academic setting.

[00:01:55] ADD.

[00:02:34] Unhappy adolescence.

[00:02:49] Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin).

[00:03:51] MBA program.

[00:04:46] Professor Anna and Dr Lev Goldentouch.

[00:06:15] Ted Talk: What If Schools Taught Us How To Learn?

[00:07:12] Humans have a heavy preference for visual learning.

[00:07:32] Newtonian physics.

[00:09:10] Dr Ben Lynch, ND.

[00:09:25] Organic acids testing, dopamine and tyrosine.

[00:10:11] Learning is the only skill that matters.

[00:10:26] Book: Becoming a Supple Leopard by Kelly Starrett.

[00:10:42] Book: The Game by Neil Strauss.

[00:11:12] Keto for brain health, fasting.

[00:11:42] Magnesium deficiency.

[00:12:09] Movement & exercise, norepinephrine.

[00:13:19] Machine learning.

[00:14:08] Book: Surely You're Joking, Mr Feynman!

[00:14:56] Harry Lorayne.

[00:15:07] Steve Jobs.

[00:16:18] Debating.

[00:19:18] Udemy.

[00:22:31] Book: Moonwalking with Einstein by Joshua Foer.

[00:25:37] Method of loci.

[00:26:04] Neurons & synapses.

[00:27:20] Hippocampus.

[00:28:59] 5-HT4 serotonin receptor.

[00:30:00] Book: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain.

[00:30:32] Ron White memory champion.